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Desktop environments

Where to view Ubuntu screenshots / screencast

This is the Gnome based desktop environment, which is the default for Ubuntu.

Where to view Kubuntu screenshots / screencast

This is the KDE based desktop environment. See Kubuntuguide.org.

How to install KDE (Kubuntu)

sudo apt-get install kubuntu-desktop

The system will ask you if you want to use kdm or gdm. gdm is recommended.

System -> Quit -> Log Out
Sessions: KDE

How to uninstall KDE (Kubuntu)

If you used aptitude to install Kubuntu:

sudo aptitude remove kubuntu-desktop

If you did not use that command, then see this tutorial.

Where to view Xubuntu screenshots / screencast

This is the minimalist XFCE based desktop environment. It works best on PCs with minimal memory and/or slow RAM. See Xubuntuguide.org.

How to install XFCE (Xubuntu)

sudo apt-get install xubuntu-desktop

The xubuntu gdm theme will be set as the default.

System -> Quit -> Log Out
Sessions: XFCE

How to uninstall Xfce (Xubuntu)

If you used aptitude to install Xubuntu:

sudo aptitude remove xubuntu-desktop

If you did not use that command, then see this tutorial.

Where to view Ubuntu Studio screenshots

Ubuntu Studio is a desktop environment oriented towards multimedia usage.

Where to view Ubuntu Enlightenment Window Manager screenshots

This is a special-effects oriented desktop environment, with features from both the Gnome and KDE environments.

How to install FluxBox

Fluxbox is a popular minimalist Window Manager. For more info see the Screenshots.

sudo apt-get install fluxbox menu
  • Start Fluxbox from GDM:
echo "exec startfluxbox" > ~/.xinitrc
  • Change the login sound:
sudo apt-get install sox
gksudo gedit ~/.fluxbox/startup

Find this line:

exec /usr/local/bin/fluxbox

Put this above it somewhere:

play /usr/share/sounds/login.wav > /dev/null 2>&1 &

How to install Blackbox

  • Blackbox is a lightweight desktop environment. It is not updated frequently. See the Blackbox Wiki for more info.
sudo apt-get install blackbox menu

How to change the USplash Screen when you boot or shutdown the computer

When you add another Desktop Environment, the USplash screen may change (saying Kubuntu instead of Ubuntu). If you want to change it, do the following:

sudo update-alternatives --config usplash-artwork.so

This will bring up a list of installed USplash screens. Type the number that corresponds to the one you want and press Enter. Then type:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure usplash

Then reboot.

Where to look for style elements for your desktop

How to configure GLSlideshow

  • GLSlideshow is a screensaver that shows your images in a slideshow with smooth panning and fading. To enable it:
  • Feisty doesn't offer a way to edit the directory for the images graphically. To set the image directory create a file called .xscreensaver in your home folder (if it doesn't exist allready) and place the key 'imageDirectory: /path/to/your/pictures' in it. You might also want to add the key 'chooseRandomImages: True'.

If you had a preview running while editing you'll have to reset GLSlideshow by selecting another screensaver and the reselecting it.

cd ~
echo "imageDirectory:	/path/to/your/pictures" >> .xscreensaver
echo "chooseRandomImages:   True" >> .xscreensaver
  • You can edit the behaviour of GLSlideshow using the file /usr/share/applications/screensavers/glslideshow.desktop. Where it (usually) says 'Exec=glslideshow -root' you can set options by adding parameters which control things like how long every image should be shown, how much you want to have it move or how long the transition between pictures should be. GlSlideshow has it's own manpage where all the options can be found (man glslideshow). However, these changes can only be done as root!

And again, if you had preview running it will only show these changes after having selected another screensaver and reselecting

sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/screensavers/glslideshow.desktop
    find the line where it says Exec=glslideshow -root and replace it with something like
Exec=glslideshow -root -duration 16 -pan 6 -fade 6 -zoom 60

Using gksu vs. sudo

Commands (in the command line terminal) that require administrator or root privileges must be preceded by sudo, or the graphical version, gksu. For most uses, the commands are interchangeable and either can be used.

