Ubuntu:Jaunty bg

From

Jump to: navigation, search

Ubuntuguide преведен на български от Google

Ако само част от страницата е преведена, щракнете върху бутона Презареждане (Refresh) на Вашия браузер.

Kubuntu?
Как да използвате KDE-базираното Kubuntu?
Отидете на правилното ръководство
Създаване на Заявки
Можете да поставите вашите заявки в
секцията за заявки на ръководството.


Image:Ubuntuguide_logo.png

Ubuntu 9.04 (Jaunty Jackalope)

превод и поддръжка: Илиан Гонгалов

  • e-mail: gongalov71_at_google_dot_com

Това ръководство беше започнато от Chua Wen Kiat (Куала Лумпур, Малайзия) и сега се поддържа от Linux-центъра на Латвийския университет.

Моля помогнете да тестваме и подобрим това ръководство. За да редактирате страници, трябва да се регистрирате.

За Jaunty

  • На 23 април 2009 излезе Ubuntu 9,04.
  • Кодовото му име е Jaunty Jackalope и е наследник на Ubuntu 8.10 Intrepid Ibex (Intrepid+1).
  • Jaunty Jackalope НЕ е рилийз с дълготрайна поддръжка (LTS, Long Term Support). Тя ще бъде поддържана с актуализации за сигурност до октомври 2010 година.


Contents


Увод

Как да разберете коя версия на Ubuntu използвате

В терминал напишете:

lsb_release -a

Как да разберете версията на вашия Kernel

uname -r

По-нови версии на Ubuntu

  • Ubuntu има шестмесечен цикъл на издаване, с нови версии през април и октомври.
  • Следващата версия, Karmic Koala (9.10), се планира да излезе през октомври 2009. Това няма да бъде версия с дълготрайна поддръжка (LTS).
  • Версия (10.04 LTS), която трябва да излезе през април 2010, ще бъде следващата версия с дълготрайна поддръжка (LTS, Long-term support).

По-стари версии на Ubuntu

  • Intrepid Ibex (8.10) (поддръжка до април 2010 г.)
  • Hardy Heron (8.04 LTS) (Long Term Support версия с поддръжка за desktop варианта до април 2011 г. и за server варианта до април 2013 г.)
  • Gutsy Gibbon (7.10) (вече не се поддържа)
  • Feisty Fawn (7.04) (вече не се поддържа)
  • Dapper Drake (6.06 LTS) (Long Term Support версия с поддръжка за desktop варианта до юни 2009 г. и за server варианта до юни 2011 г.)

Общи бележки

  • Ubuntuguide е неофициално и не е свързано с Canonical Ltd.
Текстът в сиво пунктирано поле като този трябва да бъде написан в Терминал (Програми -> Помощни програми -> Терминал).
  • 'sudo' дава права на Администратор (напр. при инсталиране на програми или извършване на промени в системата). Пример
sudo bash
  • 'gksudo' трябва да се използва вместо 'sudo', когато отваряте графични приложения чрез диалоговия прозорец "Стартиране на програма". Пример:
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Командата "man" може да се използва за получаване на помощ за дадена команда. Например "man sudo" ще покаже страницата с наръчника за командата "sudo". Пример:
man sudo
  • Докато "apt-get" и "aptitude" са бързи начини за инсталиране на програми/пакети, можете да използвате и Пакетния мениджър Synaptic, метод за инсталиране на програми/пакети чрез ГПИ. Повечето (но не всички) програми/пакети, достъпни за инсталиране чрез командата apt-get install, ще бъдат на разположение също и от Пакетния мениджър Synaptic. В това ръководство, когато видите
sudo apt-get install пакет

можете да търсите пакет в Synaptic и да го инсталирате по този начин.

  • "Програми" означава "долния ляв (или горния ляв) бутон, близък до Старт бутона на Microsoft Windows ®.
  • Ако използвате 64-битова версия, заменете всички "i386" с "amd64"

Инсталиране на Ubuntu

Хардуерни изисквания

Ubuntu Jaunty Jackalope работи добре с около 384 Mb RAM. (Инсталиращата програма изисква минимум 256 MB RAM, а алтернативният инсталатор може да работи, като се използват само 192 Mb RAM.) Нетбук компютри също могат да работят с Ubuntu Jaunty Jackalope.

Инсталацията отнема между 3 и 4 Gb пространство на твърдия диск, а за комфортна работа ще са Ви нужни 8 - 10 Gb.

Ако имате стар компютър с по-малко памет, от посочената, помислете за Xubuntu (ако е между 256 MB и 512 MB RAM) или за PuppyLinux или DamnSmallLinux (ако паметта е по-малко от 256 Mb RAM).

Свежа Инсталация

Свалете най-новия ISO образ от Ubuntu 9.04. Вижте това ръководство за записване на ISO образи върху CD.

Използвайте диска за да инсталирате.

Двойно начално зареждане на Windows и Ubuntu

В редки случаи, потребителят може да изпита проблеми с двойното зареждане на Ubuntu и Windows. Като цяло, ОС Windows следва да бъде инсталирана на първо място, защото буутлоудърът й е много специален. Инсталацията на Windows обикновено заема целия твърд диск, така че дялът трябва да бъде свит, за да се отвори място за дяла с Ubuntu. (Преди да преоразмерявате диска трябва да почистите ненужните файлове и да дефрагментирате дяла.) Във Windows Vista дялът с Windows може да бъде преоразмерен, като използвате опцията shrink/resize в инструмента Administrative Tools --> Disk Management. Ако ползвате Windows XP (или друга версия на ОС Windows), използвайте GParted partition manager, за да свиете дяла на Windows и така да освободите място на твърдия диск за дяла с Ubuntu. Ако следвате тези инструкции, няма да имате проблем с инсталирането на Ubuntu като втора операционна система и това ще стане автоматично през живия диск на Ubuntu. Разрешете на живия диск на Ubuntu да инсталира върху "най-голямото свободно пространство."

Дялът с Windows трябва да бъде не по-малък от 20 Gb (препоръчително 30 Gb), а дялът с Ubuntu - най-малко 10 Gb (препоръчително 20 Gb). Obviously, ако разполагате с достатъчно дисково място, направете по-голям дяла на любимата си операционна система. За други варианти нао разделяне на диска вижте Psychocats Guide to Partitioning.

Алтернативните варианти включват:

  • Wubi (Windows-based Ubuntu Installer, базиран на Windows инсталатор на Ubuntu), официално поддържан инсталатор на двойно зареждане, който позволява да пуснете Ubuntu във виртуална машина в среда на Windows (което може да причини леко понижение на производителността). Тъй като инсталацията изисква прясно инсталирана Windows система, препоръчително е да инсталирате Ubuntu по този начин само за проба. Пълната инсталация на Ubuntu следва да сде направи на отделен дял, с нейна собствена файлова система, и не трябва да разчита на Windows.
  • EasyBCD, безплатна програма за Windows, която позволява да правите двойно зареждане на Windows Vista и Ubuntu (а също и на други операционни системи) чрез конфигуриране на буутлоудъра на Vista.

Използвайте Startup Manager, за да промените настройките на Grub

Grub е инструмент за настройка на първоначалното зареждаен, който контролира коя ОС да се зарежда по подразбиране и други настройки на зареждането. Можете да променяте настройките на Grub от Startup Manager:

Система -> Администриране -> Startup Manager

Ако нямате инсталиран Startup Manager, инсталирайте го:

sudo apt-get install startupmanager
Забележка: Можете също така да редактирате настройките на Grub ръчно от команден ред.

Двойно зареждане на Mac OS X и Ubuntu

Mac OS X има подобна на Linux структура (базирана е на BSD Unix). Подробни инструкции за осъществяване на двойно зареждане на Mac OS X и Ubuntu ще намерите тук.

Инсталиране на Mac OS X след Ubuntu
  • Ако решите да правите двойно зареждане с OS X, то по време на инсталирането на Ubuntu изберете тип на файловата система ext2 . (Много полезен инструмент за тази цел е Super Grub Disk CD. Можете да свалите Super Grub .iso-образа от forjamari.linex.org и да го запишете на CD-ROM.)
  • След като вече сте инсталирали Ubuntu, редактирайте стартовия списък на Grub:
sudo nano /boot/grub/menu.lst
и добавете следните редове:
title Mac OS X
root (hd0,0)
makeactive
chainloader +1

Рестартирайте вашия Mac и отворете терминал в Mac OS X (ако имате някакви проблеми със зареждането, заредете от вашето Mac OS X DVD). Натиснете F8 и въведете -s. Напишете:

fdisk -e /dev/rdisk0
flag 2 <--note that flag 2 is my Mac partition number two
quit
y
reboot
  • Ако все още не сте сигурни, че всичко работи правилно, използвайте Super Grub Disk CD и активирайте grub.
Инсталиране на Ubuntu след Mac OS X
  • Ако видите съобщение за грешка по време на зареждане, като напр. HFS+грешка в bootloader, също можете да използвате Super Grub Disk за възстановяване на Linux GRUB и на Windows MBR (Master Boot Record).
  • След като вече сте инсталирали Ubuntu, редактирайте стартовия списък на Grub:
sudo nano /boot/grub/menu.lst
и добавете следните редове:
title Mac OS X
root (hd0,0)
makeactive
chainloader +1
Ако имате проблеми с Mac OSX или Windows в GRUB, опитайте да промените записа на Mac OS X в Grub
сменете root (hd0,0) на root (hd0,1)

Това означава, че ще заредите от дял номер 1. Можете да променяте номерата на дяловете, докато намерите подходящия.

За повече информация вижте Mac OS X and Linux guide.

Надграждане на Intrepid до Jaunty

Ако използвате по-стара версия на Ubuntu, може да решите да я надградите до Jaunty. За предотвратяване на софтуерни сривове се препоръчва да направите нова инсталация.

  • Можете да направите надграждане на дистрибуцията като в Synaptic използвате опцията"Full Upgrade."
  • Или като използвате update-manager (всички версии):
sudo apt-get install update-manager
sudo update-manager -d
  • Можете също да напишете в конзолата:
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

Снимки от процеса на надграждане можете да намерите на адрес UbuntuGeek upgrade guide.

