Ubuntu:Edgy/TipsAndTricks

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How to enable lame for FFMPEG (needed to encode FLV with sound)

KINO FLVs silent? You need to recompile FFMPEG with LAME enabled. FFMPEG can be installed via apt-get as a package, but is not able encode MP3, which is the audio stream in FLV video (like Google & YouTube).

  • Read #How to add extra repositories
  • Ensure Ubuntu Universe repository is not preceded by # in /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Download and install lame liblame-dev and gcc packages (mp3 encoder + GNU compiler collection)
sudo apt-get build-dep ffmpeg
sudo apt-get install liblame-dev libfaad2-dev libfaac-dev libxvidcore4-dev liba52-0.7.4 \
liba52-0.7.4-dev libx264-dev checkinstall build-essential gcc
  • Download and extract FFMPEG source to current working directory
sudo apt-get source ffmpeg
  • Compile FFMPEG from source
cd ffmpeg-*
sudo ./configure --enable-gpl --enable-pp --enable-vorbis --enable-libogg \
--enable-a52 --enable-dts --enable-dc1394 --enable-libgsm --disable-debug \
--enable-mp3lame --enable-faad --enable-faac --enable-xvid --enable-pthreads \
--enable-x264

maybe try instead = 
sudo ./configure --enable-gpl --enable-pp --enable-libvorbis --enable-libogg \
--enable-liba52 --enable-libdts --enable-dc1394 --enable-libgsm --disable-debug \ 
--enable-libmp3lame --enable-libfaad --enable-libfaac --enable-xvid --enable-pthreads \
--enable-x264


sudo make
sudo checkinstall [accept defaults, set version to 3:0.cvs20060823-3.1ubuntu2]

If an application you are using employs FFMPEG to encode FLV, it should now work properly. You can also call FFMPEG directly from the command line. The extension/suffix of the outfile tells FFMPEG which audio or video format to encode to.

ffmpeg [-i infile] [outfile]

How to enable smooth fonts

gedit ~/.fonts.conf
  • Paste in this text:
<?xml version=”1.0” ?>
<!DOCTYPE fontconfig SYSTEM “fonts.dtd”>
<fontconfig>
<match target=”font”>
<edit name=”autohint” mode=”assign”>
<bool>true</bool>
</edit>
</match>
</fontconfig>
  • You’ll have to log out and back in to see the difference.

How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer

  • Save and close all opened applications
Press 'Ctrl + Alt + Backspace'

or
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart
or
If these tips did not help read #System requests (What to do if your system is unresponsive)

How to turn on Num Lock on GNOME startup

sudo aptitude install numlockx
sudo cp /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default
  • Find this line
...
exit 0
  • Add the following lines above it
if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then
 /usr/bin/numlockx on
fi

How to remap the Caps Lock key as another Control key

gksudo gedit /etc/console-tools/remap

In the Console

  • Change
#s/keycode  58 = Caps_Lock/keycode  58 = Control/;

to

s/keycode  58 = Caps_Lock/keycode  58 = Control/;
  • Save your work
sudo /etc/init.d/console-screen.sh
  • Try using it

In X Windows

gedit ~/.Xmodmap
  • Add this:
keycode 66 = Control_L
clear Lock
add Control = Control_L

  • Now, apply the changes.
xmodmap ~/.Xmodmap
  • To apply them on startup
    • If ~/.xinitrc does not exist,
cp /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc ~/.xinitrc
  • In all cases
gedit ~/.xinitrc
  • Make the first line this:
xmodmap ~/.Xmodmap
  • Restart X (Ctrl - Alt - Backspace)
  • Log In, a dialog should pop up, add .Xmodmap to the left side with the add button, and Save.

