Template:Pl U Natty/Installation

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Instalacja Ubuntu

Ostrzeżenie: Podczas instalacji nie ma zaawansowanych opcji (Gotowy do instalacji -> Zaawansowane), aby zainstalować Grub2 bootloader na tej samej partycji, na które (K) Ubuntu OS jest zainstalowany, ale nie zmienić MBR (Master Boot Record). Należy zwracać szczególną uwagę podczas tego kroku, jeśli Twój system używa partycji rozruchowej, używa wielu systemów operacyjnych (ponad 2), lub chainloads bootloadera. Dla systemów z takich partycji boot, to najlepiej nie nadpisać MBR.

Wymagania sprzętowe

Ubuntu Natty Narwhal działa dobrze z zaledwie 384 MB pamięci RAM. (Instalator GUI wymaga minimum 256 MB RAM, zaś alternatywny instalator tekstowy można uruchomić przy użyciu tylko 192 MB RAM). Netbooki można uruchomić Ubuntu Natty Narwhal.

Instalacja trwa od 04/03 Gb miejsca na dysku twardym, oraz 8 - 10 Gb będzie potrzebny do uruchomienia komfortowo.

Jeśli masz starszy komputer z mniejszą ilością pamięci niż ten, za Lubuntu (jeśli 160 Mb RAM lub więcej), PuppyLinux ( jeśli 256 MB lub lepsza), lub DSL (jeśli małej ilości pamięci RAM, ograniczone miejsce na dysku twardym, począwszy od USBdrive lub uruchamiania z poziomu innego systemu operacyjnego).

Nowej instalacji

Patrz tej instrukcji do nagrywania obrazu ISO na CD ("LiveCD").
Użyj LiveCD do instalacji.
  • Alternatywna wersja CD pozwala także na korzystanie z tej samej tekstowych szybko instalatora używany w wersji Server (wymaga mniej pamięci RAM) i jest więcej opcji instalacji, niż na pulpicie CD ("Regular Download").

Podwójny rozruch Windows i Ubuntu

Użytkownik może doświadczyć problemów podwójnego rozruchu Ubuntu i Windows. Ogólnie rzecz biorąc, system operacyjny Windows powinien być zainstalowany na początku, ponieważ jej bootloader jest bardzo szczególny. Domyślnej instalacji Windows zazwyczaj zajmuje cały dysk twardy, więc głównym partycji Windows musi być skurczył, tworzenie wolnego miejsca na partycji Ubuntu. (Należy oczyścić niepotrzebne pliki i defragmentacji dysku przed zmiana rozmiaru.) Zobacz zmiana rozmiaru partycji Windows.

Po skurczeniu partycji Windows, należy zrestartować raz w Windows przed instalacją Ubuntu lub dalsze manipulowanie partycjami. Dzięki temu system Windows do automatycznego ponownego skanowania nowego rozmiaru partycji (przy użyciu polecenia chkdsk w XP lub innych narzędzi w nowszych wersjach systemu Windows) i zapisać zmiany do własnych plików startu. (Jeśli to zrobi, w przyszłości mogą wystąpić do naprawy plików systemu Windows startu partycji ręcznie za pomocą konsoli odzyskiwania systemu Windows.)

Newer installations of Windows use two primary partitions (a small Windows boot partition and a large Windows OS partition). An Ubuntu Linux installation also requires two partitions -- a linux-swap partition and the OS partition. The Linux partitions can either be two primary partitions or can be two logical partitions within an extended partition. Some computer retailers use all four partitions on a hard drive. Unless there are two free partitions available (either primary or logical) in which to install Ubuntu, however, it will appear as if there is no available free space. If only one partition on a hard drive can be made available, it must be used as an extended partition (in which multiple logical partitions can then be created). Partition management can be done using the GParted utility.

If there are only two existing primary partitions on a hard drive (and plenty of free space on it) then there will be no problem installing Ubuntu as the second operating system and it is done automatically from the Ubuntu LiveCD. Allow the Ubuntu LiveCD to install to "largest available free space." Alternatively, if there is an extended partition with plenty of free space within it, the Ubuntu LiveCD will install to this "largest available free space" as well.

The main Windows partition should be at least 20 Gb (recommended 30 Gb for Vista/Windows 7), and a Ubuntu partition at least 10 Gb (recommended 20 Gb). Obviously, if you have plenty of disk space, make the partition for whichever will be your favoured operating system larger. For a recommended partitioning scheme, see this section.

Conversely you can install a retail version of Windows (but not an OEM or recovery version) after Ubuntu by creating a primary NTFS partition using GParted. (You may have to use GPparted from a Live CD/USB). Once the primary NTFS partition is created you can boot your Windows CD/DVD and choose to install Windows to that NTFS partition. When installation is complete, reboot to insure Windows boots properly. Once that is ascertained, use the Ubuntu Live CD/USB to install GRUB back to the MBR. (This is necessary because Windows overwrites the MBR and designates its own bootloader as the master bootloader.) Once GRUB is installed you will be able to boot either OS.

Alternatives include:

  • Wubi (Windows-based Ubuntu Installer), an officially supported dual-boot installer that allows Ubuntu to be run mounted in a virtual-disk within the Windows environment (which can cause a slight degradation in performance). Because the installation requires an intact functioning Windows system, it is recommended to install Ubuntu in this manner for short-term evaluation purposes only. A permanent Ubuntu installation should be installed in its own partition, with its own filesystem, and should not rely on Windows.
  • EasyBCD, a free Windows-based program that allows you to dual-boot Windows 7/Vista and Ubuntu (as well as other operating systems) by configuring the Windows 7/Vista bootloader.