However, there are some subtle differences. Specifically, gksu launches with the root configuration files, while sudo launches with the user's configuration files.

Here is a nice discussion. This discussion recommends gksu for all uses except when a purely command line environment is being used, such as when there is no desktop environment installed. In that case use sudo.

In this guide, both are used. When commands are applicable to both the server-only versions of Ubuntu as well as the desktop versions, sudo is used. However, in a Gnome desktop environment, gksu can usually be substituted.

(Note: gksu is the version of sudo for use in Gnome, the default desktop for Ubuntu. For Kubuntu (KDE) users, use kdesu instead.)

How to run commands in the command line terminal

  • This is for Gnome. Start up the command line terminal:
  • If you do not see the Terminal menu item, then add it to your menu:
Right click Applications-->Edit menus-->Accessories-->Terminal (checked)

3-D Desktops

Compiz / Desktop Effects

  • In Feisty, Compiz has been installed. It is still experimental, though, and many effects do not work for many users.
  • To access some effects from the menu:
System--> Preferences --> Desktop Effects
  • To change the compiz configuration (not recommended at this time):
  • Enable the Configuration Editor menu item:
Right Click Applications-->Edit Menus-->System Tools-->Configuration Editor (checked)
  • Run the Configuration Editor:
Applications-->Edit Menus-->System Tools-->Configuration Editor
apps-->compiz--> ??

OpenCompositing: Beryl and Compiz

Beryl has been discontinued as of March 2007, but is still supported. Beryl and Compiz are being (re-)merged, under the OpenCompositing banner. Visit OpenCompositing.org for more info. Compiz is installed by default in Feisty. A full installation guide with specific instructions for nVidia, ATI, and Intel graphics card can be found at the Compiz documentation site. Instructions for obtaining the newest version are available at Compiz Ubuntu Installation Guide.

  • If compiz is not installed, install it from Synaptic Package Manager or from the command line terminal:
gksudo apt-get install compiz

How to install Compiz Fusion (Universal)



  • If any plugins fail or freeze, Restart X (Ctl+Alt+Backspace) and then disable them from the (System->Preference->CompizConfig Settings Manager). Alternatively, do so by pressing (Alt+F2) and typing "ccsm".
  • If this does not fix the problem, Reboot.
  • You should have 512 MB RAM and an acceptable graphics card.
  • TO check your graphics card, type:

glxinfo | grep direct

in a terminal, and see if it says

direct rendering: Yes

  • Misc: PaintFire is (Super [Windows, Mac Apple Key] + Alt + Mouse, and Super + Alt + C to clear)

--- Background Info: Compiz Fusion is eyecandy that puts Mac OSX and Vista Ultimate to shame.

To start compiz fusion at startup, goto System->Preferences->Settings click "Add" and type "compiz --replace".

The Wikipedia Entry: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compiz_Fusion

The Home Page: http://compiz.org/

Problems: As with all software, there are compatibility issues and freak accidents. This could hurt your computer, fair warning. As a trend though, Compiz Fusion has turned out to be a lot more stable than Beryl or Compiz. I will say that the guide above and Forlong's Blog have been 200% more successful than many others I have followed.

The first problem everyone has is Video. That's fine; http://thedarkmaster.wordpress.com/2007/08/10/solving-video-playback-problems-in-compiz-fusion-beryl/ it includes fixes for Totem/GStreamer, VLC, MPlayer, Xine/Kaffeine etc..