How to run programs on startup when login into GNOME

  • System -> Preferences -> Sessions
  • Sessions
Startup Programs Tab -> Add/Edit/Delete

How to speed-up your Ubuntu box

How to switch to Console mode in GNOME

  • To switch to Console mode
Press 'Ctrl + Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  • To switch between consoles in Console mode
Press 'Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  • To switch back to GNOME mode
Press 'Alt + F7'

How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Backspace from restarting X in GNOME and KDE 3.5.x

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
Section "ServerFlags"
	Option		"DontZap"		"yes"
EndSection

How to enable Ctrl+Alt+Del to open System Monitor in GNOME

gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/global_keybindings/run_command_9 "<Control><Alt>Delete"
gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/keybinding_commands/command_9 "gnome-system-monitor"

How to refresh GNOME desktop

killall nautilus

How to refresh GNOME panel

killall gnome-panel


How to enable autosave in Gedit and disable creation of some_file~ files

  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> gedit-2 -> preferences -> editor -> save -> create_backup_copy (Unchecked)
/ -> apps -> gedit-2 -> preferences -> editor -> save -> auto_save (Checked)

How to show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus

  • Places -> Home Folder
  • To temporary show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus
Press 'Ctrl + H'
  • To permanently show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus
Edit Menu -> Preferences
Views Tab -> Default View -> Show hidden and backup files (Checked)

How to browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus

  • To install File Browser (Root)
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nautilus-root.desktop
    • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=File Browser (Root)
Comment=Browse the filesystem with the file manager
Exec=gksudo "nautilus --browser %U"
Icon=file-manager
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;
  • To browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus
    • Applications -> System Tools -> File Browser (Root)

How to install a "View in Terminal" Menu for Nautilus

sudo aptitude install nautilus-open-terminal
  • Nautilus -> Right-click on folder or background -> Open in Terminal

How to change default file type "Open with" program

Right click on file -> Properties
Open With Tab -> Add
Select "Open with" program
Select "Open with" program (Checked)

How to change preferred email client to Mozilla Thunderbird

Mail Reader Tab -> Default Mail Reader -> Command: mozilla-thunderbird %s

How to open files as root user via right click

gedit $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
for uri in $NAUTILUS_SCRIPT_SELECTED_URIS; do
	gksudo "gnome-open $uri" &
done
  • Save the edited file
chmod +x $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root

Right click on file -> Scripts -> Open as root

How to disable beep sound in Terminal mode

Not for Dapper---- firingstone

  • Applications -> Accessories -> Terminal
  • Terminal
Edit Menu -> Current Profile...
General Tab -> General -> Terminal bell (Un-Checked)

How to handle mms protocol in Mozilla Firefox


  • Open your firefox.
  • Type as url: about:config

Now just right click somewhere into the main window. A little box with options to choose will appear. Choose "new", then "string". Then copy the following line into the appearing text field:

network.protocol-handler.app.mms

Into the next text field copy this:

/usr/bin/X11/vlc

Now you do the same thing again, but this time you do not choose "string" but "boolean", and the line to copy is:

network.protocol-handler.external.mms

Then set

true

How to handle rtsp (realmedia) protocol in Mozilla Firefox


  • Open your firefox.
  • Type as url: about:config

Now just right click somewhere into the main window. A little box with options to choose will appear. Choose "new", then "string". Then copy the following line into the appearing text field:

network.protocol-handler.app.rtsp

Into the next text field copy this:

/usr/bin/X11/realplay

Now you do the same thing again, but this time you do not choose "string" but "boolean", and the line to copy is:

network.protocol-handler.external.rtsp

Then set

true

How to load Web site faster in Mozilla Firefox

  • Applications -> Internet -> Firefox Web Browser
  • Mozilla Firefox
Address Bar -> about:config
Filter: ->
network.dns.disableIPv6 -> true
network.http.pipelining -> true
network.http.pipelining.maxrequests -> 8
network.http.proxy.pipelining -> true
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox

How to disable beep sound for link find function in Mozilla Firefox

  • Applications -> Internet -> Firefox Web Browser
  • Mozilla Firefox
Address Bar -> about:config
Filter: -> accessibility.typeaheadfind.enablesound -> false
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox

How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic)