Преинсталиране на приложения след нова инсталация

Ако надграждате вашата система с Ubuntu чрез нова инсталация, е възможно да маркирате пакетите и услугите, които са инсталирани на старата ви система (преди надграждането) и да запазите настройките ("маркировките")във файл. След това инсталирайте новата версия на Ubuntu и разрешете на системата да преинсталира пакетите и услугите, като използва настройките, запазени във файла с "маркировките". За инструкции вижте тази тема от форума на Ubuntu. Накратко:

  • На старата система: Synaptic Package Manager -> File -> Save Markings
  • Запазете файла с маркировките на преносим носител, като напр. USB флашка.
  • Завършете резервното копиране на другите важни файлове на компютъра ви (напр. на директорията /home) преди да започнете инсталирането на новата система.
  • На новата система, отново отворете Synaptic Package Manager -> File -> Read markings и заредете предварително запазения файл от вашата USB флашка (или друг външен носител).

Note: Много пакети, зависимости и съвместимости се променят между версиите на Ubuntu, така че този метод не винаги работи. Автоматичните актуализации си остават препоръчителен метод.

Ресурси за Ubuntu

Проектът Gnome

  • Gnome е работният плот по подразбиране в Ubuntu.

Снимки и Screencast-ове на Ubuntu

Има стари снимки, които можете да намерите в:

Нуждаем се от нови снимки на 9.04 Jaunty Jackalope

Ресурси от нови програми

  • GetDeb - Съдържа най-новите версии на програмите, достъпни от официалните софтуерни хранилища, а също и софтуер, който го няма в официалните хранилища. Предлагат се във вид на лесни за инсталиране .deb файлове (вижте Apt and Package Basics).
  • Топ 100 на програми с отворен код

Други *buntu ръководства и наръчници

Добавяне на допълнителни хранилища за Ubuntu

Софтуерните пакети и програми са достъпни за свободно сваляне на много сайтове със стандартизирана структура, наречени хранилища. Има хранилища, официално наблюдавани и поддържани от общността на Kubuntu/Ubuntu разработчиците, докато други хранилища са независими, без официална поддръжка или наблюдение (и трябва да бъдат използвани внимателно). Допълнителна информация можете да намерите в Ръководството за хранилищата на Ubuntu.

Типове хранилища

  • В Ubuntu има четири основни вида хранилища за пакети:
  • main - Поддържано от Canonical. Това е основната част от дистрибуцията.
  • restricted - Софтуер, който не е лицензиран под GPL (или подобен софтуерен лиценз), но се поддържа от Canonical.
  • universe - Софтуер, лицензиран под GPL (или подобен лиценз) и поддържан от потребителите.
  • multiverse - Софтуер, нелицензиран под GPL (или подобен лиценз), но поддържан от потребителите.
  • Съществуват също следните допълнителни типове хранилища:
  • jaunty-updates - Обновления за официалните пакети.
  • jaunty-backports - Актуална версия на софтуера от Jaunty+1 (Karmic), която е била пригодена за Jaunty Jackalope.
  • jaunty-proposed - Предложения за обновявания и промени (bleeding edge stuff).

Хранилища на софтуер от трети страни

Разработчиците на софтуер често поддържат техни собствени хранилища, софтуерните пакети от които могат да бъдат свалени и инсталирани директно на вашия компютър (ако добавите хранилището към списъка си). Много от тези хранилища и софтуерни пакети никога не са били преглеждани от общността на (K)Ubuntu/Debian и могат да бъдат рискови за сигурността на вашия компютър. В тези нерегулирани хранилища може да има троянски коне, backdoors, и друг зловреден софтуер. Когато използвате хранилища, not endorsed от (K)ubuntu/Debian общността, уверете се, че имате пълно доверие на този сайт преди да активирате хранилища и да инсталирате софтуерен пакет от него.

Добавяне на хранилища с помощта на Пакетния мениджър Synaptic

Това е препоръчителният метод.

  • System -> Administration -> Synaptic Manager -> Settings -> Repositories.
  • Оттук можете да активирате хранилища за Ubuntu Software и Софтуер от трети страни.
  • За Софтуер от трети страни изберете Добавяне -> въведете адреса на хранилището. Той ще има подобен формат:
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty main restricted
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty main restricted
  • Пример: За да добавите хранилището на Medibuntu , добавете:
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ jaunty free non-free
  • Свалете ключа на хранилището н някаква папка.
  • Пример: Ключът за хранилището на Medibuntu може да бъде свален от
http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg
  • След това добавете ключа от:
System -> Administration -> Synaptic Manager -> Settings -> Repositories -> Authentication -> Import Key File...
  • Опреснете списъка с пакетите от новото хранилище:
Synaptic -> Reload

Ръчно добавяне на хранилища

  • Правете това само на ваш риск. Променяйте Ubuntu sources.list само акоразбирате какво точно правите. Смесването на хранилища може да счупи Вашата система. За повече информация вижте Ubuntu Command-line Repository guide.
  • Направете си резервно копие на текущия списък с хранилища.
sudo cp -p /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup

Забележка: sudo - изпълнява командата с права на администратор. cp = copy (копиране). -p = изписва предупреждение, че ако такъв файл съществува, ще бъде презаписан.

  • Редактирайте списъка с хранилища в конзолен редактор:
sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list
или използвайте за целта графичен редактор:
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Забележка: За да използвате Вашия локален огледален сървър можете да добавите "xx." преди archive.ubuntu.com, където xx = кодът на Вашата страна.
Пример: deb http://bg.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty main restricted universe multiverse сочи към хранилището за България (bg).
  • Ето един примерен sources.list. В края му са добавени хранилищата за Medibuntu и Google:
#deb cdrom:[Ubuntu 8.10 _Jaunty Jackalope_ - Release i386 (20081029.1)]/ jaunty main restricted
# See http://help.ubuntu.com/community/UpgradeNotes for how to upgrade to
# newer versions of the distribution.

deb http://bg.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty main restricted
deb-src http://bg.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty main restricted

## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
## distribution.
deb http://bg.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates main restricted
deb-src http://bg.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates main restricted

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team. Also, please note that software in universe WILL NOT receive any
## review or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://bg.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty universe
deb-src http://bg.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty universe
deb http://bg.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates universe
deb-src http://bg.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates universe

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu 
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to 
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in 
## multiverse WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu
## security team.
deb http://bg.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty multiverse
deb-src http://bg.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty multiverse
deb http://bg.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates multiverse
deb-src http://bg.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'backports'
## repository.
## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as
## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes
## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features.
## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review
## or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://bg.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://bg.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical's
## 'partner' repository. This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is
## offered by Canonical and the respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu
## users.
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu jaunty partner
deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu jaunty partner

deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty-security main restricted
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty-security main restricted
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty-security universe
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty-security universe
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty-security multiverse
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty-security multiverse

## Medibuntu - Ubuntu 8.10 "jaunty jackalope"
## Please report any bug on https://bugs.launchpad.net/medibuntu/
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ jaunty free non-free
deb-src http://packages.medibuntu.org/ jaunty free non-free

# Google software repository
deb http://dl.google.com/linux/deb/ stable non-free

  • Опреснете списъка с пакети от новите хранилища:
sudo apt-get update

Добавяне на ключове за хранилища

  • Свалете gpg ключовете за хранилищата и ги добавете автоматично към Вашия keyring:
  • Пример: За да придобиете и добавите ключа за хранилището на Medibuntu:
wget --quiet http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O - | sudo apt-key add -
  • Пример: За да придобиете и добавите ключа за хранилището на Google:
wget --quiet https://dl-ssl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub -O - | sudo apt-key add -

Забележка: wget - сваля ключа от местоположението му в мрежата. --quiet = без изход. -O = изход на сваления елемент (ключа) в терминал. Символът | (pipe symbol) се използва за вземане на изхода от предходната команда (в нашия случай от екрана) и го използва като вход за the piped command (напр. apt-key, която го добавя към the keyring).

Ubuntu Package Installation and Updates

Apt and Package Basics

Most new users will use the Synaptic Package Manager to install packages. These instructions are for installing packages from the command-line Terminal. Terminal can be started:

Applications -> Accessories -> Terminal
  • Install packages:
sudo apt-get install packagename
  • Example:
sudo apt-get install mpd sbackup
  • Remove packages:
sudo apt-get remove packagename
  • To remove all dependencies:
sudo apt-get autoremove
  • Example:
sudo apt-get remove mpd sbackup
  • Search for packages:
apt-cache search <keywords>
  • Examples:
apt-cache search Music MP3
apt-cache search "Text Editor"
sudo apt-get update
  • Upgrade packages:
sudo apt-get upgrade
  • Upgrade the entire distribution (e.g. from Intrepid to Jaunty):
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

Installing .deb packages

Debian (.deb) packages are the packages that are used in Ubuntu. You can install any .deb package in your system. .deb files can generally be installed from your file manager (Nautilus) merely by clicking on them, since file associations with the default installer is already set in Ubuntu. These instructions are for those who wish to install packages from the command-line terminal (Terminal).

  • Install a downloaded Debian (Ubuntu) package (.deb):
sudo dpkg -i packagename.deb
  • Remove a Debian (Ubuntu) package (.deb):
sudo dpkg -r packagename
  • Reconfigure/Repair an installed Debian (Ubuntu) package (.deb):
sudo dpkg-reconfigure packagename
*Example:
sudo dpkg-reconfigure mpd

Handling (Tar/GZip) and (Tar/Bzip2) archives

(Tar/GZip) archives end in ".tar.gz" and (Tar/Bzip2) archives end in ".tar.bz2". Bzip2 is the newer, more efficient compression method. These files can generally be automatically extracted by merely clicking on them from your file manager (Nautilus), since file associations with the appropriate archival utilities are set by default in Ubuntu. These instructions are for those who wish to use the command line Terminal.

  • To extract:
tar xvf packagename.tar.gz

Note: tar is an application which can extract files from an archive, decompressing if necessary.

