Ubuntu dapper

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Unofficial Ubuntu 6.06 (Dapper Drake) Starter Guide

Ubuntu 6.06 (codenamed Dapper Drake) was released in June 2006. It is no longer supported with security updates (as of June 2011). It is recommended to upgrade to the current version of Ubuntu.

This guide can be discussed at the official UbuntuGuide.org Forum at ubuntuforums.org.

Contents


Other Versions

General Notes

  1. This is an Unofficial Ubuntu 6.06 (Dapper Drake) Starter Guide. It is not associated with Ubuntu and Canonical Ltd.
  2. This guide can be discussed at the official UbuntuGuide.org Forum at ubuntuforums.org. Stop by and join the discussion.
  3. This guide is tested on a full installation of the Ubuntu 6.06 x86 Install CD (Dapper Drake).
  4. If you see a bluish box, this means you have to execute the commands in Terminal mode (Applications -> Accessories -> Terminal) or use the content of that box as mentioned in some other instructions.
  5. To reduce typo mistakes, copy and paste the commands into the Terminal (right click on the commands -> "Copy" or "Paste". You can also use Ctrl+C to copy and Shift+Insert to paste it, or just highlight to copy and middle click to paste).
  6. sudo or gksudo means superuser do. sudo will prompt for "Password:". Please specify your user password.
  7. If you want more information about any command, simply look at the manual page for it using the man command. For example, man sudo will display the manual page for the sudo command.
  8. If you are tired of typing apt-get all the time, Read #How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic).
  9. apt-get and wget require an Internet connection to install/update/download programs.
  10. To download a file, right click on the link -> Select "Save Link As..." -> Make sure file name and extension are correct
  11. If you wish to help translate Ubuntu to your native language or to help Ubuntu otherwise visit https://launchpad.net/
  12. May the "humanity to others" spirit be with you always...


If you are using Kubuntu you don't need to install gedit anymore, because now there's a symbolic link from gedit to kate, so you can use all the commands below with no problems. By the way, if you want to use gedit as your editor, do:
sudo apt-get install gedit
If the "gedit" command (symbolic link) is not working, you could also create it:
sudo ln -s /usr/bin/kate /usr/bin/gedit
If you are using 64-bit version replace any "i386" with "amd64"

Getting Started

What is Ubuntu

What is new in Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake

Where to view Ubuntu screenshots / screencast

Videos

Where to view Kubuntu screenshots / screencast

Kubuntu Installation Guide

Videos

http://osvids.com/files/page3-108-pop.html

Where to find a list of all the programs and libraries that come with Ubuntu

Where to download Ubuntu

Where to order Ubuntu CDs absolutely FREE

Please note that CDs may take four to six weeks to be delivered. You are encouraged to copy, modify, and redistribute the disks as much as possible.

Where to find help for Ubuntu

Where to look for new programs

Where to look for style elements for your desktop

Repositories

How to add extra repositories

sudo cp -p /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Replace everything with the following lines
To use your local mirror you can add "cc." before archive.ubuntu.com (cc = your country code)
e.g. deb http://lv.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper main restricted universe multiverse
## Add comments (##) in front of any line to remove it from being checked.   
## Use the following sources.list at your own risk.  

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper main restricted universe multiverse

## MAJOR BUG FIX UPDATES produced after the final release
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-updates main restricted universe multiverse

## UBUNTU SECURITY UPDATES
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-security main restricted universe multiverse

## BACKPORTS REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## PLF REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ dapper free non-free

## CANONICAL COMMERCIAL REPOSITORY (Hosted on Canonical servers, not Ubuntu
## servers. RealPlayer10, Opera and more to come.) 
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu dapper-commercial main
  • Save the edited file
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get update
  • You may also replace your sources.list with this very complete list: [1] Use at own risk.
  • Modify the default Ubuntu sources.list only if you understand what you're doing. Mixing repos can cause breakage.

Ubuntu Updates

How to manually update Ubuntu

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade

OR

Use Update Manager: System -> Administration -> Update Manager

How to automatically update Ubuntu

NOTE: Depending on how many packages need to be downloaded and updated, your machine can slow down significantly during the first update.
sudo crontab -e
  • Add the following line to the crontab file
NOTE: The second 0 is the time of the day this command is run. This can be changed to whatever time is appropriate for you (0-23)
0 0 * * * apt-get -y update && apt-get -y upgrade && apt-get -y dist-upgrade && apt-get -y clean
  • Save and exit the file
  • This creates a cron job that runs every day at 12:00 am, it will update apt-get with new packages from the repository, update the packages (including new kernels) and clean off old downloaded packages so they do not slowly eat up your hard drive space.

Add-On Applications

How to use Easy Ubuntu

  • Read #General Notes
  • Easy Ubuntu is a small straight-forward utility that allows novice users to easily install a wide variety of content for Ubuntu such as media codecs, fonts, Macromedia Flash and Sun Java.
wget http://easyubuntu.freecontrib.org/files/easyubuntu-3.023.tar.gz
tar -zxf easyubuntu-3.023.tar.gz
cd easyubuntu
sudo python easyubuntu.in
  • From the Easy Ubuntu window, check the appropriate boxes to download and install content to Ubuntu.
  • Note: Users of the previous EasyUbuntu 3.0 version may experience issues with installing Flash and Java.

How to install Automatix2 on Ubuntu, Kubuntu, and Xubuntu

  • Read #General Notes
  • Automatix2 is a graphical interface for automating the installation of the most commonly requested applications in Ubuntu/Kubuntu/Xubuntu linux.
  • Note: Before installing, please note that certain codecs it provides may be prohibited in certain countries. You are responsible for ensuring those laws are not broken.
  • using your favorite text editor (kwrite, gedit)
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following line to the end of the file.
  • NOTE: Kubuntu/Xubuntu users will need to uncomment (remove the # before the word "deb") all the additional sources as well as add the automatix repository.
deb http://www.getautomatix.com/apt dapper main
  • Save the file and close it
  • Now save and close /etc/apt/sources.list and run the following commands from terminal (one by one, hitting enter after each step)
wget http://www.getautomatix.com/apt/key.gpg.asc
gpg --import key.gpg.asc
gpg --export --armor E23C5FC3 | sudo apt-key add -
  • Run the following commands to install Automatix
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install automatix2
  • Automatix2 can be started from the command line
automatix2
  • It will be added to the Menu, as well
Menu -> System -> Automatix2

How to install Clipboard Daemon for GNOME

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/gnome-clipboard-daemon-1.0.bin.tar.bz2
sudo tar jxvf gnome-clipboard-daemon-1.0.bin.tar.bz2 -C /usr/bin/
sudo chown root:root /usr/bin/gnome-clipboard-daemon
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/gnome-clipboard-daemon
sudo gnome-clipboard-daemon &
export EDITOR=gedit && crontab -e
  • Add the following line at the end of file
@reboot gnome-clipboard-daemon
  • Save the edited file

How to install J2SE Runtime Environment (JRE) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install sun-java5-jre sun-java5-plugin
  • When asked, agree with DLJ license terms.
  • To configure J2SE as the default JVM (necessary for programs such as Frostwire, Freenet, RSSOwl and as a plugin for Mozilla Firefox):
sudo update-alternatives --config java

Then choose the option that corresponds to J2SE.

How to install JRE v5.0 Update 10

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

Choose "Java Runtime Environment (JRE) 5.0 Update 10" and click on "Download"
Accept License Agreement 
Download the "Linux self-extracting file"
  • Install the required tool :
sudo apt-get install java-package
  • Create the Ubuntu package :
fakeroot make-jpkg jre-1_5_0_10-linux-i586.bin
  • Install the resulting package :
sudo dpkg -i sun-j2re1.5_1.5.0+update10_i386.deb


  • Restart Mozilla Firefox
  • If you get an error, try changing the 10's in the filenames to the appropriate version number.

How to install Flash Player (Macromedia Flash) Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree
sudo update-flashplugin
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox

Note: if sound doesn't work in Flash Player (for example on YouTube):

sudo apt-get install alsa-oss
gksudo gedit /etc/firefox/firefoxrc

Change:

FIREFOX_DSP=""

To:

FIREFOX_DSP="aoss"
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox. Now sound should work in Flash Player.

How to install PDF Reader (Adobe Reader) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install acroread mozilla-acroread acroread-plugins

Note: Adobe Reader 7.0 will not run if SCIM is running. You are running SCIM if you have installed another language to Ubuntu via System -> Administration -> Language Support. To circumvent, do the following

gksudo gedit /usr/bin/acroread

Change:

#!/bin/sh
#

to:

#!/bin/sh
#
GTK_IM_MODULE=xim

Save the file. Now Adobe Reader 7.0 should work.

See also:

How to install gv (a PostScript and PDF viewer)

sudo apt-get install gv

How to install Download Manager (Downloader for X)

sudo apt-get install d4x


How to install a password manager (Revelation)

sudo apt-get install revelation

How to install FTP Client (gFTP)

sudo apt-get install gftp

How to install IRC Client (XChat)

sudo apt-get install xchat xchat-systray 

How to install a Video Production Suite (Cinelerra)

From Here

gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

Add this to the bottom, and uncomment the one for your architecture (i686 is what I use):

# Cinelerra
# deb http://www.kiberpipa.org/~gandalf/ubuntu/dapper/cinelerra/pentium4/ ./
# deb http://www.kiberpipa.org/~gandalf/ubuntu/dapper/cinelerra/athlonxp/ ./
deb http://www.kiberpipa.org/~gandalf/ubuntu/dapper/cinelerra/i686/ ./
deb http://www.kiberpipa.org/~gandalf/ubuntu/dapper/mjpegtools ./

Update:

sudo apt-get update

Now install:

sudo apt-get install cinelerra


How to install File share utility (LinuxDC++)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/linuxdcpp.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf linuxdcpp.tar.gz -C /opt
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/linuxdcpp.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Encoding=UTF-8
Name=LinuxDC++
Exec=linuxdcpp
Terminal=false
Type=Application
StartupNotify=true
Icon=/opt/linuxdcpp/pixmaps/linuxdcpp.png
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Internet -> LinuxDC++
  • If doesn't start create new file linuxdcpp in /usr/sbin
gksudo gedit /usr/sbin/linuxdcpp
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
#!/bin/bash
cd /opt/linuxdcpp
./linuxdcpp > /dev/null 2>&1 &
  • Save and create the file executable
chmod a+x /usr/sbin/linuxdcpp
  • If you whant to build the latest version from CVS use this guide

How to install P2P BitTorrent Client (Azureus)

sudo apt-get install azureus
  • Applications -> Internet -> Azureus
  • (Alternative Method) The above method installs a version of Azureus compiled with gcj, the free alternative to Sun's Java.
wget http://kent.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/azureus/Azureus_2.5.0.0_linux.tar.bz2
sudo tar jxvf Azureus_2.5.0.0_linux.tar.bz2 -C /opt/
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/azureus.desktop
  • Add the following to the new file
[Desktop Entry] 
Name=Azureus
Comment=A Bittorrent client
Exec=/opt/azureus/azureus
Icon=/opt/azureus/Azureus.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Internet -> Azureus