  • Step By Step Synaptic Package Manager Tutorials with Screenshots
  • System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager
  • To enable the extra Universe and Multiverse repositories
    1. Settings -> Repositories
    2. In the Installation Media tab, click Add. There are three separate repositories; Dapper Drake, Security Updates and Updates. Select each repository and check Officially supported, Restricted copyright, Community maintained (Universe) and Non-free (Multiverse). Ensure you click OK between each repository to save your changes
    3. You should now see those three repositories under Channels. Make sure Officially supported, Restricted copyright, Community maintained (Universe) and Non-free (Multiverse) appears under each repository
  • To add backports and PLF (new versions of many applications. Unsupported. May contain illegal packages. Use at own risk.)
    1. Settings -> Repositories
    2. Click on Add and then Custom
    3. Paste the following four lines into the box and click Add Repository, one line at a time:
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy free
deb http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy non-free
deb-src http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy free
deb-src http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy non-free
  • Install the public key for medibuntu using the command below. Having done so you will avoid the NO_PUBKEY 2EBC26B60C5A2783 error when reloading package information.
wget -q http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  • To refresh the list of known packages (equivalent to apt-get update)
Edit Menu -> Reload Package Information
  • To install all possible upgrades (equivalent to aptitude upgrade)
Edit Menu -> Mark All Upgrades... -> Default Upgrade
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
  • To search for a package (equivalent to aptitude search package_name)
Edit Menu -> Search... Specify the package name
  • To install the selected package (equivalent to aptitude install package_name)
Select "package_name"
Package Menu -> Mark for Installation
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
  • To remove installed package (equivalent to aptitude remove package_name)
Select "package_name"
Package Menu -> Mark for Removal
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes

What packages do the extra repositories provide

  • The PLF repository provides
    1. DVD playback support (libdvdcss2)
    2. Skype
    3. Sun Java SDK (Software Development Kit) and JRE (Java Runtime Environment)
    4. Opera Web browser
    5. RealPlayer 10
    6. Win32 binary multimedia codecs

How to install/uninstall .deb files

  • To install .deb file
sudo dpkg -i package_file.deb
  • To uninstall .deb file
sudo dpkg -r package_name

How to find out which version of a package I have installed

dpkg -l packagename

How to convert .rpm files to .deb files

sudo alien -d package_file.rpm

How to compile .deb files from source

  • Read #How to add extra repositories
  • There are various programs available to help automate the process of create .deb files from source. For more information, see the links at the end of this section. A basic well tested method is described here.
  • Install the necessary software to build the source (build-essential may be all that is necessary, though there may be other dependencies) and checkinstall (which creates deb files).
sudo aptitude install checkinstall build-essential
  • In the directory where you have extracted the source, after you have run ./configure and make you can create a .deb file and install it with either of the following commands. The second -D option creates a .deb file in the directory that you can share with others or install without needing the source.
sudo checkinstall

or

sudo checkinstall -D

How to rename all files in directory at once

  • To install "mvb" file name renamer
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/mvb_1.6.tgz
sudo tar zxvf mvb_1.6.tgz -C /usr/share/
sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/mvb_1.6/
sudo ln -fs /usr/share/mvb_1.6/mvb /usr/bin/mvb

  • To rename all files in directory at once
mvb NEW_NAME

How to manipulate all image files in directory at once

sudo aptitude install imagemagick
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/bbips.0.3.2.sh
sudo cp bbips.0.3.2.sh /usr/bin/bbips
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/bbips
  • To manipulate all image files in directory at once
bbips

How to set System-wide Environment Variables

sudo cp -p /etc/profile /etc/profile_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/profile
  • Append the System-wide Environment Variables at the end of file
  • Save the edited file

How to save "man" outputs into files

man command | col -b > file.txt

How to hide GRUB menu on boot-up

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

  • Find this line
...
#hiddenmenu
...
  • Replace with the following line
hiddenmenu
  • Save the edited file

How to change the timeout seconds for GRUB menu on boot-up

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
timeout     3
...
  • Replace with the following line
timeout     X_seconds
  • Save the edited file

How to change default Operating System boot-up for GRUB menu

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
default     0
...
  • Replace with the following line
default     X_sequence
  • Save the edited file

How to display Splash Image for GRUB menu on boot-up

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/ubuntu.xpm.gz
chmod 644 ubuntu.xpm.gz
sudo cp ubuntu.xpm.gz /boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo update-grub