The most annoying problem I've had with Compiz Fusion was it maxing out CPU usage. The problem turned out to be emerald, but that was only after I reinstalled and reconfigured the desktop-effects app as well as all of the compiz files. This guide

(http://forlong.blogage.de/article/2007/8/26/The-best-way-to-install-Compiz-Fusion-on-Ubuntu-Feisty) is much more in-depth comprehensive than the first one that I posted, but requires thinking. It does mention sexy-python, a package for getting cooler buttons. It lets you have more understanding of what is happening and therefore offers more flexibility. If you're not in a hurry, this would be the ideal way to install Compiz Fusion.

OK. If you run into the situation when you know you got all of the right drivers, graphics card, RAM amount, CPU power, and everything else but you still can't get Compiz Fusion to work after searching all of Google and http://ubuntuforums.org; goto Synaptic and search "compiz". Uninstall everything. Search "emerald" and do the same. Follow the above Forlong's blog CAREFULLY again. And if the desktop-effects package is accidentally uninstalled, reinstall it.

A common bug link is posted. This involves no cube and or only one desktop. Read all associated bugs to pinpoint your needs; https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/desktop-effects/+bug/89786.

    • When using Compiz Fusion for the first time, I found it much better to run the "compiz --replace" and the "emerald --replace" commands separately. If this will not work for you, combine them as "compiz --replace -c emerald --replace&"

How to install Beryl (ATI)

Please note: There are 2 ways of installing Beryl for ATI Cards: one using open source modules and one using proprietary modules. Try the open source method first; uninstall steps are listed in case it does not work, or if you would like to try the proprietary drivers instead, afterwards. (They may have better frame rates and may support your card better.)

Install Beryl using Open Source drivers
  • This works on a 64 bit system as well
  • This works with older ATI cards
  • This method uses the open source radeon drivers.
  • This method uses AIGLX. If direct rendering is not working for you yet, rendering will be slow until you can get that up and running.
deb http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/ feisty main 
  • Add the GPG key for the repository and update the packages list:
wget http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/root@lupine.me.uk.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - 
gksudo apt-get update
  • Make a backup copy of your xorg.conf configuration file then edit it:
cp -p /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorgold.conf
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf 

Under "Module" section, make sure that the following lines are included (add them if they are not):

Load "dri"
Load "vbe"
Load "glx"

Make sure these lines are at the end of the file:

Section "DRI"
 Mode 0666
  • Reboot. (Don't restart X only. I had odd things happen to me when I skipped rebooting.)
  • Install the beryl window manager:
gksudo apt-get install beryl beryl-manager
beryl-manager --no-force-window-manager

This will start beryl but wont activate it yet.

  • Change the setup to include AIGLX:
Right click on the diamond near the clock-->Advanced Beryl Options
Window Manager: Metacity(GNOME)
Rendering Path: copy
Advanced-->Change Rendering Platform: AIGLX.
  • Right click the diamond-->Select Window Manager: Beryl

If it all works and you can spin the cube ok, etc., then change the rendering path back to automatic.

If it doesn't work properly, reboot and re-start beryl:

beryl-manager --no-force-window-manager
  • Make Beryl start automatically at boot:
New: beryl-manager


Uninstall Beryl (open source installation)
  • If the open source installation method did not work, revert by following these steps:
Drop to console outside GUI. Type:
rm ~/.config/autostart/beryl-manager.desktop

This removes beryl from startup.

Copy your originally saved xorg.conf file back.
gksudo cp -p /etc/X11/xorgold.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Run the nautilus file browser. Show hidden files. Browse to your user's home directory and delete the .beryl and .emerald folders, and the .beryl-managerrc file.