-x means extract.
-v means verbose (list what it is extracting).
-f specifies the file to use.
  • Decompressing ".gz" files
gunzip file.gz
  • Decompressing ".bz2" files
bunzip2 file.bz2
Note: You can also decompress a package first by using the command gunzip (for .gz) or bunzip2 (for .bz2), leaving the .tar file. You would then use tar to extract it.
  • To create a .gz archive:
tar cvfz packagename.tar.gz folder
  • To create a .bz2 archive:
tar cvfj packagename.tar.bz2 folder

Installing a package from source

  • Make sure you have all the necessary development tools (i.e. libraries, compilers, headers):
sudo apt-get install build-essential
sudo apt-get install linux-headers-`uname -r`
Note: "uname -r" lists the current kernel you are using
  • Extract the archive that contains the source files:
tar xvf sourcefilesarchive.tar.gz
  • Build the package using the package's script (in this case the configure script), compile the package (make), and install the compiled package into your system (make install):
cd /path/to/extracted/sourcefiles
./configure
sudo make
sudo make install
Note: typing ./ before a filename in the current folder allows the Linux shell to try and execute the file as an application even if it is not in the path (the set of folders which it searches when you type a command name). If you get a "permission denied" error, the file is not marked as being executable. To fix this:
sudo chmod +x filename
Example: In the above instructions, configure is the shell script to build the package from source. To be sure the configure script is executable:
sudo chmod +x configure
Create a .deb package from source files

If your build from source is successful, you can make a Debian (Ubuntu) package (.deb) for future use:

  • Install package tools:
sudo apt-get install checkinstall
  • Rebuild package using "checkinstall":
cd /path/to/extracted/package
./configure
sudo make
sudo checkinstall
  • Keep the resulting ".deb" file for future use. It can later be installed using:
sudo dpkg -i packagename.deb

Note: These are basic instructions that may not always work. Some packages require additional dependencies and optional parameters to be specified in order to build them successfully.

Aptitude

Aptitude is a terminal-based package manager that can be used instead of apt-get. Aptitude marks packages that are automatically installed and removes them when no packages depend on them. This makes it easy to remove applications completely. To use Aptitude, replace apt-get with aptitude in the command line. Example:

sudo aptitude install packagename
sudo aptitude remove packagename
sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude upgrade

For an ncurses-based graphical user interface, type

sudo aptitude

For more information, see the aptitude documentation.

Synaptic Package Manager

While "apt-get" and "aptitude" are fast ways of installing programs/packages, you can also use the Synaptic Package Manager (System -> Administration -> Synaptic Manager), a GUI method for installing programs/packages. Most (but not all) programs/packages available with apt-get install will also be available from the Synaptic Package Manager. This is the preferred method for most desktop users. In this guide, when you see

sudo apt-get install package

you can simply search for package in Synaptic and install it that way.

  • System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager
  • Search for the name of the program/package. You can also search for a word in its description.
  • Check the box "Mark for Installation"
  • Click the "Apply" button.
  • The selected program(s) will be automatically installed, along with its dependencies.

Add/Remove Programs

Not all packages available from apt-get, aptitude, and Synaptic Package Manager are available in Add/Remove Programs. However, it is the easiest interface for new users of Ubuntu and directs them to preferred packages.

  • Applications -> Add/Remove Programs
  • Search for the sort of program you want to add. Example: type MP3 to see a list of mp3 software.
  • Check the box "Mark for Installation"
  • Click the "Apply" button.
  • The selected program(s) will be automatically installed.

Manual Updates

  • Manually, from Terminal (command line interface):
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
or
  • Use Synaptic Package Manager:
System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager -> "Reload" then "Mark all upgrades"
If there are packages available for updating, you will be prompted whether to install them.

Automated Updates

  • Use Synaptic Package Manager:
  • System -> Administration -> Synaptic Manager -> Settings -> Preferences -> General -> Reloading Outdated Package Information -> Automatic

Ubuntu Addon Applications

See our full list of add-on applications.

Eye Candy Applications

Eye Candy Applications refer to the decoration of the graphical user interface. These can be add-on icons, themes, wallpapers, 3-D effects, etc.

Gnome Eye-Candy Resources

  • Gnome Look has wallpapers, splash screens, icons, and themes for windows managers (including Metacity and Compiz) and other applications.

Metacity

Metacity is the default desktop compositing manager in Gnome. It is lightweight, streamlined and does not have many configurable options, but has multiple themes available at Gnome Look.

Compiz Fusion

Compiz Fusion is available as a separate Windows Manager, to allow advanced desktop effects such as the rotating cube desktop. Many Ubuntu users choose to run Compiz, which is quite fast in Ubuntu. Install:

sudo apt-get install compiz compizconfig-settings-manager compiz-fusion-plugins-main compiz-fusion-plugins-extra emerald librsvg2-common

To change to Compiz as the Window Manager:

Note: You must logout and log back in for the change to take effect.

  • Select Compiz Configuration:
System -> Preferences -> CompizConfig Settings Manager

Fusion Icon

Fusion Icon is a tray icon that allows you to easily switch between window managers, window decorators, and gives you quick access to the Settings Manager. This allows quick toggling of 3-D desktop effects (that may not be compatible with some applications).

sudo apt-get install fusion-icon


Applications -> System Tools -> Compiz Fusion Icon

You can then easily access CompizConfig Settings Manager from the icon.

Rotate the Compiz Cube

Set the CompizConfig Settings Manager to enable the "Desktop Cube" and "Rotate Cube" and "Viewport Switcher" options. Click on the icon for each to customize settings. For example, to change the appearance of the cube, click on the Desktop Cube icon to access its settings. You can set the hotkey buttons for rotating the cube in the "Viewport Switcher" settings. Otherwise, hold down the Ctrl+Alt+Left mouse button and drag the mouse (or touchpad) the direction you want to rotate the cube.

Remember, the cube rotates between desktops. It's not a cube unless you have at least 4 desktops running. You will not get a cube if you are only using 2 desktops (you will get a "plate"). You can still rotate the sides of the plate, of course, but it will not be a cube. (Recent users from the Windows OS may have no experience with the concept of simultaneous desktops, but they are nice once you learn how to use them).

When running Compiz fusion as the Windows Manager, you must change the default number of desktops from within CompizConfig Settings Manger. To enable 4 desktops:

CompizConfig Settings Manager -> General -> General Options -> Desktop Size -> Horizontal Virtual Size -> 4

When you start an application, you can assign it to any one of the 4 desktops by right-clicking the upper left corner of the application window and choosing the "To Desktop..." option. Rotating the cube shows the different desktops. You can also go to a desktop using the taskbar icon which shows the 4 desktops.

Emerald

Emerald is the theme engine for Compiz Fusion. Multiple themes are available. (These themes originated from the Beryl project before it merged with Compiz to form Compiz Fusion.) The Emerald Theme Manager for Compiz Fusion can be installed:

sudo apt-get install emerald

Ubuntu Wallpaper

Change USplash Boot Screen

This is the splash screen you see at bootup, when you are asked for a login and password. You can change the USplash screen using the utility startupmanager. (Startup Manager can also be used to change GRUB bootup settings if you use multiple OS's on your computer). Install:

sudo apt-get install startupmanager
Start:

System -> Administration -> Startup Manager

You could alternatively use a different splashscreen manager, Splashy, instead of USplash. Install:

sudo apt-get install splashy splashy-themes

Google Desktop

Google Desktop for Linux is a proprietary suite of widgets and applications to give Google control over your computer and thereby allow you to use Google services. A .deb package can be downloaded and installed from Google Linux Downloads. For installation instructions, see Google Desktop for Linux Instructions.

Dock applications

Avant Window Manager, Cairo Dock, and Wbar are dock-like applications for Ubuntu Linux. A dock represents running programs as icons at the bottom of the screen (as is done on the Mac OS X desktop), instead of by toolbar panel segments (as is done in Windows and other Linux window managers). See this brief comparison of dock applications.

Avant Window Navigator

  • Avant Window Navigator requires that a desktop composition manager (such as Metacity, Compiz, Xcompmgr, KDE4 (Kubuntu), or xfwm4 (Xubuntu)) be installed and running.
  • Install and upgrade proprietary nVidia or ATI graphics drivers so that the compositing manager functions properly.
  • Install AWN:
sudo apt-get install avant-window-navigator awn-manager
(Note: If you are using Gnome (Ubuntu) and do not already have a compositing manager installed (such as Compiz), Metacity will be installed as part of the installation.)
  • Enable automatic startup of AWN at bootup:
  • Menu -> System -> Preferences -> Sessions -> Add...
avant-window-navigator
  • Select which applets should run from the dock menu by default:
  • Menu -> Applications -> Accessories -> Avant Window Navigator Manager
You can drag application icons onto the list, then activate or deactivate the applets from the list.

Cairo Dock

Cairo Dock can be used either with a desktop compositing manager (such as Metacity for Gnome, Compiz, or the KDE4 Window Manager) or without one. See the Ubuntu installation instructions for details. It is available from the repositories:

sudo apt-get install cairo-dock cairo-dock-plugins

wbar

wbar is a quick-launch bar (not a dock) that has an appearance similar to Avant Window Manager and Cairo Dock. It is GTK (Gnome) based but can work in all desktop environments. It does not require a compositing manager to be installed and is therefore quicker and more suitable for low-end hardware systems. It is the default in the Google gOS desktop and is available as a .deb package from Google. Download and install (from the command-line Terminal):

wget http://wbar.googlecode.com/files/wbar_1.3.3_i386.deb 
sudo dpkg -i wbar_1.3.3_i386.deb
  • Start wbar with custom start options (e.g. by pressing alt+F2). Here is an example:
wbar -isize 48 -j 1 -p bottom -balfa 40 -bpress -nanim 3 -z 2.5 -above-desk
Here is another example:
wbar -above-desk -pos bottom -isize 60 -nanim 1 -bpress -jumpf 0.0 -zoomf 1.5

For a full list of command-line startup options, see:

wbar --help

Tip: If you want the "wave" effect just increase the -nanim value. I like the icons to just pop up so I don't use it, but with 9 icons 5 there is a nice "wave" effect.

Obviously, you could create a menu item with the command line options (similar to the examples above), or a batch file that can be automatically started at system startup (as a cron event or startup session).