How to convert Wallpaper to Splash Image for GRUB menu

e.g. Assumed that wallpaper.png is the Wallpaper to be converted to Splash Image
splash.xpm.gz is the Splash Image for GRUB menu
ImageMagick is installed
convert -resize 640x480 -colors 14 wallpaper.png splash.xpm && gzip splash.xpm
chmod 644 splash.xpm.gz
sudo cp splash.xpm.gz /boot/grub
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo update-grub

How to display only one kernel on GRUB menu

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup-`date +%F`
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
# howmany=all
...
  • Replace with the following line
# howmany=1

Where 1 means to keep the last kernel, 2 to keep the last 2 kernels, etc. Do not delete the # symbol. The menu will be updated once a new kernel will be updated by the system, not before.

  • Save the edited file

How to force GDM to system beep when login screen ready

  • This is useful on computers where headphones are usually plugged in, allowing them to utilize the speakers for this attention-getting task.
echo foo >> ~/foo.wav
  • System -> Administration -> Login Window -> Accessibility

Now make sure the "Login Screen Ready" check mark is checked. Click on the folder icon and navigate to your home folder and select "foo.wav".

rm foo.wav

The drop down menu should now say "(None)"

How to temporary skip boot-up services

Press 'Ctrl + C'

Clean up Ubuntu GNU/Linux System

How to permanently disable/enable boot-up services

How to clean /tmp/ folder contents on shutdown

sudo cp /etc/init.d/sysklogd /etc/init.d/sysklogd_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/init.d/sysklogd
  • Find this section
...
 stop)
  log_begin_msg "Stopping system log daemon..."
  start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --exec $binpath --pidfile $pidfile
  log_end_msg $?
...
  • Add the following line below it
  rm -fr /tmp/* /tmp/.??*
  • Save the edited file

How to scroll up and down to view previous outputs in Console mode

  • To scroll up to view previously outputs
Press 'Shift + Page Up'
  • To scroll down to view previously outputs
Press 'Shift + Page Down'

How to find out which version of Ubuntu I am using

cat /etc/issue

How to set up (automatic) background/wallpaper-changer application for GNOME

  • To install the script into a different location than your home directory, replace "~" with your path
cd ~
wget http://members.chello.at/horst.jens/files/wallpaperchanger.py
chmod +x wallpaperchanger.py
~/wallpaperchanger.py
gedit ~/.wallpaperchanger/wallpaperchangerconfig.py
  • Edit all the lines not beginning with an "#" according to your needs. Save the file and close gedit.
  • To create an menu entry for wallpaperchanger:
Click the menuitems: Applications -> Accessoires -> Alacarte Menu Editor -> File -> New Entry:
Name: wallpaperchanger
command: ~/wallpaperchanger.py

  • To change desktop background every time you reboot your computer:
Click the menuitems: System -> Preferences -> Session -> Startup Programs -> Add:
~/wallpaperchanger.py

How to set up automatic background change (KDE)

  • Go to K-menu -> System Settings -> Desktop -> Background
  • Choose Slide Show
  • Press Setup...
  • Press Add... to add pictures you wish to see as desktop background
  • Set 'Change picture after' to desired picture rotation interval.
  • Press 'OK'

How to add keyboard layouts for other languages

  • Go to System -> Preferences -> Keyboard
  • Choose Layouts
  • Press Add... to add the secondary keyboard layout. It is simpler to have two layouts; the maximum is currently four for Xorg.
  • Choose Layout Options
  • Expand option Group Shift/Lock behaviour
  • Choose the key combination that enables you to switch between keyboard layouts. The default is by pressing both Alt keys at the same time. A common alternative is to use Alt+Shift.
  • Press Close.

See #How to add the Keyboard (Layout) Indicator applet to add the Keyboard Indicator applet.