How to install P2P BitTorrent Client (Bittornado)

sudo apt-get install bittornado
sudo apt-get install bittornado-gui
  • Applications -> Internet -> Bittornado Client

How to install P2P eMule Client (aMule)

sudo apt-get install amule

How to install P2P Gnutella Client (FrostWire)

wget -c http://www.users.on.net/~stubby/FrostWire-4.10.9-2.i586.deb
sudo dpkg -i FrostWire-4.10.9-2.i586.deb
  • Applications -> Internet -> FrostWire

How to install Messenger (Skype)

gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following lines at the end of file
## Repository for Skype
deb http://download.skype.com/linux/repos/debian/ stable non-free
  • Save the edited file
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install skype
  • Applications -> Internet -> Skype
  • For Skype 1.3 Beta:
wget -c http://download.skype.com/linux/skype-beta-1.3.0.37-1_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i skype-beta-1.3.0.37-1_i386.deb
  • Applications -> Internet -> Skype

How to install WinPopup (LinPopUp)

sudo apt-get install linpopup
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/linpopup.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=LinPopUp
Comment=LinPopUp
Exec=linpopup
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/linpopup.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Utility;

How to install Multimedia Codecs

sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-ffmpeg gstreamer0.10-gl gstreamer0.10-plugins-base \
gstreamer0.10-plugins-good gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad-multiverse \
gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly-multiverse w32codecs

Stubby All known codecs work except for wmv,

Radiobuzzer WMV codecs don't work especially for amd64 users. Advanced users should follow this patch

How to install DVD playback capability

ironss: gstreamer dvd plugin is available as part of plugins-bad (or ugly?) and does not work reliably. However, Totem works with the xine backend to play back DVDs. This will keep you going until gstreamer gets dvd playback. Note that you do not have to install xine-ui or mplayer as suggested in

sudo apt-get install libdvdread3
sudo apt-get install dpkg-dev fakeroot debhelper # If you have AMD64.  You need dpkg-source.  Otherwise skip.
sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/examples/install-css.sh
sudo apt-get install totem-xine

Stubby: gstreamer dvd plugin not ported to dapper yet. following instructions will not work properly


sudo apt-get install libdvdcss2

How to install Multimedia Player (xine-ui)

sudo apt-get install xine-ui libxine-extracodecs
  • Associate xine-ui to play multimedia files
gconftool-2 --type string --set /desktop/gnome/volume_manager/autoplay_dvd_command "xine dvd://"
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applnk/Multimedia/xine.desktop
sudo ln -fs /usr/share/xine/desktop/xine.desktop /usr/share/applications/
sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup
sudo sed -e 's/totem.desktop/xine.desktop/g' /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup > /tmp/defaults.list
sudo mv /tmp/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list

How to install Multimedia Player (VLC) with plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install vlc vlc-plugin-* mozilla-plugin-vlc
  • Inorder to stream video via vlc, you also need to install the following packages.
sudo apt-get install avahi-daemon
sudo apt-get install avahi-utils
Applications -> Sound and Video -> VLC Media Player

How to install Multimedia Player (Mplayer) with plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install mozilla-mplayer
Applications -> Sound and Video -> MPlayer Movie Player

How to install Multimedia Player (Totem) with plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install totem-gstreamer-firefox-plugin
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox

How to install Multimedia Player (XMMS)

sudo apt-get install xmms xmms-skins
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
  • Associate XMMS to play MP3/M3U/WAV files
sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup
sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /tmp/defaults.list_tmp
sudo sed -e 's/audio\/mpeg=.*/audio\/mpeg=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.list_tmp > /tmp/defaults.mp3
sudo sed -e 's/audio\/x-mpegurl=.*/audio\/x-mpegurl=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.mp3 > /tmp/defaults.m3u
sudo sed -e 's/audio\/x-wav=.*/audio\/x-wav=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.m3u > /tmp/defaults.list
sudo mv /tmp/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list
sudo rm -f /tmp/defaults.*

How to install Multimedia Player (amaroK)

sudo apt-get install amarok
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> amaroK

How to install Multimedia Player (RealPlayer 10)

sudo apt-get install realplay
Note: 'realplay' installs RealPlayer 10 from PLF repository, which you should be enabled if you followed this guide. 'realplayer' installs RealPlayer 8 from multiverse.
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> RealPlayer 10
  • It will also install all the necessary plugins automagically for it to view embedded real videos in Firefox
  • To avoid issues of flickering or screen going blank when switching windows, goto
  • RealPlayer 10 -> Tools -> Preferences -> Hardware -> Uncheck XVideo

Alternative Source

How to install Stream Directory Browser (streamtuner)

sudo apt-get install streamtuner
sudo apt-get install streamripper

How to install Music Organizer (Cowbell)

sudo apt-get install cowbell
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Cowbell Music Organizer

How to install ID3 Tag Editor (EasyTAG)

sudo apt-get install easytag

How to install Video Editor (Kino)

sudo apt-get install kino kinoplus kino-timfx kino-dvtitler

How to install Audio Editor (Audacity)

sudo apt-get install audacity

How to install Music Manager and Player (Banshee)

sudo apt-get install banshee

How to install (Exaile) Music Manager/Player and Internet Radio Player

  • Obtain and install an updated Mutagen (python-mutagen):
wget http://www.sacredchao.net/~piman/software/mutagen-1.10.1.tar.gz
tar xvfz mutagen-1.10.1.tar.gz
cd mutagen*
./setup.py build
sudo ./setup.py install 
  • Now install Exaile
wget http://www.exaile.org/files/exaile_0.2.8_i386dapper.deb
sudo dpkg -i exaile_0.2.8_i386.deb


How to install DVD Ripper (dvd::rip)

sudo apt-get install dvdrip vcdimager cdrdao subtitleripper
sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/rar-2.80
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/dvdrip.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=dvd::rip 
Comment=dvd::rip
Exec=dvdrip
Icon=/usr/share/perl5/Video/DVDRip/icon.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;

How to install DVD Ripper (AcidRip)

sudo apt-get install acidrip

Note: AcidRip will not recognize dvd if dma is turned on. If so undo the process #How to speed up CD/DVD-ROM.

How to install CD Ripper (Goobox)

sudo apt-get install goobox
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=CD Player & Ripper
Comment=Play and extract CDs
Exec=goobox
Icon=goobox.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;

How to install Image Viewer (digiKam)

sudo apt-get install digikam digikamimageplugins kipi-plugins
  • Applications -> Graphics -> digikam

How to install Picasa image organizer

gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following lines at the end of file
# Google Picasa for Linux repository
deb http://dl.google.com/linux/deb/ stable non-free
  • Save the edited file
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install picasa
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Picasa

How to install TV application for video capture card

  • tvtime is a high quality television application for use with video capture cards. It is able to processes the input from a capture card and displays it on a computer monitor or projector
sudo apt-get install tvtime

How to install Internet TV (DemocracyTV beta)

  • If your system has a 32bit processor (i386) open a Terminal and type
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer-data_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_i386.deb
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer-data_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
sudo apt-get install mozilla-browser mozilla-psm mozilla-dev
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_i386.deb


  • if your system has a 64bit processor (amd64)
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer-data_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_amd64.deb
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer-data_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
sudo apt-get install mozilla-browser mozilla-psm mozilla-dev
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_amd64.deb

  • in both cases you might also need to install dependencies of the player package if dpkg returns a dependency error.
sudo apt-get -f install
  • to get support for more formats you have to install libxine-extracodecs (check Restricted Formats for more info)
sudo apt-get install libxine-extracodecs

or use an alternate procedure: double click (or right click and select "Open with gdebi") on the deb files so they are opened with gdebi, first democracyplayer-data_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_all.deb and after that democracyplayer_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_i386.deb (if you have a 32bit processor) or democracyplayer_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_amd64.deb (if you have a 64bit processor)

  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Democracy TV

How to install Vector Graphics Editor (Inkscape)

sudo apt-get install inkscape


Second installation method:

1. Download the official Inkscape Linux installer.
2. Choose a mirror and save it to your Desktop.
3. Right-click it, enable "Properties --> Permissions --> Owner:Execute" and close the dialogue box. (One-time procedure)
4. Double-click it and follow the instructions.
5. Install the support code system-wide, if you have the root password. (One-time procedure)

NOTE: You can and should install the program as a User, rather than Root. This is easily accomplished with the second method.

How to install Opera web browser

sudo apt-get install opera
  • Applications -> Internet -> Opera
  • To get java working go to Tools->Preferences->Advanced->Content-> Check "Enable Java". Click the "Enable Java..." button enter "/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun/jre/lib/i386" (for sun java) in the new dialog and then click the "Validate Java Path" button.

How to install Email Client (Mozilla Thunderbird)

sudo apt-get install mozilla-thunderbird

How to install Newsreader (Pan)

sudo apt-get install pan
  • Applications -> Internet -> Pan Newsreader

How to install RSS/RDF/Atom Newsreader (RSSOwl)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/
gksudo gedit /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
export MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME=/usr/lib/mozilla-firefox
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:${MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME}:${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}
cd /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/
./run.sh
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RSSOwl.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=RSSOwl
Comment=RSSOwl
Exec=runRSSOwl.sh
Icon=/opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/rssowl.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Internet -> RSSOwl

How to install Web Authoring System (Nvu)

sudo apt-get install nvu
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/nvu.desktop
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/nvu.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nvu
Comment=Web Development Editor
Exec=nvu
Icon=nvu.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Development;

How to install Web Development Environment (quanta plus)

sudo apt-get install quanta
  • Applications -> Programming -> Quanta Plus

How to install Project Management Application (Planner)

sudo apt-get install planner


How to install jedit

wget -c http://optusnet.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/jedit/jedit_4.3pre8_all.deb
sudo dpkg -i jedit_4.3pre8_all.deb
  • Applications -> Programming -> Programmers text editor jedit

How to install Accounting Application (GnuCash)

sudo apt-get install gnucash
sudo rm -fr /usr/share/gnome/apps/Applications/
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/GnuCash.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=GnuCash
Comment=GnuCash Personal Finance
Exec=gnucash
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/gnucash/gnucash-icon.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Office;

How to install Desktop Publishing Application (Scribus)

sudo apt-get install scribus

How to install Diagram Editor (Dia)

sudo apt-get install dia-gnome

How to install Compiled HTML Help (CHM) Viewer (xCHM)

sudo apt-get install xchm

How to install CD/DVD Burning Application (GnomeBaker)

sudo apt-get install gnomebaker

How to install CD/DVD Burning Application (K3b)

sudo apt-get install k3b libk3b2-mp3
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> K3b