You can also change wbar startup options by editing the configuration file:

sudo gedit /usr/share/wbar/dot.wbar

See this example configuration file. However, not all options are able to be set from the configuration file and must be run from the command line. For more info see this wbar guide.

wbarconf

A simple wbar configuration utility can be downloaded as a .deb package and installed:

wget http://koti.kapsi.fi/~ighea/wbarconf/wbarconf_0.7.2-1_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i wbarconf_0.7.2-1_i386.deb

Virtualization

Virtualization allows a second operating system (OS), such as Windows or OS X, to be run from within Ubuntu. This requires extra RAM (because both Ubuntu and the virtualized second OS require separate amounts of RAM) and a license for the second OS. If you wish to run a virtualized instance of Windows XP, for instance, you must have a license for Windows XP.

VirtualBox

VirtualBox is a fast and complete virtualization solution owned and maintained by Sun Microsystems. There is a free and fully open-source edition available under the GNU GPL license.

  • Install the open-source edition:
sudo apt-get install virtualbox-ose virtualbox-ose-source
  • Start VirtualBox:
VirtualBox OSE PC virtualization solution

For usage instructions, see the End-user documentation.

Xen

Xen is an efficient open-source virtualization ("hypervisor") platform which includes a recent merge with QEMU. It is free open source under a GPL license. Installation for the desktop must be from source (see the website for details). A commercial version is offered by Citrix.

A Xen virtual machine host can also be installed automatically with certain 64-bit CPUs, using the 64-bit Ubuntu Server LiveCD. (An Ubuntu desktop can then later be added -- see Ubuntu server).

VMWare

VMWare is a commercial virtualization platform that currently offers a free license (renewable yearly) for use with its server software. Installation instructions are on the website.

Keyboard errors in VMware guest

After installing VMWare 6.5, and installing a guest OS, the Function, arrow and Del/End/etc keys do not function. This is a bug with VMWare´s code. Add this line to ~/.vmware/config (create file if necessary) to fix this issue:

xkeymap.nokeycodeMap = true

Crossover for Linux

Codeweavers' Crossover Office for Linux is a subscription-based commercial package that allows many Windows programs to be run on Ubuntu without the need for a Microsoft OS license or a complete virtualization system. See the website for more info. Codeweavers releases older versions of this product as the free package Wine.

Wine

Wine is a free open-source package that essentially consists of an older and more limited implementation of CrossOver for Linux. It is provided by Codeweavers. Like CrossOver for Linux, no Microsoft license or virtualization platform is required to run Windows programs.

sudo apt-get install wine

Also consider installing Microsoft's TrueType fonts:

sudo apt-get install msttcorefonts

Internet Explorer 6

Internet Explorer 6 can function under Wine, albeit imperfectly. For most purposes, Firefox can be used (with the User Agent Switcher plugin) to mimic Internet Explorer, but for those instances when it can't, IE6 may be useful. A beta implementation of Internet Explorer 7 is also available from this package. For more info, see IEs 4 Linux.

  • Make sure you have wine and cabextract packages:
sudo apt-get install wine cabextract
  • Download IEs 4 Linux and install:
wget http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads/ies4linux-latest.tar.gz
tar zxvf ies4linux-latest.tar.gz
cd ies4linux-*
./ies4linux --no-gui

Transgaming Cedega

Cedega is a commercial application (similar to CrossOver Office and Wine), for installing and running some Windows applications, specifically games, without the need for virtualization or a Microsoft license. It provides 3D support, software acceleration support, and a high level of DirectX support. Installation instructions are found on the website.

Mono

Mono is a free open source project sponsored by Novell to allow .NET programs to function in Linux (Ubuntu) and Mac OS X. The Jaunty version is 1.9. Mono 2 is also available here.

sudo apt-get install mono-2.0-devel

Moonlight

Moonlight is part of the Novell Mono project that is an open source implementation of Silverlight (the Microsoft multimedia presentation platform). It is based on FFMpeg. It is made to work best with the Firefox 3 web browser, as a plugin. It is available here.

Netflix under Moonlight

Netflix streaming requires Silverlight 2.0. The current version of Moonlight is 1.0 (corresponding to Silverlight 1.0). Moonlight 2.0 is anticipated for mid-year 2009. Until this project is complete, or until Netflix agrees to stream video using Flashplayer, there are currently no methods for streaming Netflix in Linux.

Edutainment Applications

There are many, many superb applications that can be installed with a single click.

Applications -> Add/Remove Software -> Edutainment.

Below are a few examples that can be installed from this menu:

  • Stellarium -- an astounding planetarium for the desktop
  • K3DSurf -- a program for modeling 3,4,5, and 6 dimensional models.
  • Bibletime-- a Bible study tool for KDE.
  • Zekr -- an Islamic Quran study tool (available in Utilities instead of Edutainment)
  • Oregano -- a program for electrical engineering schematics
  • RlPlot -- a high quality graph generator
  • Mnemosyne -- a flash-card tool
  • Gramps -- map your family-tree and co-operate with genealogy projects.

Google Earth

Google Earth gives you an annotated eagle's eye view of our planet. This is a free proprietary package (you must accept the license to use this package).

sudo apt-get install googleearth-package
make-googleearth-package --force
Doubleclick on the resulting .deb file.
-- or --

To install the latest Linux binary, download and save the GoogleEarthLinux.bin package from Google Earth downloads. Then install:

chmod +x GoogleEarthLinux.bin
./GoogleEarthLinux.bin

Run:

Applications -> Internet -> Google Earth 3D planet viewer

You should turn off the Google Earth -> View -> Atmosphere setting, or you might see clouds everywhere and the ground won't show up.

Troubleshooting

If Google Earth opens, shows the splash screen, and then crashes, you’re probably experiencing a common issue. Running ~/google-earth/googleearth in a terminal will show this error: ./googleearth-bin: relocation error: /usr/lib/i686/cmov/libssl.so.0.9.8: symbol BIO_test_flags, version OPENSSL_0.9.8 not defined in file libcrypto.so.0.9.8 with link time reference

To fix this, browse to the folder you installed Google Earth into. By default this will be google-earth in your home folder. Find the file libcrypto.so.0.9.8 and rename it to something else, like libcrypto.so.0.9.8.bak. Google Earth should now start correctly.

cd ~/google-earth
sudo mv libcrypto.so.0.9.8 libcrypto.so.0.9.8.bak
sudo ln -s /usr/lib/libcrypto.so.0.9.8 ~/google-earth/libcrypto.so.0.9.8
(Note: You can also specify /home/user/google-earth instead of ~/google-earth ).

For other issues, see the Ubuntu help pages on Google Earth.

Uninstall Google Earth

To uninstall run the uninstall shell script located in the /home/user/google-earth folder (or whichever folder you installed google-earth into).

Proprietary Applications

Proprietary software helps you maximize your Internet experience, but is not open source. The software available includes Multimedia Codecs, Java Runtime Environment, and plug-ins for Firefox.

Restricted Extras

The Ubuntu Restricted Extras will install Adobe Flash Player, Java Runtime Environment (JRE) (sun-java-jre) with Firefox plug-ins (icedtea), a set of Microsoft Fonts (msttcorefonts), multimedia codecs (w32codecs or w64codecs), mp3-compatible encoding (lame), FFMpeg, extra Gstreamer codecs, the package for DVD decoding (libdvdread3, but see below for info on libdvdcss2), and the unrar archiver. This is a single command approach.

sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras

Games Applications

There are some phenomenal games for Ubuntu Linux.

There are hundreds of free, open-source games available in Ubuntu. Most (including the KDE Games collection and the Gnome Games collection) can be accessed:

Applications -> Add/Remove Software -> Games

Examples are:

Vdrift

Vdrift is a free open source 3-D racing game, similar to Need for Speed, with realistic physics, multiple drift tracks, and multiplayer games. Support for joysticks, mice and keyboard is included. A binary package for Linux is available from the website.

Action

Incredible action games (including those from the Top 25) are available in Ubuntu. Many can be installed using:

Applications -> Add/Remove Software -> Games

Examples are:

  • Alien Arena -- a multi-player first person shooter action game with free servers. The repositories have version 7.0-1. For the current version 7.2 see the website.
  • OpenArena -- an open-source multi-player first person shooter action game, with free servers. The repositories have version 7.7. For the current 8.1 version see the website.
  • Tremulous -- a Halo-like multiplayer first person shooter action game. The repositories have the current version.
  • Sauerbraten - a multiplayer graphics-rich first person shooter game evolved from Cube.

Nexuiz

  • Nexuiz is an open-source multi-player first person shooter game with free servers and tournaments.

The current version 2.4.2 is in the repositories.

sudo apt-get install nexuiz nexuiz-music

You must have desktop effects turned off (System -> System Settings -> Desktop). There are a few other problems. See the Nexuiz forums. Some recommend running from a shell:

sudo ./nexuiz-linux-glx.sh

or

sudo ./nexuiz-linux-sdl.sh

  • A 35 map community pack is available here. To install, extract the map pack to /home/username/.nexuiz/data (or ~/.nexuiz/data ).

UrbanTerror

UrbanTerror is a multiplayer first person shooter action game. It uses the open-source quake 3 engine and features many real weapons and free-to-use servers for multi-player functionality. See the Installation instructions at the website.

  • Alternative installation with a script:
  • After downloading the script open Terminal into your download directory then make the script executable with the following command:
sudo chmod +x urt40-linux-installer.sh
  • Now double click on the script to execute and follow the directions
  • The install will take a while, as the script executes a download of the necessary files which are about 541MB
  • After the install you will have a nice UrbanTerror icon on your desktop (unless you installed as root)

Spring

The Spring Project is a scripting engine platform to develop and play free multiplayer games such as Star Wars Imperial Winter and Complete Annihilation. See these installation instructions for adding the repository, then installing as a package.

PlaneShift

PlaneShift is a promising free full-immersion online fantasy game (MMPORG). Client downloads and patches are available here.