How to add keyboard layouts toggle for other languages (Xfce)

  • use *.lst files on /etc/X11/xkb/rules to select 2nd_laguage_code
setxkbmap -option grp:switch,grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll us,2nd_laguage_code
  • you can add it to a startup file, which will be set to be executed on startup, with the following lines (remember to 'chmod +x' the file):
#!/bin/tcsh
setxkbmap -option grp:switch,grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll us,il

How to add the Keyboard (Layout) Indicator applet

  • Right-click on empty space on the top panel so that you see the pop-up menu.
  • Click Add to Panel...
  • Choose Keyboard Indicator (it is under the Utilities section, at the end)

The Keyboard Indicator applet appears on the panel. The default language should be USA for U.S. English. You can either right-click on this applet for more options or see above on how to configure.

How to type extended characters

  • Add the keyboard layout US English International (with dead keys)
  • Make US English International (with dead keys) the default keyboard layout.

The key marked ['"] is now a dead key. When you press it, nothing happens. However if you press another letter key immediately afterwards, the letter appears with an accent.

  • ' + a = á
  • ' + e = é
  • and so on for i-í, o-ó, y-ý, c-ć, z-ź, n-ń, l-ĺ, u-ú, r-ŕ
  • " + a = ä
  • " + e = ë
  • and so on for y-ÿ, u-ü, i-ï, o-ö

Similarly, ` and a letter generates à, è, ù, ì, ò. Similarly, ~ and a letter generates ã, ũ, ĩ, õ, ñ.

To type ' and ", press RightAlt+' and RightAlt+" respectively. To type ' and ", you may also press '+<space> and "+<space> respectively.

There are more characters available by keeping RightAlt pressed and typing a character. Therefore,

  • RightAlt+q = ä
  • RightAlt+w = å
  • RightAlt+e = é
  • RightAlt+r = ®
  • RightAlt+t = þ
  • RightAlt+y = ü
  • RightAlt+u = ú
  • RightAlt+i = í
  • RightAlt+o = ó
  • RightAlt+p = ö
  • RightAlt+[ and ] for « and » respectively.
  • RightAlt+a = á
  • RightAlt+s = ß
  • RightAlt+d = ð
  • RightAlt+l = ø
  • RightAlt+; = ¶
  • RightAlt+: = °
  • RightAlt+z = æ
  • RightAlt+c = ©
  • RightAlt+n = ñ
  • RightAlt+m = µ
  • RightAlt+, = ç
  • RightAlt+/ = ¿
  • RightAlt+1 = ¡
  • RightAlt+2 = ²
  • RightAlt+3 = ³
  • RightAlt+4 = ¤
  • RightAlt+5 = €
  • RightAlt+6 = ¼
  • RightAlt+7 = ½
  • RightAlt+8 = ¾
  • RightAlt+9 = ‘
  • RightAlt+0 = ’
  • RightAlt+- = ¥
  • RightAlt+= = ×
  • RightAlt+! = ¹
  • RightAlt+@, then o = ő (and Ő).
  • RightAlt+#, then a = ā (and Ā). Similarly for ēĒ, ūŪ, īĪ, ōŌ.
  • RightAlt+$ = £
  • RightAlt+% =
  • RightAlt+^ =
  • RightAlt+& =
  • RightAlt+*, then a = ą (and Ą). Similarly for ęĘ, įĮ.
  • RightAlt+(, then a = ă (and Ă)
  • RightAlt+(, then g = ğ (and Ğ)
  • RightAlt+), then a = å (and Å)
  • RightAlt+_ =
  • RightAlt++ = ÷

How to set the Compose key to type special characters

  • Click System, Preferences, Keyboard.
  • Under Layout Options, expand on Compose key position.
  • Choose Right-Win key is compose, click Close.

Now you can type extended characters using the RightWin key (next to AltGr), according to this keyboard settings file. Specifically, the lines that start with GDK_Multi_key are those that we can use here. The Compose key is actually GDK_Multi_key.