How to install Dialup PPP Client (GNOME PPP)

sudo apt-get install gnome-ppp

How to install Broadband ADSL/PPPoE Client (RP-PPPoE)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/rp-pppoe-3.6.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rp-pppoe-3.6.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rp-pppoe-3.6/
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RP-PPPoE.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=RP-PPPoE
Comment=RP-PPPoE
Exec=gksudo /opt/rp-pppoe-3.6/go-gui
Icon=pppoeconf.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;

How to install Boot-Up Manager (BUM)

sudo apt-get install bum

How to install Partition Editor (GParted)

sudo apt-get install gparted

How to install Firewall (Firestarter)

sudo apt-get install firestarter

How to install network traffic analyzer (Ethereal)

sudo apt-get install ethereal
  • Applications -> Internet -> Ethereal

How to install Vulnerability Scanner (Nessus)

sudo apt-get install nessus
sudo apt-get install nessusd
sudo nessus-adduser
sudo ln -fs /etc/init.d/nessusd /etc/rc2.d/S20nessusd
sudo /etc/init.d/nessusd start
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nessus.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nessus
Comment=Nessus
Exec=nessus
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/nessus.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;

How to install 7z Archiver ( .7z)

sudo apt-get install p7zip-full

How to install RAR Archiver ( .rar )

sudo apt-get install rar
sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/unrar
  • Applications -> Accessories -> Archive Manager
  • For some system, you may need to use
sudo apt-get install unrar

How to install ACE expander ( .ace )

sudo apt-get install unace
  • To expand ace archive
unace e /path/to/archive.ace /destination/folder/
  • For more info try man unace

How to install Extra Fonts

sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-arabic
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-asian
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese-big
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-european
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-japanese
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-japanese-big
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-phonetic
sudo apt-get install gsfonts-x11
sudo apt-get install msttcorefonts
sudo fc-cache -f -v


Note: Ubuntu Dapper comes with the DejaVu fonts (derived from Bitstream Vera) and provides adequate support for Latin, Greek and Cyrillic based languages.

How to install Chinese Input Method (SCIM)

The following advices are outdated and it could be hard to revert to normal afterwards. Please follow instead the official Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake guide HERE

Please note that scim is now installed by default in Dapper, and installing Chinese, Japanese or Korean Support is done using System>Administration>Language Support. The wiki details the method more thoroughly

sudo apt-get install scim
sudo apt-get install scim-chinese
sudo apt-get install scim-config-socket
sudo apt-get install scim-gtk2-immodule
sudo apt-get install scim-tables-zh
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/fireflysung-1.3.0.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf fireflysung-1.3.0.tar.gz -C /usr/share/fonts/truetype/
sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/fonts/truetype/fireflysung-1.3.0/ 
sudo fc-cache -f -v
  • System -> Preferences -> SCIM Input Method Setup
  • To activate SCIM
Press 'Ctrl + Space'

How to install Desktop Applets (gDesklets)

sudo apt-get install gdesklets
sudo apt-get install gdesklets-data

How to install Basic Compilers (build-essential)

sudo apt-get install build-essential

How to install .rpm to .deb Converter (Alien)

sudo apt-get install alien

How to install Integrated Development Environment (Anjuta)

sudo apt-get install anjuta
  • Applications -> Programming -> Anjuta IDE

How to install C# Integrated Development Environment (MonoDevelop)

sudo apt-get install mono mono-gmcs mono-gac mono-utils monodevelop

How to install Java Integrated Development Environment (Eclipse)

sudo apt-get install eclipse
  • Applications -> Development -> Eclipse

How to install 3D modeling tool (Blender 3d)

sudo apt-get install blender
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Blender 3D modeller

How to install chess game with board

  • There are several chess games available, one of which, xboard + gnuchess is easy to use. xboard provides the interface and gnuchess runs in the background. You can play with machine or with another person.
sudo apt-get install gnuchess xboard
  • Applications -> Games -> XBoard

How to install game Tuxracer

sudo apt-get install planetpenguin-racer planetpenguin-racer-data planetpenguin-racer-extras
  • Applications -> Games -> planetpenguin-racer

How to install game Frozen-Bubble

sudo apt-get install frozen-bubble
  • Applications -> Games -> Frozen-Bubble

How to install game Scorched3D

sudo apt-get install scorched3d
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/scorched3d.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Scorched 3D
Comment=A 3D Remake Of Scorched Earth
Exec=scorched3d
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Game;ArcadeGame;

How to install real-time-strategy game (globulation 2 alpha21)

wget http://globulation2.org/releases/0.8.21/glob2_alpha21_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i glob2_alpha21_i386.deb

you might also need to install dependencies if dpkg returns a dependency error

sudo apt-get -f install

to play use command

glob2

you may also use the following command to install glob2

sudo apt-get install glob2

How to install virtual planetarium (Stellarium)

sudo apt-get install stellarium
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/stellarium.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Stellarium
Comment=Virtual planetarium
Exec=stellarium
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Education;
Icon=stellarium
  • Applications -> Education -> Stellarium

Second installation method: (version 0.6.2)

1. Download the Stellarium Linux installer.
2. Save it to your Desktop.
3. Right-click it, enable "Properties --> Permissions --> Owner:Execute" and close the dialogue box. (One-time procedure)
4. Double-click it and follow the instructions.
5. Install the support code system-wide, if you have the root password. (One-time procedure)

NOTE: You can and should install the program as a User, rather than Root. This is easily accomplished with the second method.

How to install Google Toolbar for Firefox

The current version of Google Toolbar works fine with Firefox 1.5.0.5 in Ubuntu 6.06

In Firefox, click the link below

http://www.google.com/tools/firefox/toolbar/

then click on the big download button.

How to install Google Earth

wget -c http://dl.google.com/earth/GE4/GoogleEarthLinux.bin
sudo sh GoogleEarthLinux.bin
  • Leave /usr/local/google-earth as the installation path
  • After installation click Exit. If you instead chose to run the application, read the Note below.
sudo cp /usr/local/google-earth/googleearth.desktop /usr/share/applications/
  • Applications -> Internet -> Google Earth
  • Note: If you run Google Earth for the first time from the installer, it will require root privileges to run the next time. To fix that:
sudo chmod 777 -R ~/.googleearth

How to install KDE Edutainment applications

sudo apt-get install kdeedu
  • Applications -> Education -> ...

How to install Internet Explorer + Flash 9

This will install a wine'd version of Internet Explorer 6 with Flash 9, as well as IE 5.5/5.01 if you really want them.

  • Note: Flash 9 will NOT be available in browsers other than IE.
  • Install Cabextract. Open a terminal and run
sudo apt-get install cabextract
  • Open a terminal and run this:
wget http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads/ies4linux-2.0.tar.gz -O - | tar xvzf -
  • Or, if that doesn't work, use this command:
wget http://modzer0.cs.uaf.edu/~hardwarehank/files/ies4linux-2.0.tar.gz -O - | tar xvzf -
  • Then, just run it:
cd ies4linux-2.0
sh ies4linux

You don't have to run it as root (no sudo). If you do, it will make global symlinks, which is fine if you want that. Otherwise, it will use ~/bin. Read the README:

less README

How to install Windows Applications in Linux (Wine)

Wine Is Not an Emulator. Wine is an Open Source implementation of the Windows API on top of X and Unix. Think of Wine as a compatibility layer for running Windows programs. Wine does not require Microsoft Windows, as it is a completely free alternative implementation of the Windows API consisting of 100% non-Microsoft code, however Wine can optionally use native Windows DLLs if they are available.

In other words, Wine will let you run Windows applications in Linux.

  • First, add repository for Wine:
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following lines at the end of this file
# Repository for wine
deb http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt dapper main
deb-src http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt dapper main
  • Save the edited file
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install wine

How to install a Drop Down Terminal like in First Person Shooters (tilda)

Do you want a console like in a first person shooter? Tilda should take care of you.

sudo apt-get install tilda
  • The default keybinding is F1. To change the default keybinding, either enter tilda -C at the terminal, or right click on the tilda terminal then click Preferences. While in preferences, you can change other things such as transparency, font, size, and window size.

How to install VMware Player

sudo apt-get install vmware-player
  • Note: VMware Workstation installs also the VMware Player so these steps are only needed if you don't have a VMware Workstation license.

How to install VMware Workstation

sudo apt-get install build-essential linux-headers-`uname -r`
sudo apt-get install make
sudo apt-get install g++
tar xzf VMware-workstation.tar.gz -C /tmp
cd /tmp/vmware-distrib
sudo ./vmware-install.pl
sudo ./vmware-config.pl -c
  • Now you can run VMware by typing at the command line
/usr/bin/vmware

How to install LaTeX

sudo apt-get install tetex-base
sudo apt-get install tetex-bin
sudo apt-get install tetex-extra
  • If you want to improve font, you can also install latex-xft-fonts
sudo apt-get install latex-xft-fonts
  • If you want to use beamer to make slides in LaTeX
sudo apt-get install latex-beamer

How to install Kile integrated LaTeX environment

sudo apt-get install kile
  • Applications -> Office -> Kile
  • As Kile is a KDE application, you need to configure its to view DVI, PS and PDF file properly. Start Kile, choose Settings -> Configure Kile -> Build
  • In Select Tools, choose ViewDVI, in tab Advanced choose Run outside of Kile, go to tab General, in Command type xdvi, in Option type '%S.dvi'
  • In Select Tools, choose ViewPS, do the same as above, except Command = evince, Option = '%S.ps'
  • In Select Tools, choose ViewPS, do the same as above, except Command = evince, Option = '%S.pdf'

How to install Gnome Search Tool for finding files on your system

  • Applications --> Accessories --> Alacarte Menu Editor
  • Highlight "Accessories" application category
  • Menu pulldown: File --> New Entry
  • Enter Name: "Gnome Search Tool"
  • Enter Command: "/usr/bin/gnome-search-tool"
  • Close Alacarte Menu Editor.
  • Applications --> Accessories --> Gnome Search Tool to find files anywhere on your system.
  • Note: Gnome Search Tool is distributed as part of the Ubuntu base distribution in the gnome-utils package.

How to install a Quran researching tool (zekr)

Zekr is an open platform Quran study tool for simply browsing and researching on the Holy Quran. It is a Quran-based project, planned to be a universal, open source, and cross-platform application to perform most of the usual refers to Quran. The main idea is to build an as generic as possible platform to accept different Islamic resources.

Currently Zekr has English, Persian, French, German, Arabic, Indonesian, Russian, Dutch, Kurdish, Malay, Turkish and Urdu built-in language packs. In addition, it includes English, Persian, and Russian Quran translations.