This can be done from the command line as well:

rm -r ~/.beryl
rm -r ~/.emerald
rm ~/.beryl-managerrc
  • Remove the beryl packages:
gksudo apt-get remove beryl beryl-manager emerald-themes
gksudo apt-get autoremove
  • Remove the repository.
Install Beryl using proprietary FGLRX drivers from ATI
  • The ATI fglrx driver will not support the built-in Compiz features in Ubuntu. Install Xgl to run the new version of Beryl with an ATI card:
gksudo apt-get install xserver-xgl
  • Write a script so Xgl can start on its own:
gksudo gedit /usr/local/bin/startxgl.sh

Enter and save this script information:

Xgl :1 -fullscreen -ac -accel xv:pbuffer -accel glx:pbuffer &
exec dbus-launch --exit-with-session gnome-session

If you are missing your shutdown and restart buttons, use this instead:

Xgl :1 -fullscreen -ac -accel xv:pbuffer -accel glx:pbuffer &
cookie="$(xauth -i nextract - :0 | cut -d ' ' -f 9)"
xauth -i add :1 . "$cookie"
exec dbus-launch --exit-with-session gnome-session
  • Make the script executable:
gksudo chmod a+x /usr/local/bin/startxgl.sh
  • Put in an Xgl option in the GDM login screen:
gksudo gedit /usr/share/xsessions/xgl.desktop

Enter and save this script information:

[Desktop Entry]
Name=GNOME with XGL
  • Make this script executable:
gksudo chmod a+x /usr/share/xsessions/xgl.desktop
  • Disable the universe repositories (these provide Beryl software that is incompatible with the fglrx driver):
System > Administration > Software Sources 
Uncheck Community-maintained Open Source software (universe)
  • Add the correct repository key:
gksudo wget http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/root@lupine.me.uk.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
deb http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/ feisty main
  • Add the GPG key for the repository and update the packages list:
wget http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/root@lupine.me.uk.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - 
gksudo apt-get update
  • Install Beryl:
gksudo apt-get install beryl
  • Install your ATI drivers (if needed):
System > Administration > Restricted Drivers Manager
Enable: ATI graphics card


  • Choosing Xgl from the Sessions list at your login screen. Then test Beryl:
emerald --replace
Right-click on the black diamond next to the clock-->Select Windows Manager: Beryl
Select Windows Decorator: Standard Beryl Decorator (Emerald)
  • If you are using ATI with XGL, you'll may get an error that beryl-xgl is missing. Download beryl-core:
wget http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/pool/feisty/main/0.2.0/beryl-core_0.2.0~0beryl1_i386.deb

Unpack beryl-xgl to ~/Desktop and copy the module to the appropriate directory:

gksudo cp ~/Desktop/beryl-xgl /usr/bin/beryl-xgl
  • If you are having problems with multiple users in XGL,see this thread.
  • Add Beryl and the Emerald themes to your start-up programs:
System > Preferences > Sessions
New-->Name: Beryl
Command: beryl-manager

New-->Name: Emerald Theme
Command: emerald --replace

  • Re-enable your universe repositories, but make sure you do not let it update anything related to Beryl.
How to install Beryl (Nvidia)
  • Back up xorg.conf:
gksudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Install Nvidia Driver for Graphics Card:
System -> Administration -> Restricted Driver Manager
Enable: Nvidia Drivers

Restart X-Windows and confirm Nvidia Drivers are working correctly.

  • Install Beryl:
gksudo apt-get install beryl emerald-themes beryl-manager
  • Start Beryl:
  • Start Emerald (if it doesn't start on its own):
emerald --replace
  • Load Beryl and Emerald automatically load at login:
System -> Preferences -> Sessions
Startup Programs -> New: beryl-manager
Startup Programs -> New: emerald --replace
  • Reboot.
  • If program menus aren't displaying in the correct layer (you can't see them when you select them because they are displaying behind the window):
Right click on the Beryl Manager icon-->Reload Window Manager

The problem should be solved the next time you reboot.

  • If your windows have no title bar (with the minimise, maximise and close buttons) or borders, edit /etc/X11/xorg.conf configuration file:
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Add this line to the Device section:

Option "AddARGBGLXVisuals" "True"

and change the Screen section to:

DefaultDepth 24  

(See this page for more details.)