Some examples,

  • RightWin + C + = produces €
  • RightWin + = + C produces €
  • RightWin + C + O produces ©
  • RightWin + O + C produces ©
  • RightWin + a + ' produces á
  • RightWin + a + " produces ä
  • RightWin + a + ` produces à
  • RightWin + a + ~ produces ã
  • RightWin + a + * produces å
  • RightWin + a + ^ produces â
  • RightWin + a + > produces â
  • RightWin + a + , produces ą
  • RightWin + e + - produces ē
  • RightWin + S + 1 produces ¹
  • RightWin + S + 2 produces ²
  • RightWin + S + 3 produces ³

How to install ubuntu-title font used in Ubuntu logo

sudo aptitude install ttf-ubuntu-title

Now you can use this font in your favorite applications

How to associate Adobe Reader with files in Nautilus

Now when you double-click on a .pdf file, it will be opened with Adobe Reader.

How to print from Adobe Reader

/usr/bin/lp -d FS-1010

How to pull apart and combine pdf files

sudo aptitude install pdftk
cd
mkdir bin
cd bin
gedit pdftk_burst
  • add the following text to pdftk_burst:
#!/bin/bash
cd ${1%/*}
/usr/bin/pdftk "$1" burst
rm doc_data.txt
  • save and close pdftk_burst
gedit pdftk_cat
  • add the following text to pdftk_cat:
#!/bin/bash
cd ${1%/*}
outfile="00out.pdf"
if [ -f $outfile ] ; then
    rm -f $outfile
fi
/usr/bin/pdftk *.pdf cat output $outfile
  • save and close pdftk_cat
chmod u+x pdftk_burst pdftk_cat
  • open Nautilus (Places -> Desktop) and browse to a .pdf file
  • right-click the .pdf file, select Properties, go to the Open With tab, click Add, click Use a Custom Command, click Browse, browse to pdftk_burst. Do the same with pdftk_cat.

Now, when you right-click on a .pdf file, you'll get two extra options:

  • Open With -> pdftk_burst which will convert a 30 page pdf file to 30 x 1 page pdf files
  • Open With -> pdftk_cat which will join together all the pdf files in the same directory, and create a file called 00out.pdf

Note: this won't work with pdfs with any type of protection - read man pdftk for more command line options.

How to remove jedit when Synaptic package manager fails after install

sudo dpkg --remove --force-depends --force-remove-reinstreq jedit

Now, you can use your Synaptic package manager again.

How to compile a kernel the Ubuntu Way

http://www.howtoforge.com/kernel_compilation_ubuntu

System requests (What to do if your system is unresponsive)

You can "talk" to the kernel directly via system requests: Press "ALT" + "sysreq-key" + "one of the keys" listed below (The sysreq-key is also known as the 'print screen' key):

(Taken from /usr/src/linux/Documentation/sysrq.txt)

  • 'r' - Turns off keyboard raw mode and sets it to XLATE.
  • 'k' - Secure Access Key (SAK) Kills all programs on the current virtual console.
  • 'b' - Will immediately reboot the system without syncing or unmounting your disks.
  • 'c' - Will perform a kexec reboot in order to take a crashdump.
  • 'o' - Will shut your system off (if configured and supported).
  • 's' - Will attempt to sync all mounted filesystems.
  • 'u' - Will attempt to remount all mounted filesystems read-only.
  • 'p' - Will dump the current registers and flags to your console.
  • 't' - Will dump a list of current tasks and their information to your console.
  • 'm' - Will dump current memory info to your console.
  • 'v' - Dumps Voyager SMP processor info to your console.
  • '0'-'9' - Sets the console log level, controlling which kernel messages will be printed to your console. ('0', for example would make it so that only emergency messages like PANICs or OOPSes would make it to your console.)
  • 'f' - Will call oom_kill to kill a memory hog process
  • 'e' - Send a SIGTERM to all processes, except for init.
  • 'i' - Send a SIGKILL to all processes, except for init.
  • 'l' - Send a SIGKILL to all processes, INCLUDING init. (Your system will be non-functional after this.)
  • 'h' - Will display help ( actually any other key than those listed above will display help. but 'h' is easy to remember :-)

Note that you may have to enable system requests. Read "/usr/src/linux/Documentation/sysrq.txt" for details. By default it is enabled though.