  • Make sure that Sun JRE is the default JRE (zekr also works with the new version of gij).
  • Run the following command in the terminal:
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add The following line at the end of the file:
deb http://siahe.com/zekr/apt dapper main
  • Add the GPG key
wget -q http://siahe.com/zekr/apt/zekr.debian.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  • Run the following commands in the terminal:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install zekr
sudo apt-get install ttf-me-quran ttf-scheherazade
  • If you are upgrading from a previous installed version of zekr, to use the new font configuration of zekr run the following command in the terminal:
mv ~/.zekr ~/.zekr-backup

Other Desktop Environments

How to install KDE

sudo apt-get install kubuntu-desktop
Note: This installation will require ~400MB of disk space
  • System -> Log Out -> Log Out
  • To log in to KDE click on Sessions and choose KDE

Upgrade KDE

  • The latest KDE version available for repositories of Ubuntu Dapper is 3.5.5.
  • Add the following line into /etc/apt/sources.list
deb http://kubuntu.org/packages/kde-355 dapper main
  • Add key for upgrading
wget http://people.ubuntu.com/~jriddell/kubuntu-packages-jriddell-key.gpg
sudo apt-key add kubuntu-packages-jriddell-key.gpg
  • Upgrade KDE
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

How to install GNOME (for kubuntu users)

 sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop

How to install XFCE

sudo apt-get install xubuntu-desktop
  • System -> Log Out -> Log Out
  • To log in to XFCE click on Sessions and choose XFCE


How to install XFCE 4.4 preview versions (4.3.90.1)

  • to install Xfce 4.4 beta 1 (4.3.90.1) on a fresh install of Dapper:
sudo apt-get install build-essential gcc pkg-config libglib2.0-0 \
     libglib2.0-dev libgtk2.0-0 libgtk2.0-dev libxml++2.6c2a libxml++2.6-dev \
     libvte-dev libvte4 a2ps libxpm-dev libxpm4 alsa-source alsa alsa-base \
     alsa-oss alsa-utils libxml-parser-perl libpng12-0 libpng12-dev libdbh1.0-dev
chmod +x xfce4-4.3.90.1-installer.bin
sudo ./xfce4-4.3.90.1-installer.bin
  • finally to enable Xfce, you may need to enable it on the desktop manager (mark allow Xfce manage desktop)

How to install FluxBox

Here's some Screenshots. Fluxbox is a popular minimalist Window Manager.

sudo apt-get install fluxbox
Make it start when you login thru GDM
echo "exec startfluxbox" > ~/.xinitrc
Make it make the pretty sound on login
sudo apt-get install sox
gedit ~/.fluxbox/startup
  • Find this line:
exec /usr/local/bin/fluxbox
  • Put this above it somewhere:
play /usr/share/sounds/login.wav > /dev/null 2>&1 &
  • Listen happily.

Eye Candy

How to install Xgl/Compiz (Nvidia)



sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find this section
Section "Module"
	Load	"i2c"
	Load	"bitmap"
	...
	Load	"type1"
	Load	"vbe"
EndSection
  • Comment out dri and GLcore (if present)
#	Load	"dri"
#	Load	"GLcore"
  • Make sure the glx module is loaded
	Load	"glx"
  • Find this section (your values may vary)
Section "Device"
	Identifier	"NVIDIA Corporation NV34M [GeForce FX Go5200]"
	Driver		"nv"
	BusID		"PCI:1:0:0"
EndSection
  • Replace with the following lines, leaving the Identifier and BusID as it is
Section "Device"
	...
	Driver		"nvidia"
	...
	Option		"RenderAccel"		"true"
	Option		"AllowGLXWithComposite" "true"
EndSection
  • Find this section
Section "Screen"
	Identifier	"Default Screen"
	Device		"NVIDIA Corporation NV34M [GeForce FX Go5200]"
	Monitor		"Generic Monitor"
	DefaultDepth	16
  • Make sure DefaultDepth is set to 24, if it isn't already
	DefaultDepth	24
  • Save the edited file
  • Install Xgl/Compiz
sudo apt-get install compiz xserver-xgl libgl1-mesa xserver-xorg libglitz-glx1 compiz-gnome
sudo cp /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom-backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom
  • Replace everything with the following lines
# GDM Configuration Customization file.
#
# This file is the appropriate place for specifying your customizations to the
# GDM configuration.   If you run gdmsetup, it will automatically edit this
# file for you and will cause the daemon and any running GDM GUI programs to
# automatically update with the new configuration.  Not all configuration
# options are supported by gdmsetup, so to modify some values it may be
# necessary to modify this file directly by hand.
# 
# To hand-edit this file, simply add or modify the key=value combination in
# the appropriate section in the template below.  Refer to the comments in the
# gdm.conf file for information about each option.  Also refer to the reference
# documentation.
# 
# If you hand edit a GDM configuration file, you should run the following
# command to get the GDM daemon to notice the change.  Any running GDM GUI
# programs will also be notified to update with the new configuration.
#
# gdmflexiserver --command="UPDATE_CONFIG <configuration key>"
#
# For example, the "Enable" key in the "[debug]" section would be specified by
# "debug/Enable".
#
# You can also run gdm-restart or gdm-safe-restart to cause GDM to restart and
# re-read the new configuration settings.  You can also restart GDM by sending
# a HUP or USR1 signal to the daemon.  HUP behaves like gdm-restart and causes
# any user session started by GDM to exit immediately while USR1 behaves like
# gdm-safe-restart and will wait until all users log out before restarting GDM.
# 
# For full reference documentation see the gnome help browser under
# GNOME|System category.  You can also find the docs in HTML form on
# http://www.gnome.org/projects/gdm/
# 
# NOTE: Lines that begin with "#" are considered comments.
# 
# Have fun!

[daemon]

[security]

[xdmcp]

[gui]

[greeter]

[chooser]

[debug]

[servers]# Override display 1 to use Xgl
0=Xgl 

[server-Xgl] 
name=Xgl server 
command=/usr/bin/Xgl :0 -fullscreen -ac -accel glx:pbuffer -accel xv:fbo 
flexible=true
  • Create a script that runs Xgl/Compiz on startup
gksudo gedit /usr/bin/thefuture
  • Insert the following lines into the new file. Replace .us with appropriate keyboard binding for your region. Eg .gb for United Kingdom. For a full list of keyboard bindings, type ls /usr/share/xmodmap in a terminal. If unsure, leave as .us (United States)
#!/bin/bash
gnome-window-decorator &  compiz --replace gconf decoration wobbly fade minimize cube rotate zoom scale move resize place switcher &
xmodmap /usr/share/xmodmap/xmodmap.us
  • Save the file
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/thefuture
  • To run compiz for this session
thefuture
  • To have compiz load on startup
    • System -> Preferences -> Sessions
    • Startup Programs -> Add
/usr/bin/thefuture
  • Troubleshooting
    • If Xgl/Compiz doesn't seem to work, or you get errors, simply restart your machine after adding "thefuture" to Startup programs
    • If moving windows slows down the system, run gconf-editor from the terminal. Find apps/compiz/general/screen0/options. Disable detect_refresh_rate and set refresh rate to 60. Everything should work fine now...
    • If you are using a non default keyboard layout (other language), you might have to change it back to what you need if the keyboard acts funny at System/Settings/Keyboard.
    • You can also set the Super-key to the windows button here.
    • If you don't want "bottom expanded panel", type "killall gnome-panel" in terminal.
  • Tips
    • Switch windows = Alt + Tab
    • Arrange and View All Windows = F12 turns on or off; clicking a window will zoom it to the front
    • Switch desktops on cube = Ctrl + Alt + Left/Right Arrow
    • Switch desktops on cube - with active window following = Ctrl + Shift + Alt + Left/Right Arrow
    • Rotate cube manually = Ctrl + Alt + left-click
    • Make window translucent/opaque = currently only possible with the "transset" utility
    • Zoom-in once = Super-key right-click
    • Zoom-in manually = Super-key + wheel mouse up
    • Zoom-out manually = Super-key + wheel mouse down
    • Move window = Alt + left-click
    • Snap Move window (will stick to borders) = Ctrl + Alt + left-click
    • Resize window = Alt + right-click

How to install Xgl/Compiz (ATI)

How to install alternate boot splash screen

  • Read #General Notes
  • This installs a minimalistic splash screen that appears when the computer is booting up and shutting down. It is devoid of any text messages.
wget -c http://www.users.on.net/~stubby/usplash-minimalistic_0.1.deb
sudo dpkg -i usplash-minimalistic_0.1.deb
sudo update-alternatives --config usplash-artwork.so
  • Select the minimalistic alternative (/usr/local/lib/usplash/minimalastic.so) by entering the corresponding number. If you ever want to revert back to the original splash, select the default (/usr/lib/usplash/usplash-default.so)

How to replace Firefox Icons

Want the non-ugly firefox icon back? Do this (stolen from here: http://doc.gwos.org/index.php/Firefox_&_Thunderbird_icon).

Commercial Applications

How to install Windows 9X/ME/2000/XP (Win4Lin)

How to install Windows Applications (CrossOver Office)

How to install Windows Games (Cedega)

User Administration

How to set/change/enable root user password

sudo passwd root

How to disable root user account

sudo passwd -l root

How to allow root user to login into GNOME

Security Tab -> Security -> Allow root to login with GDM (Checked)

How to switch to root user in Console mode

sudo -s -H
Password: <specify user password>

How to add/edit/delete system users

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Users and Groups
  • Users and Groups
Users Tab -> Add User.../Properties/Delete
or
sudo useradd jim
sudo userdel jim
  • For more info read
man usermod

How to add/edit/delete system groups

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Users and Groups
  • Users and Groups
Groups Tab -> Add Group.../Properties/Delete

How to automatic login into GNOME (not secure)

Security Tab -> Enable Automatic Login (Checked)
Now choose a user from the drop-down menu.

How to allow more sudoers

EDITOR=gedit sudo visudo
  • Append the following line at the end of file
system_username	ALL=(ALL) ALL
  • Save the edited file

OR since everyone in the admin group can use sudo:

sudo adduser a_username admin

This appends the admin group to the user's supplementary group list. They will now have sudo access.