  • If you are using a NVIDIA GeForceGo graphics card you may also need to add to the Device section of /etc/X11/xorg.conf:
Option "DisableGLXRootClipping" "True"
  • If that still doesn't help then right click on the beryl diamond icon by the clock and select
advanced beryl options-->rendering platform: force AIGLX
What to do if Video players crash while using Beryl
  • See bug 96226
  • You will need to change video driver from xv to x11 in ~/.mplayer/config and gstreamer-properties.
How to fix black windows during video playback
  • There is a workaround to this bug by changing the video output device on your video player to x11/xshm. (Note that this will decrease the quality of the video output and requires a lot more CPU.)
  • For gstreamer-dependent players (Totem, etc.):
Video-->Default Video Plugin: X Window System (No Xv)

Click Test to verify that video playback is working (you should be able to see the standard TV testing colour stripes).

  • For VLC player(if installed):
Video-->Output modules-->Advanced: X11
  • For MPlayer (if installed):
Mplayer-->Right-click on the screen-->Preferences
Video-->Available Drivers: X11 (XImage/Shm)

Some users report that MPlayer may not be able to show videos in full screen.

  • For Xine player (if installed):
experience_level: Master Of The Known Universe
Video-->Driver: xshm 
  • For RealPlayer (if installed):
Hardware-->Deselect: Use XVideo

How to improve sub-pixel font rendering for Feisty
  • This will improve the appearance of fonts.
  • The patched libraries are built against Freetype 2.3.x (not currently in Feisty) and include David Turner's sub-pixel rendering patches.
deb http://www.telemail.fi/mlind/ubuntu feisty fonts
deb-src http://www.telemail.fi/mlind/ubuntu feisty fonts

Add the repository keys:

gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 937215FF
gpg --export --armor 937215FF | sudo apt-key add -
deb http://ubuntu.moshen.de feisty experimental
deb-src http://ubuntu.moshen.de feisty experimental

Add the repository keys:

wget http://ubuntu.moshen.de/2F306651.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -

Note: 25th July 2007 - This repository doesn't work.

  • Install the font packages
gksudo apt-get update
gksudo apt-get install libfreetype6 libcairo2 libxft2
  • Reconfigure font settings. The following settings work well: Native, Automatic, No bitmapped fonts.
gksudo dpkg-reconfigure fontconfig-config
gksudo dpkg-reconfigure fontconfig

Note: If you later decide to go back to Ubuntu packages, you must downgrade all three installed packages. For more info: see here.

How to configure GLSlideshow
  • Create a .xscreensaver file in your home directory:
gksudo gedit .xscreensaver
  • Add this line:
imageDirectory:	/path/to/images/
  • Save it and test the screensaver by locking your screen. You'll see your images, but it will repeat the same one over and over. To fix this, change your glslideshow.desktop configuration file:
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/screensavers/glslideshow.desktop
  • Look for the following entry:
Exec=glslideshow -root
  • Modify this line to instead read:
Exec=glslideshow -root -duration 10 -pan 10 -fade 3
  • Save and try the screensaver again. You should see all of your images in a random-ordered slideshow.
How to install Compiz-Fusion (a Compiz-Beryl fusion)
deb http://download.tuxfamily.org/3v1deb feisty eyecandy
deb-src http://download.tuxfamily.org/3v1deb feisty eyecandy
  • Add the GPG key:
wget http://download.tuxfamily.org/3v1deb/DD800CD9.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - 
  • Reload sources:
gksudo apt-get update
gksudo apt-get -y upgrade
  • Back-up your /etc/X11/xorg.conf file and edit it:
cp -p /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorgold.conf
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf 

Under the Module section "Module", include the following lines, if they are not already there:

Load "dri"
Load "vbe"
Load "glx"

Also ensure the bottom of the file has:

Section "DRI"
 Mode 0666

Reboot the system (Don't restart X only. This gives problems).