  • Make the downloaded binary installation file executable:
cd /directory_where_downloaded
chmod +x PlaneShift-v.0.42-x64.bin
  • Run the executable binary as root (this must be done from the command line Terminal):
sudo ./PlaneShift-v.0.42-x64.bin
  • Follow the instructions for installation. When prompted whether to manually set permissions, answer "no."
  • During installation, most users have recommended installing this game to your /home directory as a single user installation, instead of to /opt for all users. This avoids permissions problems. I was able to install to /opt, but it takes some effort.
  • Make sure your user belongs to the games group:
System -> User Manager -> user -> Groups -> check games
  • Download the updater patch psupdaterlinux64.zip and unzip it to your download directory.
  • Run the updater as root:
chmod +x psupdater
chmod +x psupdater.bin
sudo ./psupdater
Applications -> Lost & Found -> Client and Setup

To run it from the menu, I had to edit the menu entries by checking the box: "Run in terminal." Alternatively, run it from the command-line Terminal:

sudo /opt/PlaneShift/pssetup
sudo /opt/PlaneShift/psclient

Notes: This game ran very slowly for me on a 32-bit installation with a DSL connection and I gave up. The 64-bit installation worked better, but there were still many freezes. This is a game very much in development, and is still in alpha stage.

PrBoom - the classic Doom2 game

PrBoom is a free open source port of the original first person shooter action game, Doom.

sudo apt-get install prboom freedoom timidity timidity-interfaces-extra

There are thousands of extra maps (Wads) available for this game. It is easiest to keep a directory for your wads in your home directory:

mkdir /home/user/wads

Place your doom2.wad, tnt.wad, or plutonia.wad (from your original game) into this folder. If you don't have one, you can copy the Freedom version of doom2.wad from /usr/share/games/freedoom into this folder. Place any new .wad's you have downloaded from the Internet into this folder as well. Then run the game using both the original iwad map as well as your new .wad map (you will only see the new map).

prboom -iwad /home/user/wads/doom2.wad -file /home/user/wads/new_wad.wad

Note: Only doom2.wad, tnt.wad, or plutonia.wad can be used as an iwad. You must have one of these in addition to any new wad you wish to use. When in doubt, use doom2.wad.

Note: this game can also be installed using Applications -> Add/Remove Software -> Games as Freedoom, but you must also install timidity and timidity-interfaces-extra.

Wing Commander Privateer

The Linux version of this free version of Wing Commander can be downloaded as a binary here.

Graphics and Video Applications

Graphics and Video Applications allow you to edit your favourite photos, create stunning 3D drawings, or professionally edit your videos and movies.

Kino (Non-linear Video Editing Suite)

Kino is a widely used GUI-based non-linear video editing suite for Linux.

sudo apt-get install kino mjpegtools

Cinelerra (Non-linear Video Editing Suite)

Cinelerra Community Version is a complete high-end open source video editing suite that is a derivative of a similar commercial system. Follow the installation instructions for Ubuntu Intrepid.

KdenLive (Non-linear Video Editing Suite for KDE)

Kdenlive is a GUI-based non-linear video editing suite for KDE based on FFmpeg and the MLT video framework. It is optimised for KDE 4.

sudo apt-get install kdenlive mjpegtools

Dia (Diagram editor)

Dia is a free open source GTK-based diagram creation program for Gnome. It is similar to Visio.

sudo apt-get install dia

Kivio (Diagram editor)

Kivio is an open source flow-chart and diagram creation program that is part of the KOffice Suite for KDE. It supports Dia stencils.

sudo apt-get install kivio

GIMP (Image Manipulator)

Gimp is a powerful, full-featured, free open-source graphics and image editor, similar to Adobe Photoshop.

sudo apt-get install gimp

There is an extra set of brushes, palettes, and gradients for The GIMP.

sudo apt-get install gimp-data-extras

Inkscape Vector Illustrator

Inkscape Vector Illustrator is an open source drawing program similar to Illustrator and CorelDraw.

sudo apt-get install inkscape

recordMyDesktop (Desktop Session Recording)

recordMyDesktop is a desktop recording utility, which has both pyGTK and a pyQT4 GUI frontends available. Recordings are saved in Theora video/Vorbis audio files. To install:

sudo apt-get install recordmydesktop

Istanbul (Desktop Session Recording)

Istanbul is a desktop recorder for the Gnome desktop. It records your session into an OGG Theora video file.

sudo apt-get install istanbul

Wink (Presentation Editor)

Wink is a open source tutorial and presentation editor. It allows you to capture screenshots and use them for presentations.

sudo apt-get install wink

Digikam (Photo Organiser)

Digikam is a comprehensive open source digital photo organiser and editor. Install it:

sudo apt-get install digikam kipi-plugins digikam-doc

Google Picasa (Photo Organiser)

Google Picasa is a photo editor and organiser similar to Digikam. It allows uploads to a Google web server for online exchange. For more info, see the Picasa for Linux FAQ. A self-installing .deb file is available at Picasa 2.7 downloads.

Camorama (Web Cam)

Camorama is a simple GTK-based (i.e. Gnome-based) interface for webcams using the v4l (video for linux) drivers.

sudo apt-get install camorama

Internet Applications

Internet applications enable you to make full use of your Internet connection. Web browsers, Email clients, Instant Messengers, and more are included in this category.

Web Browsers

Mozilla Firefox

Mozilla Firefox is the ubiquitous web browser. Based on open source components, it is trademarked and cannot be altered or re-distributed with any change that involves the name or trademarks. Install the current version:

sudo apt-get install firefox
Firefox Plug-ins
Adblock plug-in (block ads in a web page)

Adblock Plus blocks ads that appear in web pages. You can subscribe to a free filter service, and can add ads to block with a single click.

sudo apt-get install mozilla-firefox-adblock
  • You can also add this extension from Firefox -> Tools -> Add-ons -> Get Add-ons -> Browse All Add-ons. (This method will also ensure that automatic updates are installed by Firefox.)
Noscript plug-in (controls scripts)

The Noscript plugin is considered one of the most important security measures for browsing the Internet. Most viruses and trojans gain access to computers from the Internet through scripts. This plugin allows you to choose which scripts to allow and blocks the rest.

sudo apt-get install mozilla-noscript
  • You can also add this extension from Firefox -> Tools -> Add-ons -> Get Add-ons -> Browse All Add-ons. (This method will also ensure that automatic updates are installed by Firefox.)
User Agent Switcher plug-in for Firefox

The User Agent Switcher plugin allows a browser to masquerade as another browser, allowing (most of the time) browser-specific content to be displayed.

  • You can add this extension from Firefox -> Tools -> Add-ons -> Get Add-ons -> Browse All Add-ons. (This method will also ensure that automatic updates are installed by Firefox.)
Video Download Helper plug-in for Firefox

The Video Download Helper plugin allows the download of videos from sites like YouTube.

  • You can add this extension from Firefox -> Tools -> Add-ons -> Get Add-ons -> Browse All Add-ons. (This method will also ensure that automatic updates are installed by Firefox.)
Unplug Download Management

The UnPlug add-on lets you save video and audio which is embedded on a webpage.

  • You can add this extension from Firefox -> Tools -> Add-ons -> Get Add-ons -> Browse All Add-ons. (This method will also ensure that automatic updates are installed by Firefox.)
Adobe Acrobat Reader for Firefox Plug-in
sudo apt-get install acroread mozilla-acroread acroread-plugins
Adobe Flash Player for Firefox Plug-in

To install the official Adobe Flash plugin (Flash 10) for Firefox:

sudo apt-get install adobe-flashplugin
Gnash Plug-in (Open source Flash Player replacement)

Gnash is available in a 64-bit version as well as a 32-bit version. It is the open source replacement for Adobe Flashplayer.

sudo apt-get install gnash

After installing, change your web browser's Preferences -> Applications so that SWF and SPL files use Gnash.

Java Runtime Environment (JRE) for Firefox plug-in

This package also installs the Java Runtime Environment. (JRE is also installed when OpenOffice or ubuntu-restricted-extras is installed.)

sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jre sun-java6-plugin

Note: You must accept the license to use this product.

Kaffeine Plug-in for Firefox

This package also installs the Kaffeine player.

sudo apt-get install kaffeine-mozilla
MPlayer plug-in for Firefox

This package also installs MPlayer.

sudo apt-get install mozilla-mplayer
VLC plug-in for Firefox

This package also installs the VLC player.

sudo apt-get install mozilla-plugin-vlc
Helix player plug-in for Firefox

This package also installs the Helix player, which is the open source player that plays Real Player content in Linux.

sudo apt-get install mozilla-helix-player
FireFTP for Firefox

FireFTP is a Firefox extension for FTP transfers.

Firefox Widgets

IceCat

IceCat is Firefox distributed without the Mozilla trademark restrictions. It is endorsed by the Debian project (on which Ubuntu is based). It is formerly known as IceWeasel and is also known as IceApe Browser. Install the current version:

sudo apt-get install iceape-browser

SeaMonkey

SeaMonkey is an open-source integrated internet application suite (including web browser, IM (IRC) client, Email client, RSS/News reader, and web development tools). It is based on the same components as the Mozilla products and shares the trademark and branding restrictions. There are many plugins, similar to those for Thunderbird and Firefox. Install:

sudo apt-get install seamonkey

IceApe

IceApe is an open-source integrated internet application suite (including web browser, IM (IRC) client, Email client, RSS/News reader, and web development tools). It is based on the same components as the Mozilla product SeaMonkey, but has no restrictive trademark licensing, and is endorsed by the Debian project (on which Ubuntu is based). Install the current version:

sudo apt-get install iceape

Opera

Opera is a proprietary browser and internet suite (currently free on PCs) also used in some mobile devices and gaming consoles. It includes email, an address book, IRC chat, integrated BitTorrent, and webfeeds. A limited number of plugins are also available.

sudo apt-get install opera

Download Managers

Downloader for X

Downloader for X is a GTK-based free-standing download manager utility. Still included in current repositories, the project appears dead. It is open-source, but does not have a GPL license.

sudo apt-get install d4x

Email Clients

Evolution

Evolution is the default Gnome-based email client in Ubuntu. If not installed:

sudo apt-get install evolution
Evolution and PGP

Email messages can be encrypted in PGP and sent by email using Evolution. See this tutorial for an example how to configure it.