How to use "sudo" without prompt for password (not secure)

EDITOR=gedit sudo visudo
  • Find this line
...
system_username	ALL=(ALL) ALL
...
  • Replace with the following line
system_username	ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
  • Save the edited file

How to explicitly destroy the "sudo" session

sudo -K

How to change files/folders permissions

Right click on files/folders -> Properties
Permissions Tab -> Read/Write/Execute (Checked the permissions for Owner/Group/Others)

How to change files/folders ownership

sudo chown system_username /location_of_files_or_folders

How to change files/folders group ownership

sudo chgrp system_groupname /location_of_files_or_folders

How to use crontab

  • Below is the crontab format
------------- minute (0 - 59)
| ----------- hour (0 - 23)
| | --------- day of month (1 - 31)
| | | ------- month (1 - 12)
| | | | ----- day of week (0 - 6) (Sunday=0)
| | | | |
* * * * * command to be executed
  • The comma (',') operator specifies a list of values, for example: "1,3,4,7,8"
  • The dash ('-') operator specifies a range of values, for example: "1-6", which is equivalent to "1,2,3,4,5,6"
  • The asterisk ('*') operator specifies all possible values for a field. For example, an asterisk in the hour time field would be equivalent to 'every hour'..
  • The slash ('/') operator, can be used to skip a given number of values. For example, "*/3" in the hour time field is equivalent to "0,3,6,9,12,15,18,21"; "*" specifies 'every hour' but the "/3" means that only the first, fourth, seventh...and such values given by "*" are used.
  • View crontab
crontab -l
  • Edit crontab
crontab -e 
  • Cronjobs are run for each user, so if you want root to run a command in cron use
sudo crontab -e
  • If any output is produced by a command executed from a crontab, the cron daemon will normally email the user that output. To silence any particular command, you may redirect its output to /dev/null. To stop receiving email output from crontab, append the following to any command.
> /dev/null 2>&1
  • This will redirect stdout to null while redirecting stderr to stdout, so you receive no errors if they occur:
Cronjob Examples
  • for a command (ls) to run every day at 4:30pm, add the following line to cron:
30 16 * * * ls
  • for a command (ls) to run every 5 minutes, add the following line to cron:
*/5 * * * * ls
  • for a command (ls) to run every friday at 6:57am, add the following line to cron:
57 6 * * 5 ls
  • for a command (ls) to run on the first of every month at 2:38pm, add the following line to cron:
38 14 1 * * ls
  • for a command (echo "string") to run every weekday at 12:00pm, add the following line to cron:
0 12 * * 1-5 echo "lunchtime"
  • for a command (echo "string") to run every December 25th at 12:00am, add the following line to cron:
0 0 25 12 * echo "CHRISTMAS TIME IS HERE!!!"

Hardware

Activate side-mouse-buttons in FireFox

Just add two lines to xorg.conf will activate side-mouse-buttons in FireFox. This should work with most 5-button mouse. Here is a list of mice that worked with this instruction.

  • Logitech MX510
  • Logitech MX518
  • Logitech MX700
  • Intellimouse Explorer (first edition)
  • Lexma MPE M526


Backup X configuration file

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak

Modify the X configuration file

gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Find the Input Device section for your mouse and add two lines as shown below. You may also increase the number of buttons if your mouse has more than 7, just fix the rest of the section based upon the number of buttons (remember back/forward, wheel click & tilt left/right all count as buttons)

Change:

Section "InputDevice"
	Identifier "Configured Mouse"
	Driver "mouse"
	Option "CorePointer"
	...
	Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
	...
	Option "Emulate3Buttons"       "true"
EndSection

to:

Section "InputDevice"
	Identifier "Configured Mouse"
	Driver "mouse"
	Option "CorePointer"
	...
	Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
	...
	Option "Emulate3Buttons"       "true"
	Option "Buttons" "7"
 	Option "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 6 7"
EndSection


At this point you can reboot your computer or reboot X (Ctrl-Alt-BackSpace) to see if your forward/back buttons work in FireFox. They still won't work in Nautilus yet until you install the imwheel dameon.

Install & Configure IMWheel

  • Install IMWheel
sudo apt-get install imwheel
  • Modify IMWheel configuration file
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/imwheel/imwheelrc
  • Insert the following at the bottom of this existing file
".*"
None, Up, Alt_L|Left
None, Down, Alt_L|Right 

"(null)"
None, Up, Alt_L|Left
None, Down, Alt_L|Right


  • Create IMWheel start-up script
sudo mkdir /home/login
gksudo gedit /home/login/mouse
  • Insert the following into this new file
#!/bin/sh
exec xmodmap -e "pointer = 1 2 3 6 7 4 5" &
exec imwheel -k -b "67" &
exec $REALSTARTUP
  • Grant execution for everyone to this new script
sudo chmod +x /home/login/mouse
  • Configure this script to be executed at start-up
    1. Select 'System' > 'Preferences' > 'Sessions'
    2. Click the StartUp tab
    3. Click Add, then input: /home/login/mouse
    4. Click OK, then Close
  • Reboot your computer or your Gnome environment and then test your back/forward mouse buttons in Nautilus

How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)

sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx nvidia-kernel-common
sudo nvidia-glx-config enable
  • Should the above not enable the new driver, you can enable it manually by opening the X config file:
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
 
  • and replacing "nv" with "nvidia"
  • Enable XvMC by creating the nVidia XvMC configuration file
sudo gedit /etc/X11/XvMCConfig
  • Insert the following line into the new configuration file, to tell the players the name of the nVidia XvMC shared library:
libXvMCNVIDIA_dynamic.so.1
  • To use XvMC to accelerate video playback, use the following flags. See [[2]] for more details.
xine -V xxmc filename.ts
mplayer -vo xvmc -vc ffmpeg12mc filename.ts

How to disable NVIDIA graphics logo on GNOME startup

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find this section
 ...
Section "Device"
	Identifier	"NVIDIA Corporation NV11 [GeForce2 MX/MX 400]"
	Driver		"nvidia"
	BusID		"PCI:1:0:0"
...
  • Add the following line below it
   Option		"NoLogo"

How to install Graphics Driver (ATI)

How to install Graphics Driver (Intel)

Note: This driver is for Intel® 82830M, 82845G, 82852GM, 82855GM, 82865G, and 82915G/GM graphics controller-based products only.

wget -c http://downloadmirror.intel.com/df-support/8211/eng/dri-I915-v1.1-20041217.i386.rpm
sudo alien dri-I915-v1.1-20041217.i386.rpm
sudo dpkg -i dri-i915_v1.1-20041218_i386.deb

How to Correct the Graphics Resolution (Intel)

  • Intel 915g, 945g, etc. graphics chipsets only have a limited set of resolutions initially installed, despite the correct driver being detected.
  • Install the resolution altering tool:
sudo apt-get install 915resolution
  • Run the following to see the availible modes:
915resolution -l
  • Choose a resolution you don't need and replace, for example the following changes 1920x1440 to 1920x1200
915resolution 5c 1920 1200
  • This should add the option for that resolution to the "System>Preferences>Screen Resolution" tool.
  • If it works correctly then you can make the change permanent:
sudo gedit /etc/rc.local
  • Find the following line
exit 0
  • Before this, insert the 915resolution command with your favorite setting, like the following:
915resolution 5c 1920 1200

How to detect CPU temperature, fan speeds and voltages (lm-sensors)

sudo apt-get install lm-sensors

Create file called mkdev.sh in /home/[Your user name]/bin/, and paste in the following

#!/bin/bash

# Here you can set several defaults.

# The number of devices to create (max: 256)
NUMBER=32

# The owner and group of the devices
OUSER=root
OGROUP=root
# The mode of the devices
MODE=600

# This script doesn't need to be run if devfs is used
if [ -r /proc/mounts ] ; then
if grep -q "/dev devfs" /proc/mounts ; then
echo "You do not need to run this script as your system uses devfs."
exit;
fi
fi

i=0;

while [ $i -lt $NUMBER ] ; do
echo /dev/i2c-$i
mknod -m $MODE /dev/i2c-$i c 89 $i || exit
chown "$OUSER:$OGROUP" /dev/i2c-$i || exit
i=$[$i + 1]
done
#end of file

Make this file executable, then run it

sudo chmod +x mkdev.sh
sudo ./mkdev.sh

Now detect sensors, and answer "y" to all questions.

sudo sensors-detect
sudo modprobe i2c-sensor
sudo modprobe i2c-viapro
sudo modprobe i2c-isa
sudo modprobe it87
sudo depmod -a <may not be needed!>
sudo update-modules <may not be needed!>

sensors -s

Now, let's see the output

sensors

How to control fan speed (lm-sensors)

Install and config lm-sensors first, see section above. Then run pwmconfig to test your fans

pwmconfig

If you can control fan speeds, great. Now creat a file called /etc/init.d/fancontrol, and paste in the following

#!/bin/sh
#
# Fancontrol start script.
#

set -e

# Defaults
DAEMON=/usr/sbin/fancontrol
PIDFILE=/var/run/fancontrol-pid
PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin

test -f $DAEMON || exit 0

. /lib/lsb/init-functions


case "$1" in
       start)
               log_begin_msg "Starting fancontrol daemon..."
               start-stop-daemon --start -o -q -m -b -p $PIDFILE -x $DAEMON
               log_end_msg $?
               ;;
       stop)
               log_begin_msg "Stopping fancontrol daemon..."
               start-stop-daemon --stop -o -q -p $PIDFILE
               log_end_msg $?
               ;;
       force-reload|restart)
               sh $0 stop
               sh $0 start
               ;;
       *)
               log_success_msg "Usage: /etc/init.d/fancontrol {start|stop|restart|force-reload}"
               log_success_msg "  start - starts system-wide fancontrol service"
               log_success_msg "  stop  - stops system-wide fancontrol service"
               log_success_msg "  restart, force-reload - starts a new system-wide fancontrol service"
               exit 1
               ;;
esac

exit 0

Make it excutable

sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/fancontrol

Test it

/etc/init.d/fancontrol start

and

/etc/init.d/fancontrol stop

If it works fine, autoload it when you reboot. Insert the following line into /etc/rc.local, before "exit 0"

/etc/init.d/fancontrol start


How to show nvidia GPU temperature (nvidia-settings)

At a terminal, type

nvidia-settings


How to monitor CPU, GPU temperatures, fan speeds and voltages (GKrellM)

  • Install hddtemp first to monitor hard drive temperatures
sudo apt-get install hddtemp

GKrellM is a hardware monitor that can display CPU and GPU temperatures, fan speeds, voltages, CPU load, network load, disk activity, disk temperature, memory usage, and swap usage. The installation is very easy, and configuration is just a few mouse-clicks. You can set alerts to warn you if the CPU is too hot or there is a fan failure. The hddtemp utility works with GKrellM to allow it to sense the disk temperature, as keeping your disks cool (e.g. less than around 40C) will allow them to last longer than if they run continually at higher temperatures (e.g. above 50C).

sudo apt-get install gkrellm

To run the program

Click Applications -> System Tools -> GKrellM

To configure the settings,

Right click on GKrellM -> Configuration

I was struggling with lm_sensors before, but it doesn't detect all of the sensors on my computer. Later I found "GKrellM". It displays the GPU temperature on my nVidia 6600 GT out of the box. GKrellM also has plugins that show weather info, set reminders, etc.