  • Install Compiz for Gnome:
gksudo apt-get -y install compiz compiz-gnome compizconfig-settings-manager compiz-fusion-plugins-extra libcompizconfig-backend-gconf


Install Compiz for KDE:

gksudo apt-get -y install compiz compiz-kde compizconfig-settings-manager compiz-fusion-plugins-extra libcompizconfig-backend-kconfig
  • Run Compiz:
compiz --replace
How to install Compiz (Nvidia)

Project Looking Glass

This is a 3-D window manager based on Java technology.

Updates and Upgrades

Upgrade Ubuntu Edgy to Ubuntu Feisty

  • Method 1:
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • Method 2:

Upgrade from Dapper Drake to Edgy Eft to Feisty Fawn

  • Method 1: System-->Administration-->Update Manager. You can upgrade from Dapper to Edgy. Once you have done the upgrade to Edgy, then repeat the process to upgrade from Edgy to Feisty. Do not upgrade directly from Dapper to Feisty -- your system will fry (the fried feisty fawn OS).
  • Method 2: Read Upgrade from Ubuntu Dapper or Edgy to Feisty Fawn

Enable automatic updates

  • Enable automatic updates from the menu:
System-->Administration-->Software Sources-->Updates

Select Important Security Updates and Recommended Security Updates and any other desired updates. Choose frequency of updates.

How to manually update Ubuntu

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • From the menu:
System -> Administration -> Update Manager

Adding new programs

How to add extra repositories

Using menus

  • Choose distribution-friendly repositories. These are part of the Ubuntu distribution system. This is the recommended method.
System-->Administration-->Software Sources

Check the repositories you think you will need (main, universe, restricted, multiverse). You probably won't need the 'sources' repository.

  • Add any third-party repositories. Such repositories are not monitored in any way. Some are quite popular, however. Use any third-party repository at your own risk.
System-->Administration-->Software Sources-->Third-party software-->Add

Add the name of your repository. In this example, we will use Medibuntu, a popular third-party repository not affiliated with Ubuntu in any way.

APT line: deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ feisty free non-free
  • Download any needed gpg keys and add them to the keylist. This key verifies the repository to your system. The Medibuntu repository (not affiliated with Ubuntu) example is shown:
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -

Manually edit sources.list

  • Manual updates are at your own risk. Mixing incompatible repositories can break your system.
  • Create a backup of your current list of sources, overwriting any previous backup.
sudo cp -i /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
  • Use a text editor (gedit or nano) to edit the sources list:
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Edit the repositories in the sources.list similar to this template:
To use your local mirror you can add "cc." before archive.ubuntu.com, where cc = your country code
e.g. deb http://lv.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu feisty main restricted universe multiverse
## See http://help.ubuntu.com/community/UpgradeNotes for how to upgrade to
## newer versions of the distribution.

## Add comments (##) in front of any line to remove it from being checked.   
## Use the following sources.list at your own risk.  

## Uncomment deb-src if you wish to download the source packages

## If you have a install CD you can add it to the reposity using 'apt-cdrom add'
## which will add a line similar to the following:
#deb cdrom:[Ubuntu 7.04 _Feisty Fawn_ - Beta i386 (20070322.1)]/ feisty main restricted
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ feisty main restricted
#deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ feisty main restricted

## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
## distribution.
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ feisty-updates main restricted
#deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ feisty-updates main restricted

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
## universe WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu security
## team.
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ feisty universe
#deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ feisty universe

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
## multiverse WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu
## security team.
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ feisty multiverse
#deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ feisty multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'backports'
## repository.
## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as
## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes
## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features.
## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review
## or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ feisty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
#deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ feisty-backports main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu feisty-security main restricted
#deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu feisty-security main restricted
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu feisty-security universe
#deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu feisty-security universe
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu feisty-security multiverse
#deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu feisty-security multiverse