How to add locales to Ubuntu the command line way

  • Open up a terminal
  • Generate a /var/lib/locales/supported.d/local from /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED:
cat /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED | grep "en\|ru" > /var/lib/locales/supported.d/local

This example shows all Russian (ru) and English (en) locales being chosen. Look through /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED to find the ones for you, then put them in a list, replacing en\|ru and separating each language with a \| (backslash, bar). If you only want one language, just put it in quotes.

  • Then regenerate all of the locales:
dpkg-reconfigure locales
  • Then set your locale:
update-locale LANG=en_US.UTF-8

In this step, make sure to choose the language and country that you would like your computer to think it is in. Here, I choose en_US, the United States version of English. Once again, look at your /var/lib/locales/supported.d/local or /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED for the one right for you. You may also want to research locales, using the Internet.

That was easy, now the command
lxterm
will open up the Unicode version of xterm or your translated software will display things properly, like vim.

How to set default Terminal App window size

The size for a gnome terminal session can be passed through the geometry parameter, specifying columns and rows like 80x40. The default geometry is 80x25.

  • First way is to add the following parameter to gnome-terminal launcher:
--geometry 100x40
  • Other way is to change this parameter globaly for all gnome-terminal launcher's. Go to /usr/share/applications/gnome-terminal.desktop and edit the EXEC line like this:
Exec=gnome-terminal --geometry=120x30

Using VI editor

A few very simple tricks of using basic but strong unix editor called vi can be found here.

How to play DVD's

  • Step1: Make sure you enable the universe/multiverse repository.
  • Step2: Install the codecs:
sudo aptitude install libdvdnav4 libdvdplay0 libdvdread3
sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/examples/install-css.sh
  • Step3: Use totem-xine instead of the default "totem-gstreamer":
sudo aptitude remove --purge totem totem-gstreamer
sudo aptitude install totem-xine

How to install Gmail Notifier alternative (CheckGmail)

  • Add the following sources to the repository list:
deb http://asher256-repository.tuxfamily.org dapper main dupdate french
deb http://asher256-repository.tuxfamily.org ubuntu main dupdate french
  • Install the application
sudo aptitude install checkgmail
  • Go to 'System/Preferences/Sessions/Startup Programs' and add the following path to start notifier automatically
File:Sessions.png
Sessions windows


File:Add startup program.png
Add startup program window


/usr/bin/checkgmail

After this the program will appear in your notification area.

How to emulate Mac OS X Spotlight (Deskbar)

  • Right click to your panel and select 'Add to panel...'. Now choose 'Deskbar' applet and click 'Add' button.
  • Install 'Beagle' packet to enable data indexing on your computer

How to make Ubuntu look like Mac OS X

  • Detailed instruction can be found here.

How to remove temporary files on shutdown

  • Backup sysklogd file
sudo cp /etc/init.d/sysklogd /etc/init.d/sysklogd_backup
  • Edit sysklogd file
gksudo gedit /etc/init.d/sysklogd
  • After the following lines...
stop)
log_begin_msg "Stopping system log daemon..."
start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --exec $binpath --pidfile $pidfile
log_end_msg $?
  • Add this line:
rm -fr /tmp/* /tmp/.??*

How to tile windows in gnome

First, download the wmtile debian package here.

If you are not running i386, the project's homepage is here.

  • Double click the package and install it.
  • Login as root and browse to /usr/share/tile/
  • Open the rc file in gedit
  • Change the second option to read "multi-desktop netwm"
  • Save the rc file

Now, create a launcher:

  • Right-click on the gnome panel (the taskbar at the top of the screen) and choose "Add to Panel"
  • Select "Custom Application Launcher" and fill in these values:
    • Type: Application
    • Name: Tile Windows Vertically
    • Command: tile -v -w
  • You can also select an icon to use with the launcher.
  • Click "OK"

Now open a couple windows and click your new launcher button to test it. This works great with two or three windows, but it can get a bit strange with more.

If you want to create another launcher that tiles windows horizontally, just follow the same directions, but use the command "tile -h -w"

Backup Ubuntu System

If you want to backup your ubuntu system try one of the following backup tools

Sbackup

Dar and Kdar

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