Add an audio alert (optional Step): Here is how to play an audio message when the CPU is too hot or a fan fails. First you need to find or record your own audio alert files. (I use Audacity to record my own.) Then go to:

Configuration -> Builtins folder (Left side)-> Sensors -> Temperatures folder (Right side)-> CPU -> Alerts Button

Paste ONE of the following lines into a Terminal window first to test the sound. If you have two sound cards, you can use "-ao oss:/dev/dsp1" option to route the sound to the second sound card. Modify the file path and name so it points to the correct file. If you can hear the sound, then copy that line to a command line text field on the GKrellM's Alerts window.

mplayer /home/myfolder/alert_messages/heat_alert.mp3
mplayer -ao oss:/dev/dsp1 /home/myfolder/alert_messages/heat_alert.mp3

How to identify Modem chipset

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/scanModem.gz
gunzip -c scanModem.gz > scanModem
chmod +x scanModem
sudo cp scanModem /usr/bin/
  • To identify Modem chipset
sudo scanModem
gedit Modem/ModemData.txt

How to install Windows Wireless Drivers (Ndiswrapper)

  • Read #General Notes
  • In order to install ndiswrapper you need a copy the windows drivers for your Wireless ethernet device.
  • This is only meant to be installed if your card isn't supported.
  • Please visit Official supported cards list


  • Find out if you have acx module loaded. Because acx module interferes with windows driver, we need to remove it if it is found.
lsmod | grep acx
  • Remove the acx module if found. It could also be acx_pci or similar. Please Note: New kernel updates will auto load the acx module again. So repeat the following two commands every time the kernel is updated.
sudo rmmod acx
sudo mv /lib/modules/2.6.15-26-386/kernel/drivers/net/wireless/acx /root/
  • Install ndiswrapper and drivers
sudo apt-get install ndiswrapper-utils
sudo ndiswrapper -i /location_of_your_wireless_driver/your_driver.inf
sudo ndiswrapper -l
sudo modprobe ndiswrapper
  • Set ndiswrapper to load on startup
sudo ndiswrapper -m
gksudo gedit /etc/modules
  • Add the following module to the list
ndiswrapper
  • Now you can configure your wireless card with ifconfig and iwconfig.
e.g. Supposing wlan0 is your wireless device.
sudo iwconfig wlan0 essid "AP" key ababababababababab mode Managed
iwconfig
  • You sould now be able to see the MAC address of the access point and signal rate.

How to enable WPA with Ndiswrapper driver

  • First, make sure the Ndiswrapper driver works by itself without encryption.
  • Create a file called /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf, and paste in the following. Modify the ssid and psk values.
ctrl_interface=/var/run/wpa_supplicant
 network={
   ssid="YourWiFiSSID"
   psk="YourWiFiPassword"
   key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
   proto=WPA
   pairwise=TKIP
 }
  • Test it. Make sure your router is broadcasting its SSID.
sudo wpa_supplicant -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -dd
  • If you WPA works. Load it automatically when you reboot.
gksudo gedit /etc/network/interfaces
  • Change your wlan0 section to the following.

If you are using static IP:

auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet static
address 192.168.1.20
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 192.168.1.1
pre-up wpa_supplicant -Bw -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
post-down killall -q wpa_supplicant

or this, if you are using dhcp.

auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet dhcp
pre-up wpa_supplicant -Bw -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
post-down killall -q wpa_supplicant


  • Reboot

How to install Modem Driver (SmartLink)

uname -r (must be 2.6.10-5-386)
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/sl-modem-modules-2.6.10-5-386_2.9.9a-1ubuntu2+2.6.10-34_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i sl-modem-modules-*.deb
sudo apt-get install sl-modem-daemon

How to configure PalmOS Devices

gksudo gedit /etc/udev/rules.d/10-custom.rules
  • Insert the following line into the new file
BUS="usb", SYSFS{product}="Palm Handheld*", KERNEL="ttyUSB*", NAME{ignore_remove}="pilot", MODE="666"
  • Save the edited file
  • Add the pilot-applet to the Taskbar by Right-Clicking on an empty spot
  • Follow the instructions on screen

How to list partition tables

sudo fdisk -l
  • You can also use System -> Administration -> Disks

How to list filesystem disk space usage

df -Th
  • You can also use System -> Administration -> Disks

How to list mounted devices

mount

How to list PCI devices

lspci

How to list USB devices

lsusb


How to stop default sound card from changing

If you have more than one sound card on your PC, the default sound card will keep changing everytime you reboot. I finally found a solution that really works. Here is the link to the original article - Guide to sound problems

Basically, you first need to find module names of your sound cards

cat /proc/asound/modules

Then edit this file

sudo nano /etc/modprobe.d/alsa-base

Append the following at the end, replace snd-C, snd-A, snd-B with the real module names.

options snd-C index=0
options snd-A index=1
options snd-B index=2

Reboot.

How to install a scanner that uses parallel port

Here is a list of scanners that works using the following steps

HP ScanJet 5100C


Follow these steps to install the kernel module needed to use the scanner.

sudo apt-get install linux-headers-`uname -r` module-assistant

sudo module-assistant prepare
sudo module-assistant get ppscsi
sudo module-assistant unpack ppscsi
sudo module-assistant build ppscsi
sudo module-assistant install ppscsi

Before running xsane to scan, do this

sudo modprobe epst

Append "epst" (without quotes) as a new line at the end of the file /etc/modules to load the epst module automatically next time you reboot.

How to install a USB scanner

Many USB scanners "just work" when you connect them to your PC through USB. Some are not recognized, though. Here are steps to fix the problem.

Make sure your userid is set correctly

Make sure your user ID is allowed to use the USB port. In the shell, type

id

and check that it lists the "scanner" group. For example;

$ id
uid=1501(syskoll) gid=1002(syskoll) 
groups=4(adm),20(dialout),21(fax),24(cdrom),25(floppy),26(tape),29(audio),30(dip),44(video),46(plugdev),106(lpadmin),
110(scanner),112(admin),1002(syskoll)
$

If not, go to System > Administration > Users and Groups, select your user, click the "Properties" button, and in the "Users priviledge" tab, select the "Allowed to use scanner" option.

Install the correct drivers: Epson Perfection V200 Photo example

Some scanners are not supported out of the box by the SANE subsystem, which manages scanners on Linux. Your manufacturer might provide drivers, though. For example, for the Epson Perfection V200 Photo scanner, I had to download the drivers from the Avasys web site.

Go to http://www.avasys.jp/english/linux_e/dl_scan.html and download the latest driver version.

The drivers are supplied in RPM format, so we'll use alien to convert them to Debian packages for Ubuntu. You might have to install alien first. In my case, the latest versions of the required packages were:

  • iscan-2.8.0-1.c2.i386.rpm
  • iscan-plugin-gt-f670-2.0.0-1.c2.i386.rpm

Let's convert them to deb packages:

 sudo alien iscan-2.8.0-1.c2.i386.rpm
 sudo alien iscan-plugin-gt-f670-2.0.0-1.c2.i386.rpm


This produces two deb packages. Installation:

 sudo dpkg --install iscan_2.8.0-2_i386.deb
 sudo dpkg --install iscan-plugin-gt-f670_2.0.0-2_i386.deb

If you get an error message about a conflict with a libsane library, you must remove the libsane-extras package:

 sudo apt-get remove libsane-extras
Setting up USB

Now, verify that the scanner is a known USB device. First, do an lsusb in the shell. You should see your scanner. Example:

 $ lsusb
 ... Several lines removed ...
 Bus 003 Device 015: ID 04b8:012e Seiko Epson Corp.
 ... Several lines removed ...
$

Notice the ID here? 04b8 is the vendor identification, and 012e is the product identification. Make a note of these numbers for your scanner.

Now check in the /etc/udev/rules.d/45-libsane.rules file that your scanner is listed. For example:

 $ grep Epson /etc/udev/rules.d/45-libsane.rules

If the command doesn't show your exact model, you can simply insert the right line in the file. Open the file with your favorite editor, but first make a backup to your home dir:

 $ cp /etc/udev/rules.d/45-libsane.rules $HOME
 $ sudo gedit /etc/udev/rules.d/45-libsane.rules

and go to the Epson section. Somewhere here, insert lines such as those :

 # Epson Corp.|Perfection V200 Photo
 SYSFS{idVendor}=="04b8", SYSFS{idProduct}=="012e", MODE="664", GROUP="scanner"

The first line is a comment, the second describes your scanner.

The idVendor and idProduct are the vendor and product identification numbers returned by the lsusb command (see above). Plug in the numbers for your own scanner. Make sure you don't alter the rest of the line, especially the quotes, braces and equal signs.

  • Save the /etc/udev/rules.d/45-libsane.rules file/
  • If you want to be exyta-carefule, compare the newly edited file with your backup copy and make sure the only changed line is the one you changed:
 $ diff /etc/udev/rules.d/45-libsane.rules ~
 322,323d321
 < # Epson Corp.|Perfection V200 Photo
 < SYSFS{idVendor}=="04b8", SYSFS{idProduct}=="012e", MODE="664", GROUP="scanner"
 $
  • Restart the udev subsystem:
 $  sudo /etc/init.d/udev restart 
Verify your scanner is found

Use the scanimage command to check that your scanner is found:

 $  scanimage -L
 device `epkowa:libusb:003:015' is a Epson Perfection V200 flatbed scanner
Scan away

I use xsane for example. It works fine.

How to speed up CD/DVD-ROM

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo hdparm -d1 /dev/cdrom
sudo cp /etc/hdparm.conf /etc/hdparm.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/hdparm.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
/dev/cdrom {
    dma = on
}
  • Save the edited file

How to mount/unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually, and show all hidden and associated files/folders

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
  • To mount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo mount /media/cdrom0/ -o unhide
  • To unmount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/

How to forcefully unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/ -l

How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting

sudo mount -a


How to install a Wacom tablet

For a detailed guide with screenshots about how to configure the "Extended input devices" in your graphic applications, please follow the official Dapper guide at https://wiki.ubuntu.com//Wacom

With the version of the Linux Wacom driver (0.7.2) in Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake, if you unplug you tablet, it won't function when you plug it back in and you will have to restart X. For this reason, it is best to leave the tablet plugged in. This limitation will be removed when the 0.7.4 version of the driver is included in Ubuntu.

  • 1. Using Synaptic package manager1, check if the packages xserver-xorg-input-wacom and wacom-tools are already installed - if not, install them. If you prefer using the command line, you can also execute :
     sudo apt-get install xserver-xorg-input-wacom wacom-tools
  • 2. Save a copy of your /etc/X11/xorg.conf :
      sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.backup
  • then edit it with the command line :
      gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • and change all /dev/wacom occurences into /dev/input/wacom (created by wacom-tools udev scripts), then save the file.
  • You should be ready to go after you have restarted X. Remember to configure the "Extended input devices" in your graphic applications (Gimp, Inkscape), however you can already check if it's working by moving your stylus on the tablet : the mouse cursor should go through the whole screen.