KMail

KMail (Kontact Mail) is the default email client included with Kontact in KDE (Kubuntu). Kontact includes email, an address book, a calendar, reminders, pop-up notes, a link to the Akregator News/RSS reader, time-tracking, and more. Install:

sudo apt-get install kontact

Thunderbird

Mozilla Thunderbird is a licensed and trademarked free open-source email client that is compatible with Firefox. Install:

sudo apt-get install mozilla-thunderbird
Enigmail

Enigmail is an add-on to Thunderbird that allows you to easily encrypt your email using OpenPGP, which is included in the kernel by default. It also allows you to create and manage the encryption keys. Go the website and click "Download Now". Install:

Thunderbird -> Tools -> Add-ons -> Install -> select downloaded file
New Mail Icon for Thunderbird

"New Mail Icon" is an experimental tray add-on which notifes you of new mail. Download from the website. Install:

Thunderbird -> Tools -> Add-ons -> Install -> select downloaded file

Newsreaders

Akregator

Akregator is the default news/RSS reader included with Kubuntu (KDE). Usage instructions are found in the Handbook. Install:

sudo apt-get install akregator

RSSOwl

RSSOwl is a Java-based RSS | RDF | Atom Newsfeed Reader. These installation instructions only work with RSSOwl version 1_2_3.

In order to use the internal browser, install first the packages xulrunner and firefox , either via Synaptic Manager or by typing this command into Terminal:

sudo apt-get install firefox xulrunner

Change to your "opt" directory:

cd /opt

Download the tar.gz-archive into your opt directory:

sudo wget http://belnet.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/rssowl/rssowl_1_2_3_linux_bin.tar.gz

Extract the archive and remove the extracted file:

sudo tar zxvf ./rssowl_1_2_3_linux_bin.tar.gz && sudo rm ./rssowl_1_2_3_linux_bin.tar.gz

Make a startscript:

sudo nano /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh

and add the following lines to your starter-script file /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh

    export MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME=/usr/lib/xulrunner
    export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:${MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME}:${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}
    cd /opt/rssowl_1_2_3_linux_bin
    ./run.sh

Make the startscript executable:

sudo chmod u+x /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh

Now you always can start RSSOwl:

runRSSOwl.sh

After having started the application "RSSOwl":

Go to --> View and enable "View Newstext in Browser".

Then go to --> Tools --> Preferences... --> General and enable in misc-section "Open any news automatically in browser".

Go to --> Tools --> Preferences... --> Browser and enter the path to the executable (my path was /usr/lib/firefox/firefox). Finally enable “use external browser” at the bottom.

Instant Messengers

Pidgin

Pidgin is an open source IM application. It is the default in the Ubuntu (Gnome) desktop. You can access multiple services with it.

sudo apt-get install pidgin

Kopete

Kopete is the default Instant Messenger application for Kubuntu. You can access multiple services with it. Install:

sudo apt-get install kopete
Kopete Styles

Additional styles for Kopete are available from KDE-look. Install from:

Kopete -> Settings -> Configure -> Chat Window -> Style -> Get New...
GoogleTalk on Kopete

Kopete can be configured to work with GoogleTalk Instant Messaging (but not VOIP) using the Jabber protocol. See these GoogleTalk instructions.

Konversation (IRC client)

Konversation is the default Kubuntu Internet Relay Chat (IRC) client. It functions similar to the venerable mIRC. "A little less action and a little more Konversation." -- Elves Install:

sudo apt-get install konversation

aMSN

aMSN is an MSN Messenger utility that functions like the original client. It is not necessary if you use Pidgin. Install it:

sudo apt-get install amsn

To enable Drag-and-Drop capabilities to aMSN for easy file transfer see Ubuntu Geek.

Emesene

Emesene is an MSN messenger client that uses a simplified interface similar to the original client. It is not necessary if you use Pidgin. Install it:

sudo apt-get install emesene

Videoconferencing and VOIP

Videoconferencing and voice over Internet (VOIP) applications are merging into integrated applications. Most of these applications now allow placing calls to non-Internet based telephones for a small fee.

Ekiga

Formerly known as Gnomemeeting, Ekiga is a SIP compliant fully functional open source integrated VOIP and videoconferencing program.

sudo apt-get install ekiga

Skype

Skype is a proprietary integrated VOIP and video conferencing program similar to Ekiga.

sudo apt-get install skype
How to install Skype on a 64-bit system

The current version of Skype is for 32-bit systems. To use on a 64-bit system:

  • Install needed packages:
sudo apt-get install ia32-libs lib32asound2 libqt4-core libqt4-gui
  • Download the current Skype .deb package from the Skype website:
wget -O skype-install.deb http://www.skype.com/go/getskype-linux-ubuntu
  • Install the Skype .deb package:
sudo dpkg -i --force-architecture skype-install.deb
  • Start Skype:
Applications menu -> Internet -> Skype

Wengophone

Wengophone is an integrated VOIP and videoconferencing client available on many platforms. Wengophone was initially an open-source GPL-licensed package ('Wengophone Classic'). Both the Classic version (available as a .deb file) and the current proprietary binary version are available from the website. Wengophone Classic has been rebranded as QuteCom (but a new Linux version is not yet available there).

  • Install the Wengophone Classic version:
sudo apt-get install wengophone

Gizmo5

Gizmo5 is an Internet soft-phone application that uses the SIP protocol. It is similar to Skype and can be used for making cheap phone calls.

sudo apt-get install gizmo5

Asterisk VOIP PBX system

Asterisk is an enterprise-grade, free open source PBX and telephony system for VOIP.

sudo apt-get install asterisk

Kiax

Kiax is an proprietary ("limited" GPL) IAX (Inter-Asterisk eXchange) application. It is used for making VoIP calls from an Asterisk PBX.

sudo apt-get install kiax

Run from terminal with:

kiax

FTP Clients

You might wish to use a dedicated FTP client instead of the one in your browser.

Filezilla

Filezilla is the ubiquitous free open-source FTP client and server for all platforms.

sudo apt-get install filezilla

Filesharing / P2P

Do not share copyrighted material or content that is otherwise illegal to share.

Transmission (BitTorrent Client)

Transmission is the GTK-based default BitTorrent client in Ubuntu (Gnome).

sudo apt-get install transmission

KTorrent

KTorrent is the default BitTorrent client in Kubuntu. Install:

sudo apt-get install ktorrent

Azureus

Azureus is a Java-based BitTorrent client.

sudo apt-get install azureus

QTorrent

QTorrent is a PyQT-based BitTorrent Client that is supposed to be very fast.

QTorrent

Apollon (P2P Filesharing)

Apollon is an older BitTorrent client oriented towards KDE. It uses plugins for compatibility with multiple networks.

sudo apt-get install apollon gift

MLDonkey (P2P eMule/eDonkey2000)

MLDonkey is a P2P file sharing program (and network) that is able to use different network protocols. To install the MLDonkey core server, follow these instructions.

MLDonkey GUI frontends
  • Install the Gnome GUI frontend for MLDonkey:
sudo apt-get install mldonkey-gui
sudo apt-get install kmldonkey

Privacy

PGP (Message Encryption)

PGP (OpenPGP and GnuPGP) is a tool to encrypt your messages (such as email) to be unlocked only by someone who has a key to unlock it.

Seahorse

Seahorse is the GUI for Gnome to manage the key pairs and other options of GnuPGP. It can also manage your SSH keys. For more info see this tutorial. Run:

Applications -> Accessories --> Passwords and Encryption Keys

Tor (Network Privacy)

Tor is a project to allow privacy while using the Internet and limit usage tracking. Install:

sudo apt-get install tor privoxy

then see the installation guide.

Tor GUIs

There are two main GUIs for Tor.

  • Vidalia is a cross-platform Qt-based GUI for Tor. See these instructions to install it.
  • TorK is the KDE interface, used in Kubuntu, but which can run in Ubuntu (Gnome) as well.
sudo apt-get install tork

In addition, a Torbutton is available for Firefox, which toggles Tor usage. Install as a Firefox add-on or:

sudo apt-get install torbutton-extension

Multimedia Applications

Multimedia applications include music and video playback, CD and DVD playback and recording, and Internet TV as well as "terrestrial" (i.e. broadcast, satellite, and cable) TV viewing on your computer. Here is a nice review of some of the applications that enables conversion and handling of these types of files.

CDs and DVDs

DVD Playback Capability

To play encrypted DVDs, the libdvdcss2 package is essential. libdvdcss2 is a simple library designed for accessing DVDs like a block device without having to bother about the decryption. More information about this package can be found at VideoLAN.

  • You can install libdvdcss2 as a 64-bit .deb package without installing the Medibuntu repositories:
wget -c http://packages.medibuntu.org/pool/free/libd/libdvdcss/libdvdcss2_1.2.10-0.2medibuntu1_amd64.deb
sudo dpkg -i libdvdcss2_1.2.10-0.2medibuntu1_amd64.deb
or a 32-bit .deb package:
wget -c http://packages.medibuntu.org/pool/free/libd/libdvdcss/libdvdcss2_1.2.10-0.2medibuntu1_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i libdvdcss2_1.2.10-0.2medibuntu1_i386.deb
  • You can also use guidelines provided at Medibuntu. This will install the Medibuntu repositories on your system and then install the libdvdcss2 package:
sudo wget http://www.medibuntu.org/sources.list.d/intrepid.list --output-document=/etc/apt/sources.list.d/medibuntu.list
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install medibuntu-keyring
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install libdvdcss2
You can also install 32 bit or 64 bit Windows multimedia codecs (if you haven't already done so using ubuntu-restricted-extras):
sudo apt-get install w32codecs
or
sudo apt-get install w64codecs
  • Instead of downloading directly from Medibuntu, you could also use the script included with the libdvdread3 package to download and install libdvdcss2:
sudo apt-get install libdvdread3
sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/install-css.sh

K9copy DVD-Ripper

K9copy is the free open source DVD backup, copying, compression, and authoring utility that requires libdvdcss. k9copy guide.

sudo apt-get install k9copy

dvd::rip

dvd::rip is a DVD backup/copy program, written in GTK-based perl, that uses the transcode video/audio processing and conversion tools. See the website for installation. dvd::rip guide.

DVD Fab DVD Ripper

DVD Fab is the favoured DVD backup tool for today's DVD encryption methods. It must be run in Wine (since it is a Windows application). It comes as a fully featured 30-day trial, but see these instructions for fine-tuning the trial period.