Installing multiple OS on a single computer

Warning: During installation, there is an advanced option (Ready to install -> Advanced) to install the GRUB2 bootloader into the same partition into which the (K)Ubuntu OS is installed but not to change the MBR (Master Boot Record). Pay careful attention during this step if your system uses a boot partition, uses multiple OS (more than 2), or chainloads bootloaders. For systems with such a boot partition, it is best not to overwrite the MBR.

  • Example, from the Desktop version GUI installer, a point in the installation will be reached:
Summary -> Advanced -> Device for boot loader installation: /dev/sda6

In this example, this setting will cause the GRUB2 bootloader to be installed into /dev/sda6 only (the partition into which the new (K)Ubuntu OS is being installed). The MBR (Master Boot Record) will not be changed. However, if the default setting of /dev/sda is allowed, then GRUB2 will not only be installed into partition dev/sda6 (into which the (K)Ubuntu OS is installed) but also the MBR (MasterBootRecord) will be changed so that the copy of GRUB2 stored there will be designated as the master bootloader for all Operating Systems on the entire computer. This may be undesirable if you wish to use bootloaders other than GRUB2.

If you want to install more than 2 operating systems on a single computer, check out these tips. Also see these tips regarding manipulating partitions.

Use Startup Manager to change Grub settings

Grub is a bootup utility that controls which OS to load by default and other bootup settings. You can change Grub settings from Startup Manager, a GUI that is able to manage settings for Grub (Grub Legacy), Grub 2, Usplash, and Splashy. Also see the Ubuntu Community help page for Startup Manager usage instructions. Install:

sudo apt-get install startupmanager menu

Run:

Menu -> System -> Administration -> Startup Manager

Note: You can also edit the Grub settings manually from the command-line interface.

Dual-Booting Mac OS X and Ubuntu

Mac OS X has a similar structure to Linux (it is BSD Unix based). Dual-booting Mac OS X and Ubuntu detailed instructions can be found here.

Installing Mac OS X after Ubuntu

  • If you decide to dual boot with OS X, choose ext2 as your partition type during the Ubuntu installation. (For this the Super Grub Disk CD is a useful utility. You can download the Super Grub .iso image file at forjamari.linex.org and burn the image to a CD-ROM.)
  • Once you have installed Ubuntu, edit the Grub start-up list:
sudo nano /boot/grub/menu.lst
and add the following lines:
title Mac OS X
root (hd0,0)
makeactive
chainloader +1

Reboot your Mac and go to the terminal in Max OS X (if you have any issues booting, boot from your Mac OS X DVD). Press F8 and enter -s. Enter:

fdisk -e /dev/rdisk0
flag 2 <--note that flag 2 is my Mac partition number two
quit
y
reboot
  • If are still unsure whether it is working correctly, use the Super Grub Disk CD and make grub active.

Installing Ubuntu after Mac OS X

  • If you get an error message during boot such as HFS+error in the bootloader, you can also use the Super Grub Disk for recovering Linux GRUB and the Windows MBR (Master Boot Record).
  • Once you have installed Ubuntu, edit the Grub start-up list:
sudo nano /boot/grub/menu.lst
and add the following lines:
title Mac OS X
root (hd0,0)
makeactive
chainloader +1
If you have issues with Mac OSX or Windows in GRUB, try changing the Mac OS X Grub entry
change root (hd0,0) to root (hd0,1)

This means you will boot into partition number 1. You can try any partition number until you get it right.

Upgrading to Natty

There are several methods for upgrades from the command-line interface (Terminal) (which can be used for both the desktop and server editions of Ubuntu/Kubuntu).

  • This is the preferred method:
sudo apt-get install update-manager-core
sudo do-release-upgrade
  • You can also use the update-manager (all editions):
sudo apt-get install update-manager
sudo update-manager -d
  • You can also use:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
(Note: the first two lines simply make sure your current distribution is current before upgrading the entire distribution, and are optional.

Reinstalling applications after a fresh installation

If you upgrade your Ubuntu system with a fresh installation, it is possible to mark the packages and services installed on your old system (prior to the upgrade) and save the settings ("markings") into a file. Then install the new version of Ubuntu and allow the system to reinstall packages and services using the settings saved in the "markings" file. For instructions, see this Ubuntu forum thread. In brief:

  • On the old system:
Synaptic Package Manager -> File -> Save Markings
  • Save the markings file to an external medium, such as a USB drive.
  • Complete the backup of your system's other important files (e.g. the /home directory) before the installation of the new system.
  • In the freshly-installed new system:
Synaptic Package Manager -> File -> Read markings and load the file on your USB drive (or other external storage) previously saved.

Note: Many packages, dependencies, and compatibilities change between version of Ubuntu, so this method does not always work. Automated updates remains the recommended method.

  • Alternatively you can use this command-line method.
  • Prior to the clean installation. run:
dpkg --get-selections > ~/my-packages 
This creates a my-packages file in the ~ (home) directory which will contain a list of the packages installed on the old system. Copy this file to a safe place (as you will need it after the new installation).
  • Proceed with the clean installation. Enable the same repositories that were enabled in the old system.
  • Now copy the my-packages file to the ~ (/home) folder. Run:
sudo dpkg --set-selections < my-packages && sudo apt-get dselect-upgrade
Any packages that you had installed (that are in the new repositories) will now be installed. Excluded will be any manually-installed packages (that are not in the new repositories) and any packages that were compiled from source.
  • Here are some of the steps I have sometimes needed to take when performing upgrades.
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