How to enable Multicore Support

  • This should work for both Multicore systems and SMP systems
sudo apt-get install linux-686-smp
  • You can check that this works by running the following and seeing two CPUs listed
cat /proc/cpuinfo

How to enable Large Widescreen Support

  • 24/23" widescreen monitors sometimes have issues running 1920x1200.
  • Examples include: Dell 2405, HP 2335 or an Apple Cinema Display.
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Add the following line to the appropriate "Monitor" section
Modeline	"1920x1200" 154 1920 1968 2000 2080 1200 1203 1209 1235
  • For example the HP2335 should now look like:
Section "Monitor"
	Identifier	"hp L2335"
	Option		"DPMS"
	Modeline	"1920x1200" 154 1920 1968 2000 2080 1200 1203 1209 1235
EndSection

CD/DVD Burning

How to blank CD-RW/DVD-RW

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast

How to burn files/folders into CD/DVD

nautilus burn:///
  • File Browser: CD/DVD Creator
  • Drag files/folders into window
File Menu -> Write to Disc... -> Write

How to burn Image (ISO) files into CD/DVD

Right click on Image (ISO) file -> Write to Disc... -> Write

How to duplicate CD/DVD

How to create Image (ISO) files from CD/DVD

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=file.iso bs=1024

How to create Image (ISO) files from folders

mkisofs -o file.iso /location_of_folder/

How to generate MD5 checksum files

md5sum file.iso > file.iso.md5

How to check MD5 checksum of files

e.g. Assumed that file.iso and file.iso.md5 are in the same folder
md5sum -c file.iso.md5

How to mount/unmount Image (ISO) files without burning

sudo mkdir /media/iso
sudo modprobe loop
sudo mount file.iso /media/iso/ -t iso9660 -o loop
  • To unmount Image (ISO) file
sudo umount /media/iso/

How to set/change the burn speed for CD/DVD Burner

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> default_speed (set/change the burn speed)

How to enable burnproof for CD/DVD Burner

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> burnproof (Checked)

How to enable overburn for CD/DVD Burner

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> overburn (Checked)


Networking

How to configure Google Talk

How to activate/deactivate network connections

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Activate/Deactivate

How to configure network connections

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Properties
Connection -> Enable this connection (Checked)
Connection Settings -> Configuration: Select "DHCP/Static IP address"
DNS Tab -> DNS Servers -> Add/Delete

How to configure dialup connections

sudo pppconfig
  • To connect dialup
sudo pon provider_name
  • To disconnect dialup
sudo poff

How to configure broadband connections

sudo pppoeconf

How to change computer name

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
General Tab -> Host Settings -> Hostname: Specify the computer name 
  • Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to change computer descriptions

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
  server string = %h server (Samba, Ubuntu)
...
  • Replace with the following line
  server string = new_computer_descriptions
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to change computer Domain/Workgroup

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
  workgroup = MSHOME
...
  • Replace with the following line
  workgroup = new_domain_or_workgroup
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to assign Hostname to local machine with dynamic IP using free DynDNS service

sudo apt-get install ipcheck
gksudo gedit /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update.sh
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
 #!/bin/sh

 USERNAME=myusername
 PASSWORD=mypassword
 HOSTNAME=myhostname.dyndns.org

 cd /root/
 if [ -f /root/ipcheck.dat ]; then
  ipcheck -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
 else
  ipcheck --makedat -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
 fi
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update.sh
sudo sh /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update.sh

How to share folders the easy way

Right click on folder -> Share folder
Shared folder -> Share with: Select "SMB"
Share properties -> Name: Specify the share name

How to browse network computers

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
If computers or network folders could not be found, try access them directly
Read #How to access network folders without mounting
  • Places -> Network Servers

How to access network folders without mounting

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Shared folder's name: linux
  • Press 'Alt+F2' (Run Application...) and enter:
smb://192.168.0.1/linux

How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  • To mount network folder
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword
  • To unmount network folder
sudo umount /media/sharename/

How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  • To mount network folder
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword,dmask=777,fmask=777
  • To unmount network folder
sudo umount /media/sharename/

How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
gksudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
username=myusername
password=mypassword 
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
//192.168.0.1/linux    /media/sharename smbfs  credentials=/root/.smbcredentials    0    0

How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
gksudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
username=myusername
password=mypassword
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
//192.168.0.1/linux    /media/sharename smbfs  credentials=/root/.smbcredentials,dmask=777,fmask=777  0    0

How to get ipw2200 and wpa to work

How to get RalinkRT2500 and wpa to work

How to Configure and start PPTP tunnels (VPN)

OR
  • Install manually
wget -c http://linux.edu.lv/uploads/content/pptp.tar.gz
tar zxvf pptp.tar.gz
sudo sh ./pptp/install
  • To configure PPTP Client
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/pptpconfig.desktop
  • Replace content of this file with the following lines
[Desktop Entry]
Name=PPTP Client
Comment=Configure and start PPTP tunnels (VPN)
Categories=Application;Network
Encoding=UTF-8
Exec=gksudo pptpconfig
Icon=gnome-remote-desktop.png
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=false
Type=Application
  • The above lines change the default file in three ways: the application is placed in the Application/Internet category, gksudo will make the application run as superuser and we put a nice icon that appears in the menu.
  • Start the client with Applications -> Internet -> PPTP Client

How to Configure Ubuntu/Kubuntu with WPA using Network-Manager

Ubuntu Dapper in typical cases can configure WPA to work out of the box with minimal hassle. You'll need to install network-manager.


For Ubuntu:

sudo apt-get install network-manager-gnome

For Kubuntu (will install knetworkmanager):

sudo apt-get install network-manager-kde

Logout/Reboot.

Ubuntu users should now see the NetworkManager Applet in the Gnome notification area. Kubuntu users will probably have to run knetworkmanager before they see NetworkManager in the systray.

If instead, you get a "The NetworkManager applet could not find some required resources. It cannot continue." message, then:

sudo gtk-update-icon-cache -f /usr/share/icons/hicolor

Once Network-Manager is installed, click on the NM icon in the notification area (default is at the top right of Ubuntu/Gnome). Choose your network, then enter your passphrase. Type a password for the keyring, and you're set.

If you don't see your network, click "Create New Wireless Network...", type your essid/networkname, then choose "WPA Personal" for wireless security.

  • Note: If you installed Kubuntu then installed ubuntu-desktop & network-manager-gnome, you may not be able to use network-manager in Gnome, if at all. In this case, you may have to use WPA Supplicant and do some manual editing of conf files to get WPA up and running.
  • Note: When you first log into Gnome/KDE, the keyring application will ask for a password. Future revisions of Network-Manager should resolve this.

Remote Login via XDMCP

What is XDMCP?

GNOME windows can support several different users simultaniously. Unlike vncviewer that just duplicates the current screen on a remote system, XDMCP allows several different users to login and run different GNOME sessions at the same time. So if you have a fast computer runing Ubuntu, several users can use their slow machines to login and run heavy applications only available on the fast machine.

How to turn on the XDMCP feature

To turn on the XDMCP feature on the fast computer, click the menu

System -> Administration -> Login Window 

In the Login Window Preferences dialog window, select

Remote Tab -> Style: Same as Local ->  Close the dialog window -> Restart the PC

How to login from another PC running Ubuntu

1. Reboot the slow PC and stop at the login screen
2. Click Options at the lower left corner of the login screen
3. Select "Remote Login via XDMCP"
4. On the dialog window, type in the host name or ip of the fast computer you want to login to


Remote Desktop Sharing/Duplication via VNC

How to configure remote desktop (not secure)

Warning! Remote Desktop will only work if there's a GNOME or KDE login session
Leaving computer with an unattended GNOME or KDE login session is not secure
Use (System -> Lock Screen) and switch off the monitor when computer is left unattended

UBUNTU (or GNOME desktop) users:

  • System -> Preferences -> Remote Desktop
  • Remote Desktop Preferences
Sharing ->
Allow other users to view your desktop (Checked)
Allow other users to control your desktop (Checked)
Security ->
Ask you for confirmation (Un-Checked)
Require the user to enter this password: (Checked)
Password: Specify the password

KUBUNTU (or KDE desktop) users:

  • K Menu -> System Settings -> Internet & Network -> Sharing
  • Desktop Sharing
Access tab ->
Allow uninvited connections (Checked)
Allow uninvited connections to control the desktop (Checked)
Password: Specify the password

How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
vncviewer -fullscreen 192.168.0.1:0
  • To quit vncviewer
Press 'F8' -> Quit viewer

How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
  • If you have a router remember to open the appropiate port. The default one is 5900
This process is called port forwarding port forwarding
  • Download DotNetVNC: Here or RealVNC Here
this is a free DotNet version that require the DotNet framework available from microsoft here
The RealVNC website was created and maintained by the original developers of VNC during their time at AT&T. RealVNC comes in Free, Personal, and Enterprise editions - the latter two costing money.
  • Open the VNC client you have chosen, and insert the connection string formatted like this <LINUX BOX IP><:DESKTOP NUMBER>|<::PORT>
In example use: 192.168.1.2:0 or 192.168.1.2::5900 to connect to desktop 0, to connect to desktop 1 use 192.168.1.2:1 or 192.168.1.2::5901 and so on

How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop via OSX

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
  • If you have a router remember to open the appropiate port the default one is 5900
This process is called port forwarding port forwarding
  • Download ChickenOfTheVNC: Here
  • Open ChickenOfTheVNC, and insert the host (IP adress of remote machine), the display number (0 is default and is port 5900) and the password.
In example use: Host: 192.168.0.1, Display 0, Password: password


Remote Desktop Access via NX

How to install and configure NX server

NX is much faster than VNC, even on low-bandwidth connections, and uses ssh, so connections are much more secure than under VNC. However, it opens a desktop as a separate session, rather than sharing a desktop with a remote user. The upside of this is that a remote user and a local user can be using the system simultaneously and not interfere with each other's sessions. The downside is that NX cannot be used for desktop sharing, where both the local and remote user see the same desktop.
The following instructions will install the free version of NX server from Nomachine. We do NOT recommend attempting to use FreeNX (open source) server at this time, because of the difficulty many users have had in getting it to work. Should it become easier to install FreeNX and to get it working reliably, we may modify these instructions accordingly.
PLEASE NOTE: If you have previously attempted to install NX or FreeNX and could not get it to work, you MUST uninstall it, along with any other packages you installed solely for the purpose of getting it running. That also applies if you've installed any of the Nomachine servers or clients. Search for any NX directories that have been created and delete those (make sure it's a directory that was actually created during the NX or FreeNX install). This is to clean your system of all traces of the former installation, which is essential for a successful installation. The same applies to any client software you've installed on machines, if it's not the exact software described below. Also, if you have added any FreeNX repositories to your /etc/apt/sources.list, please remove them.
  • Using Synaptic or Adept, install the ssh package. The installation will fail if ssh is not installed.
  • Download the following three files:
"NX Desktop Server DEB for Linux" from [3]
"NX Node DEB for Linux" from [4]
"NX Client DEB for Linux" from [5]
  • Install the files in the order shown below by right clicking on them and installing them, or using a package manager, or from the command line you could do sudo dpkg -i file/path/filename.deb for each file. Install them in this order:
nxclient
nxnode
nxserver
  • Using a text editor in root mode, edit the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file (for example, sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config in a terminal window) and add this line exactly as shown:
AuthorizedKeysFile /usr/NX/home/nx/.ssh/authorized_keys2
  • In a terminal window, sudo /etc/init.d/ssh restart to restart sshd.
  • Test the NX server by entering sudo /usr/NX/bin/nxserver --status in a terminal window. This should return:
NX> 900 Connecting to server ..
NX> 110 NX Server is running.