## PLF REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
## Medibuntu - Ubuntu 7.04 "feisty fawn"
## Please report any bug on https://launchpad.net/products/medibuntu/+bugs
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ feisty free non-free
#deb-src http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ feisty free non-free

## CANONICAL COMMERCIAL REPOSITORY (Hosted on Canonical servers, not Ubuntu
## servers. RealPlayer10, Opera, DesktopSecure and more to come.) 
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu feisty-commercial main

## enlightenment e17 beta, use at your own risk
## E17 is in Beta and may break or break your system
#deb http://edevelop.org/pkg-e/ubuntu feisty e17
#deb http://e17.dunnewind.net/ubuntu feisty e17
#deb-src http://edevelop.org/pkg-e/ubuntu feisty e17

  • Download any needed gpg keys and add them to the keylist. The Medibuntu repository (not affiliated with Ubuntu) example is shown:
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -

Here is another example using the Enlightenment repository (not affiliated with Ubuntu):

wget -q http://lut1n.ifrance.com/repo_key.asc -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  • Refresh packages list:
sudo apt-get update

Adding a CD-ROM or DVD repository

  • How to add the (k)ubuntu CD or DVD as a repository for sources.list

Insert the CD or DVD and in the terminal write:

sudo apt-cdrom add

Adding programs from the GUI menu

Add/Remove Programs

Using the Add/Remove feature is very easy and it will not damage your Ubuntu installation.

  • Search for the sort of program you want to add. Example: type MP3 to see a list of mp3 software.
  • Check the box next to the software.
  • Click the "Apply" button.
  • It will show you a list of the software packages that it will install. Click OK.

Synaptic Package Manager

Synaptic Package Manager provides access to many more programs and modules than does Add/Remove programs. It installs programs with their associated dependencies, and does so with a very usable GUI interface. It is the standard method of adding packages in Ubuntu.

System-->Administration-->Synaptic Package Manager
  • Search for the sort of program you want to add. Example: type MP3 to see a list of mp3 software.
  • Check the box next to the software.
  • Click the "Apply" button.
  • It will show you a list of the software packages that it will install. Click OK.


Warning: Automatix2 is a proprietary script that tries to install some software, and is known to fail and break systems. The Ubuntu community WILL NOT provide support for it, and strongly discourages its use. Problems caused by Automatix are often hard to track and solve, and it may result in having to reinstall your entire Ubuntu system. Ubuntu/debian developers have reviewed automatix and found it to be quite dangerous. See the review here. Use Automatix at your own risk.

Some users report successful use when installing it right after a fresh install of Ubuntu, with no Adept or Synaptic package update, or any other software installed. The apt-get method may be less prone to mishaps, but use at your own risk.

Obtain the latest package here.

  • For normal (i386) systems, get this package:
  • Install with this command:
sudo dpkg -i automatix2_1.1-4.7-7.04feisty_i386.deb
  • For amd64 systems, get this package:
  • Install with this command:
sudo dpkg -i automatix2_1.1-4.6-7.04feisty_amd64.deb
  • Automatix2 is available in Applications > System Tools > Automatix
Install Automatix using apt (alternate method)
echo "deb http://www.getautomatix.com/apt feisty main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
wget http://www.getautomatix.com/keys/automatix2.key
gpg --import automatix2.key
gpg --export --armor E23C5FC3 | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install automatix2

Add programs from a command-line menuing program

Some users do not have a desktop environment but desire a menu for installing programs. They can access a menu by typing from the command-line:


They can then choose programs from their repositories.

Add programs from the command line

Command line users who do not use aptitiude can enter commands directly using apt-get. This is the most common method for installing Linux programs from the command line. Most program installation/removal must be done with root user privileges, so sudo (or gksudo) must be entered first:

sudo apt-get install <packagename>

Removal commands are similar:

sudo apt-get remove <package-name>

Incompletely installed packages can be repaired:

sudo apt-get install <package-name> --reinstall

For more info see the official APT guide here.

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