Handbrake

Handbrake is a GPL-licenced open source tool for converting DVD to MPEG-4 (iPod format). A self-installing .deb file is available from the website for download.

FFMPEG video / audio conversion

FFMPEG is the swiss-army knife of video and audio format conversion. It succeeds when no other program can. It is free and open source. If it not yet installed on your system as part of another package (it is used by many video/audio editors), then install it:

sudo apt-get install ffmpeg

To convert many different formats, read the FFMPEG documentation. Also see this tutorial.

Example: To convert a saved Flash video (.flv) to an MPEG-2 format playable on a DVD, convert:

ffmpeg -i samplevideo.flv -target ntsc-dvd samplevideo.mpg

Then use K3b (or Gnomebaker) to write the mpg file to a New DVD Data Project.

  • For PAL use -target pal-dvd. For widescreen, use -target film-dvd. For other conversion tips, see this forum. (Note: Most Flash video has very low resolution, with a screen size of 360x270, for example. You may see a slight diminishment in resolution if you wish to convert it to 720x480 (which is the NTSC standard size) or other screen size. You can keep the original screen size and resolution by omitting the -target parameter.) If your original file is 16:9 widescreen and you desire a 4:3 letterbox output for playing on an overscanned TV, you may need to pad the file so that the widescreen is not compressed (see this forum):
ffmpeg -i samplevideo.flv -target ntsc-dvd -s 648x364 -padleft 36 -padright 36 -padtop 58 -padbottom 58 samplevideo.mpg

You can also use the WinFF GUI and add the command (as above) as a "Preset," for subsequent use. For example:

Video converter (WinFF) -> Edit -> Presets ->
Preset Name: Letterbox -> Preset Label: 16:9 Widescreen to 4:3 Letterbox
Preset command: -target ntsc-dvd -s 648x364 -padleft 36 -padright 36 -padtop 58 -padbottom 58
Ouput file extension: mpg -> Category: DVD
-> Add/Update -> Save
FFMPEG GUI

WinFF is a free, GPL-licensed open source GUI frontend for FFMPEG. Install:

sudo apt-get install winff
Run:
Applications -> Multimedia -> Video converter (WinFF)

Gnomebaker (CD/DVD burner)

Gnomebaker is the default CD/DVD burning application for the Gnome desktop, installed by default in Ubuntu.

K3b (CD/DVD burner)

K3b (KDE Burn Baby Burn) is the default KDE CD and DVD burning utility included in Kubuntu, but can run well in Gnome. (Due to licensing requirements, mp3 capabilities must be installed separately as the libk3b3-mp3 package). Install:

sudo apt-get install k3b libk3b3-extracodecs

Ripper X CD Ripper/Encoder

Ripper X is a GTK-based (i.e. Gnome) open source utility to rip CD audio tracks to OGG, MP3, or FLAC formats. It supports CDDB lookups.

sudo apt-get install ripperx

Asunder CD Ripper/Encoder

Asunder is a GTK-based open source CD ripper/encoder which saves to Wav, MP3, OGG, FLAC, or WavPack. Self-installing .deb packages are available here.

Audex CD Ripper/Encoder

Audex is a port to KDE4 of the KAudioCreator package used in KDE 3. It can create output for LAME (MP3-compliant), OGG Vorbis (oggenc), FLAC and RIFF WAVE. It must be installed from source, currently (see the website).

Music Players

Rhythmbox

Rhythmbox is the default music player in Ubuntu (Gnome), relying on the Gstreamer framework.

Amarok

Amarok is the default music player in Kubuntu. Install:

sudo apt-get install amarok
Amarok themes

Amarok themes can be downloaded from KDE Look and installed.

  • Download the theme (ending in .tar.bz2) to your home directory (or chosen directory).
  • Amarok -> Settings -> Appearance -> Install New Style
  • Select the downloaded file.

Audacious

Audacious is a compact, fast music player that is a fork of XMMS. It resembles WinAmp and can use WinAmp and XMMS skins. It supports many plugins and is ideal for streaming content. Install:

sudo apt-get install audacious
Note: "PulseAudio output plugin" is the default in Audacious and does not seem to work. Switch to "ALSA output plugin" under Audacious -> Preferences -> Audio -> Current output plugin.

Banshee Music Player

Banshee is a Gstreamer, Mono and Gtk-based music player for Linux and Mac OS X. It supports multiple mp3 players (including the iPod).There are plugins for podcasts, internet radio, and more.

sudo apt-get install banshee

Exaile Music Manager and Player

Exaile is a GTK-based music player that supports many formats, incorporates a Shoutcast directory, a plugin for iPod, Last.FM support, tabbed playlists, and other features. Install:

sudo apt-get install exaile

Songbird Music Player

Songbird is an open source music player from Mozilla with an appearance meant to resemble iTunes. It is in current development and does not yet have full support for mp3 players (such as the iPod). It incorporates a Shoutcast internet radio interface. The current beta version can be downloaded from the website.

Video and Music Players

Most current video multimedia players play many video formats, including the Flash video .flv format.

MPlayer Multimedia Player

Mplayer is a video player with a wide range of formats supported (including RealMedia and Windows-codecs) and a wide variety of outputs.

sudo apt-get install mplayer
SMPlayer

SMPlayer is an enhanced frontend for MPlayer.

sudo apt-get install smplayer
Dump a video stream to disc

You can dump a video stream to disc using Mplayer:

mplayer -dumpstream streamurl

If you don't know the exact URL of the stream you wish to save, you can discover it from the webpage it is embedded in by using the Firefox add-on UnPlug. Do not save streams that are illegal to download.

VLC Multimedia Player

VLC is a cross-platform multimedia player that supports many formats without need for additional codecs. It can not only receive video streams (also see here to convert it to mp4), but can act as a server for video streams, as well. It is one of the only players that can view and backup almost any DVD format, no matter which copy protection is used. See these tips for using VLC to backup/rip encrypted DVDs.

sudo apt-get install vlc
Playing VCD on VLC

How to play VCDs: Open file, In the Open Disc dialogue, click at Disc tab and chosing VCD at disc type gives me this:

vcdx:///dev/hdd :audio-track=0

in the advanced options /dev/hdd is my CD-ROM drive, obviously. Remove x and change that to:

vcd:///dev/hdd :audio-track=0

Xine-UI Multimedia Player

Xine UI is a multimedia player based, of course, on the xine platform. It can also play streamed video from the Internet and supports most formats, including some uncommon ones.

 sudo apt-get install xine-ui

Kaffeine Video Player

Kaffeine is the default video player in Kubuntu. Install:

sudo apt-get install kaffeine

RealPlayer 11 Multimedia Player

The Linux Realplayer is actually based on the open-source Helix player. Helix itself can be installed as a package easily (read Helix plug-in) and used instead of Realplayer. These instructions are to install the proprietary version of RealPlayer only.

Download Real Player official linux player

Open a terminal and cd to the directory you have downloaded realplayer's .bin file. Then issue the following commands

chmod +x RealPlayer11GOLD.bin
sudo ./RealPlayer11GOLD.bin

When it asks for installation path enter /usr/local/RealPlayer

For all other questions just choose default by pressing enter.

If you have installed mozilla-mplayer package you will need to delete the mplayer firefox plugin for real player videos. Other wise all real player files will open with mplayer. For that please do this

cd /usr/lib/firefox/plugins
sudo rm mplayerplug-in-rm.*

Please remember to restart firefox and when ever you click on a real player video choose the option open with and use /usr/bin/realplay

Internet TV

Miro Player

Miro Player (formerly Democracy TV Player) is an open-source Internet TV and video player that allows you to watch Internet TV and videos. Unlike other video players, it contains a structured guide that includes more than 2500 channels, has built-in BitTorrent, and has features that can automatically save videos, such as from YouTube.

sudo apt-get install miro

Myth TV

See MythTV

Sopcast Internet TV

Sopcast is an interface to play live P2P video streams through the VLC media player. Install VLC first. This is a Chinese program and most content is hosted in China and may not be legal in your area. Please consult local regulations.

Download:

wget http://sopcast-player.googlecode.com/files/sopcast-player_0.2.1-1_i386.deb

(replace the i386 with amd64 if you have a 64-bit system).

Install:

sudo dpkg -i sopcast-player_0.2.1-1_i386.deb

Run:

Applications->Internet->SopCast Player

Zattoo

Zattoo is a free Internet TV player that allows you to watch terrestrial television from various countries in Europe. See the Zattoo Download page for further instructions on installation. For screenshots and an alternate installation guide, see this UbuntuGeek guide.

  • Install dependencies first:
sudo apt-get install libgtkglext1 adobe-flashplugin
 wget http://zattoo.com/release/download.php
  • Install the downloaded .deb package:
sudo dpkg -i *.deb
  • Run Zattoo:
K -> Application -> Multimedia -> Zattoo Player
Note: you have to register for a free account when the player starts.

Media Centers and PVR (Personal Video Recorder)

There are a number of open-source Media Centers for Linux, some of which include personal video recorder functions. For a full list of open-source media centers, see this guide.

MythTV

MythTV is a media center with PVR (personal video recorder) for retrieving, recording, and playing broadcast and Internet TV and other multimedia content. It has many options and plugins for expansion. To be useful, you will need a compatible TV tuner card. For setup tips, see this guide. Install:

sudo apt-get install mythtv

Mythbuntu

Mythbuntu is an integrated Ubuntu (Xubuntu) desktop optimised for MythTV usage. In can be used instead of adding MythTV to a Ubuntu desktop.

XBMC

XBMC is a free, mature, open-source cross-platform media center. It does not have a PVR capability nor as many functions as MythTV, but has a very nice interface.

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/team-xbmc-intrepid/ubuntu intrepid main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/team-xbmc-intrepid/ubuntu intrepid main
  • Install:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install xbmc

Boxee

Boxee is an XBMC-like open source package to allow streaming video over the Internet, including from YouTube and other sites. It is a fork of XBMC, and is still in alpha development and testing stage. It is currently available for 32-bit systems only, and recommended for Hardy. A current version is anticipated soon. (Note: Boxee does not run Netflix on Linux, despite their ads). See these download instructions.