NX> 999 Bye.

NOTE: If the above command doesn't work, try executing it again at a root prompt. That is execute sudo su to get yourself a root prompt then enter the command /usr/NX/bin/nxserver --status (don't forget to exit the root prompt with exit)

  • Highly recommended for security reasons: In root mode, edit /usr/NX/etc/server.cfg and change the following two lines to the values shown:
ENABLE_AUTOKILL_SESSIONS = "1"
ENABLE_UNENCRYPTED_SESSION = "0"
  • Also highly recommended for security reasons: In root mode, edit /usr/NX/etc/node.cfg and change the following line to the value shown:
ENABLE_UNENCRYPTED_SESSION = "0"
  • You should check the subdirectories of the /usr/NX/var/db directory every now and then clean out any leftover files pertaining to old sessions. We hope future revisions of the NX server will clean these up automatically. Always properly logging out of a session will reduce the number of such "leftovers."

Installing and configuring NX client software

  • On a Linux system, install the latest NX client for your distribution, available at [6]. On a Windows system, install the latest NX Client for Windows, available at [7] N.B. You do not need to download or install any additional font files (except under very unusual circumstances). For a Mac OSX or Solaris client, see the NX Software download page at [8].
  • Create a new session using the "connection wizard", then check the following items in the configuration and modify them as necessary.
  • Under the General tab, Desktop section, set to "Unix" and "KDE" (if you use Kubuntu) or "Gnome" (if you use Ubuntu). Set the slider to the appropriate connection type (probably LAN for most users, where the Kubuntu/Ubuntu box is on your local network - don't forget to change this if you move to a different connection type). Under Display, set it to "Fullscreen" (for best image quality) and default image encoding.
  • Under the Advanced tab, check "Enable SSL encryption of all traffic" (if you made the "highly recommended" file edits above).
  • Under the Services tab, you can try checking "Enable multimedia support" - this MAY allow you to hear sound from the system you are connecting to. Because this is streamed over the network, don't expect perfection. And if you use Kubuntu or the KDE desktop, you might not hear anything at all.
  • Windows client only: Normal behavior of the NX client on a Windows system is that if you press alt-tab or alt-shift-tab, it will switch you to another window on your local machine, rather than allowing you to walk through the windows on your Kubuntu or Ubuntu system. If you find that objectionable, you can download and install the NX Client Utility (note this is not the same as the NX client) from the page at [9]. Use Release Version 1 rather than Beta Version 2, unless you have some real specific need to run the Beta version, because the Release Version is more reliable. In order for the NX Client Utility to work, you'll have to set up alternate key mappings for "Walk Through Windows" and for "Walk Through Windows (Reverse)" (be sure that the NX Client Utility is running while you do this). The alternate key mappings are as follows:
Walk Through Windows - alt-/ (user presses alt-tab)
Walk Through Windows (Reverse) - alt-? (user presses alt-shift-tab)
  • If you need to power down the remote machine (only recommended when someone is, or will be physically present to restart it when necessary), open a terminal window and enter sudo shutdown -h +2 - this will give you two minutes to log out of your session before the machine begins to power down. You should always log out of your session to avoid leaving "orphaned" session information in the subdirectories under /usr/NX/var/db on your hard drive.


Windows

How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (NTFS) manually, and allow all users to read only


e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
  • To mount Windows partition
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t ntfs -o nls=utf8,umask=0222
  • To unmount Windows partition
sudo umount /media/windows/

How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (FAT) manually, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
  • To mount Windows partition
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t vfat -o iocharset=utf8,umask=000
  • To unmount Windows partition
sudo umount /media/windows/

How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow all users to read only

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
/dev/hda1    /media/windows ntfs  nls=utf8,umask=0222 0    0

How to mount Windows partitions (FAT) on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
/dev/hda1    /media/windows vfat  iocharset=utf8,umask=000  0    0

How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow users read and write access

Warning: Ntfs writing support is still experimental. You should not enable it on production machines and/or volumes you don't have backups of. Proceed at your own risk!

sudo apt-get install libfuse2 fuse-utils
  • Download the latest ntfsprogs package (these are from the Dapper repositories, so they are safe to install.)

libntfs8 ntfsprogs libfuse2 fuse-utils

  • 64bit versions of the above.

libntfs8 ntfsprogs libfuse2 fuse-utils


  • Install the downloaded packages
sudo dpkg -i libfuse2_*.deb fuse-utils_*.deb ntfsprogs_*.deb libntfs8_*.deb
  • Add fuse to the list of modules to load
echo fuse | sudo tee -a /etc/modules
  • Create a user group to access the ntfs disks
sudo addgroup ntfs
  • The output should look something like this, remember the GID (the number printed after the group name) as it may differ and we will need it later:
Adding group `ntfs' (1002)...
Done.
  • Create the local mount folder and edit the fstab file to mount the disks to this folder.
e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab.bak
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file, using the GID number previously. The umask following this GID allows write access just to owner (root) and group (ntfs), and read access to everyone.
/dev/hda1    /media/windows    ntfs-fuse    auto,gid=1002,umask=0002    0    0
  • Save the edited file.
  • Add users to the ntfs group, where "username" is the name of the user you would like to have write access
sudo adduser username ntfs
sudo rm /sbin/mount.ntfs-fuse && sudo ln /usr/bin/ntfsmount /sbin/mount.ntfs-fuse
  • If you reboot now, the disk will be writable to the selected users when they logon. If you want the changes to take effect immediately without rebooting, execute the following command, ignoring the errors about "/" and others not being unmounted. You'll have to logout from all your user sessions for the new group to be acknowledged (usually a logout from your graphical session and login back again will do it).
sudo modprobe fuse && sudo umount -a && sudo mount -a

Security

What are the basic things I need to know about securing my Ubuntu

  • Read #General Notes
  • Ensure hard drive is first in BIOS boot-up sequence
    • To prevent trespassers from using Linux Installation CD which allows them to gain root user access
    • To prevent trespassers from using Linux Live CD (e.g. UBUNTU/KNOPPIX/MEPIS) which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive
    • To prevent trespassers from installing another Operating System
  • Ensure a password is set for BIOS
    • To prevent trespassers from changing the BIOS boot-up sequence
  • Ensure computer is located at a secured place
    • To prevent trespassers from removing computer's hard drive which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive from a different computer
    • To prevent trespassers from removing computer's on-board battery which resets the BIOS password
  • Ensure passwords used on the system cannot be easily guessed
    • To prevent trespassers from cracking password file using brute force attacks (e.g. John the Ripper)
    • Create password with minimum length of 8 characters
    • Create password with mixture of characters/numbers, and upper/lower case
    • Not create a password with just a single or just a typical union of main languages (english, german, french, spanish...) dictionary words
  • Ensure interactive editing control for GRUB menu is disabled
  • Ensure history listing is disabled in Console mode
  • Ensure Ctrl+Alt+Del is disabled in Console mode
  • Ensure interactive option is set for remove, copy and move of files/folders in Console mode
  • For day to day usage, login as a normal user
  • Disable root user account, use "sudo" instead
    • To reduce the amount of time spent with root privileges, and thus the risk of inadvertently executing a command as root
    • "sudo" provides a more useful audit trail (/var/log/auth.log)
    • Read #How to disable root user account
  • Install a Firewall
  • Perform vulnerability test

How to disable all interactive editing control for GRUB menu

  • Run This:
grub-md5-crypt 
Password: 
Retype password: 
$1$tumnZ1$xB/shuXs7MlawZXkLiBDV/
  • Backup your current configuration file
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this section
...
## password ['--md5'] passwd
# If used in the first section of a menu file, disable all interactive editing
# control (menu entry editor and command-line) and entries protected by the
# command 'lock'
# e.g. password topsecret
#   password --md5 $1$tumnZ1$xB/shuXs7MlawZXkLiBDV/
# password topsecret
...
  • Add the following line below it
password --md5 $1$tumnZ1$xB/shuXs7MlawZXkLiBDV/ (encrypted password above)
  • Find the section(s) that look like this (note the 'recovery mode' and the word 'single'):
...
title		Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
root		(hd0,1)
kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro single
initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.10-5-386
savedefault
boot
...
  • Add lock between the title and root lines:
...
title		Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
lock
root		(hd0,1)
...
  • Save the edited file

This will make it so your grub console will require a password to edit the lines, and the recovery modes won't work unless the password is typed. To access the other grub options at the menu, follow the instructions at the bottom of the screen. It will be something like pressing p and typing your password.

How to disable history listing in Console mode

rm -f .bash_history
gedit ~/.bash_profile
  • Add the following:
export HISTFILESIZE=4
unset HISTFILE=5

# Change this to a reasonable number of lines to save, I like to save only 100.
export HISTSIZE=1

# Ignores duplicate lines next to each other
export HISTCONTROL=ignoredups

This will disable Bash history for the user, retaining keystroke history and recall to use while limiting recall history to 100 lines. This will also not record duplicate lines next to each other.

How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Del from restarting computer in Console mode

sudo cp /etc/inittab /etc/inittab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/inittab
  • Find this line
...
ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
...
  • Replace with the following line
#ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
  • Save the edited file
sudo telinit q

How to enable prompt before removal/overwritten of files/folders in Console mode

sudo cp /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/bash.bashrc_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/bash.bashrc
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
alias rm='rm -i'
alias cp='cp -i'
alias mv='mv -i'
  • Save the edited file

How to setup a LoJack system for your laptop


What: Quote from Wikipedia: "LoJack is an aftermarket vehicle tracking system that allows cars to be tracked by police after being stolen. The manufacturer claims a 90% recovery rate. The name "LoJack" is a play on the word "hijack," meaning the theft of a vehicle through force."

Why: If your laptop is ever stolen and connected to the Internet. You will be able to find out from what IP it connects to the Internet from and contact the authorities.

How:

  • Get a free dynamic IP account from one of the many providers. Here we will use DynDNS.
sudo apt-get install ddclient 
  • Edit the configuration file /etc/ddclient.conf using you favorite text editor (emacs, gedit, kedit or even vi)
sudo emacs /etc/ddclient.conf
  • Make it look like this:
# Configuration file for ddclient generated by debconf
#
# /etc/ddclient.conf
pid=/var/run/ddclient.pid
protocol=dyndns2
use=web
server=members.dyndns.org
login=YourNameHere
pa
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