Elisa

Elisa is a cross-platform media center that uses the Gstreamer multimedia framework. Commercial plugins are available from Fluendo. It supports PVR and Music Jukebox . Install:

sudo apt-get install elisa

LinuxMCE

See LinuxMCE.

Multimedia Servers

MPD Multimedia Playing Server

MPD is a music server meant for LAN usage. It can be controlled from remote clients. It can also stream internet streams.

TiMidity++ MIDI Sound Server

TiMidity is a MIDI software synthesizer required by several games and other MIDI-dependent applications.

sudo apt-get install timidity

Multimedia Encoders

SOX (encodes/decodes audio)

SoX is a somewhat confusing command-line utility to convert audio formats. See this usage guide. Install:

sudo apt-get install sox

Run:

sox

Internet Radio

Last FM

LastFM is a service for sharing music recommendations and individual radio streams. It is included as an option in Amarok, or can be installed separately:

sudo apt-get install lastfm

Shoutcast Internet Radio

Shoutcast is the first and last free mp3 streaming service. Hundreds of radio streams can be played through Amarok, Audacious, or other multimedia player. Simply associate the .pls streams with your favourite player.

StreamTuner Stream Directory Browser

StreamTuner lists streams available on the Internet through a GTK-based interface. It lists Shoutcast and Live365 streams, among others. Install:

sudo apt-get install streamtuner

BBC program recording

  • get_iplayer allows BBC streams (through their iplayer service) for UK users, as well as Hulu streams for US users, to be recorded to mp4, wav and mp3 files (depending on content). See the website for usage.
  • iPlayer can be run in Wine using these instructions.

Home Automation / Home Theater / Home Security

Complete Systems

Linux MCE (Media Center Edition)

LinuxMCE is an integrated home theater/home security/home automation/telephone PBX/intercom system for your home. It incorporates MythTV, Pluto home automation, Motion security surveillance, Asterisk PBX, VDR video disk recorder, and other home automation/security/theater packages in an integrated platform. It is available in 32 and 64 bit versions. LinuxMCE can run either as a standalone Home Theater PC or can co-ordinate a fully networked home, using the networking capabilities that are intrinsically part of the Kubuntu Linux OS. For more info see the LinuxMCE website.

The most recent stable version runs on Kubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy). An alpha version for Kubuntu 8.10 (Intrepid) has been released, and the full version is anticipated soon. LinuxMCE can be installed at the same time as the Kubuntu OS (on a new PC with an nVidia graphics card), with a single DVD installation. Alternatively, Kubuntu can be installed first and LinuxMCE then installed from a 2 CD installation.

Home Security

Zoneminder surveillance system

Zoneminder manages surveillance cameras and stores images on the hard disk. Images can be viewed using a (LAMP) server remotely. X10 devices can be triggered using built-in perl scripts. For more info see the Zoneminder website.

Install:

sudo apt-get install zoneminder ffmpeg
Myth Zoneminder

MythZoneminder allows you to view your security cameras through Myth TV, essentially. It is a plugin that interfaces the two packages Zoneminder (which must be working on your system) and Myth TV (which must also be working.) See the installation instructions.

It can be found in Synaptic as the mythzoneminder package.

sudo apt-get install mythzoneminder

Productivity Applications

Office Suites

Open Office

Open Office is installed by default in Ubuntu, with Writer (Word equivalent), Presentation (PowerPoint equivalent), Calc spreadsheet (Excel equivalent), and Base relational database (Access equivalent).

Open Word 2007 Documents in Open Office

The latest edition of OpenOffice opens .docx (i.e. Word 2007) documents by default.

KOffice

The KOffice suite is part of the KDE project and is mean to provide the capabilities of the OpenOffice suite without the licensing restrictions of OpenOffice. It can be used in any version of Ubuntu. Install:

sudo apt-get install koffice

AbiWord

AbiWord is a fast, collaboration-enabled word processor. For the most current version see the AbiWord web site. To install from the repositories:

sudo apt-get install abiword

Personal Information Managers

Kontact Personal Information Manager

Kontact is the default PIM included with Kubuntu. Kontact includes email, an address book, a calendar, reminders, pop-up notes, a link to the Akregator News/RSS reader, time-tracking, and more. Its many functions resemble MS-Outlook. Through connectors it interfaces with many groupware servers (such as Kolab and eGroupware). Install:

sudo apt-get install kontact

Mozilla Sunbird (Calendar)

Sunbird is a group calendaring project that interfaces with Thunderbird and Firefox.

sudo apt-get install sunbird
  • A related package known as SeaMonkey Calendar can also be installed.
sudo apt-get install mozilla-calendar

BasKet Note Pads

BasKet Note Pads is a personal note-taking application that resides on your computer and can be used for creating "to-do" lists. It is great for centralising your thoughts in one place. Install it:

sudo apt-get install basket

Planner (Project planning & management)

Planner is an MS-Project-like planning and management tool.

sudo apt-get install planner

Time Tracker

You can keep track how long you use an application with TimeTracker. Keep records for billing or simply limit your Internet usage.

Financial Software

GnuCash (Personal Finance Management)

GnuCash is a free, open source GPL-licensed personal finance manager that uses double entry accounting like professional accountants. It is GTK-based (Gnome 2). The current version can be installed from source files (see the website for installation instructions), or the package version can be installed:

Applications -> Add/Remove Programs -> Office -> GnuCash Finance Management

or from the command-line terminal:

sudo apt-get install gnucash

KMyMoney (Personal Finance Management)

KMyMoney is a personal finance manager that uses double entry accounting, the method professional accountants use. It is similar to MS-MyMoney and Intuit QuickBooks. It is designed for the KDE desktop. Install:

Applications -> Add/Remove Programs -> Office -> KMyMoney

or from the command-line terminal:

sudo apt-get install kmymoney2

Moneydance (Personal Finance Management)

Moneydance is a commercial cross-platform Java-based personal finance manager similar to KMyMoney that sells for $40 per license.

SQL-Ledger (Enterprise Finance Management)

SQL-Ledger ERP is a free, open-source, platform independent double-accounting-method system and enterprise resource planner (inventory, work and purchase orders, taxes, etc.) that uses the MySQL database. It uses a web browser for an interface and be accessed remotely. It is extremely comprehensive and is available in many languages. Install:

sudo apt-get install sql-ledger

WebERP (Enterprise Finance Management)

WebERP is a free, open-source enterprise resource planner and accounting suite similar to SQL-Ledger that uses a web browser as an interface. It runs on the LAMP server. It is somewhat difficult to implement and use, but conforms to strict accounting guidelines. Set up your LAMP server first, then install using the web site instructions.

Phreebooks (Enterprise Finance Management)

Phreebooks is a free open-source enterprise resource planner and accounting suite similar to WebERP. It also runs on a LAMP server. It is in active development in 2008. A demo is available at the website.

Quasar (Enterprise Finance Management)

Quasar is a proprietary Linux-based accounting suite similar to Quickbooks. For a single user without point-of-sale or networking needs, it is free. For other users it costs CA$500 per seat. An installer for KDE-based systems is here.

Groupware

Groupware solutions include shared calendars, group email servers, groups address lists, group projects, and internal messaging. They require (one or more) servers with LAMP or similar server stacks.

Groupware Servers

Groupware servers are meant to operate on a server platform. You must install the server version of Ubuntu/Ubuntu first. Read Servers.

Kolab

Kolab is the most comprehensive open-source groupware solution available and is distributed as a multi-platform solution. (It integrates easily with both Ubuntu (including Evolution) and KDE/Kubuntu (including Kontact).) It is free and open source with a GPL license (unlike other groupware solutions), yet enterprise support is also available. It is scalable to large organizations and is Outlook (MS-Exchange) and Mozilla compatible. This is a German package, however, and documentation in English is limited, which can make installation challenging. The Kolab website provides its own instructions for installation from source (currently v. 2.2). In brief:

  • Install the compiler and other necessary stuff:
sudo apt-get install build-essential
  • Make a directory for the Kolab installation and make it universally accessible:
sudo cd /
sudo mkdir /kolab
sudo chmod 777 /kolab
  • Optional: If you wish to mount kolab in its own partition, then create a new partition (using Gparted, for example). Figure out the device name of your extra partition:
fdisk -l
It should be something like /dev/sda3.
Mount /dev/sda3 (or whatever your partition is) as /kolab by editing /etc/fstab:
sudo nano /etc/fstab
and adding the line:
/dev/sda3  /kolab  ext3  defaults,rw 0 0
then reboot and make sure there are no errors.
  • Make a directory into which to download kolab:
mkdir /kolabtmp
  • Download all the current Kolab files:
cd /kolabtmp
wget -r -l1 -nd --no-parent http://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/linux/kolab/server/beta/kolab-server-2.2.1-beta-1/ix86-debian4.0
  • Install Kolab (as root using sudo -s):
sudo -s
sh install-kolab.sh 2>&1 | tee kolab-install.log
  • Reboot your system.
  • Stop Kolab services and run the configuration utility:
sudo /kolab/bin/openpkg rc all stop
sudo /kolab/sbin/kolab_bootstrap -b
Obviously, you should know all your details, such as your fully qualified host name, domain details, etc., before doing this step. If you are not familiar with OpenLDAPand LDAP basics, you should learn about it, as Kolab uses the slapd OpenLDAP server daemon.
  • Restart all Kolab services:
sudo /kolab/bin/openpkg rc all start
  • Login to the web administrator interface using "manager" and the password you set at bootstrap configuration:
https://yourhost.yourdomain.name/admin
Kolab Debian package
  • There is an Ubuntu/Kubuntu/Debian package for Kolab (v. 2.1), but no support for it exists. In fact, it is due to be removed from the Debian packages because of this lack of support. The installation instructions are included below for reference, and if you have success installing from the package, please add the steps you took to make it work.
sudo apt-get install kolabd kolab-webadmin

To reconfigure setup after the original installation, stop all web services:

sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 stop
sudo /etc/init.d/kolabd stop
sudo /etc/init.d/kolab-cyrus stop
sudo /etc/init.d/postfix stop
sudo /etc/init.d/saslauthd stop
sudo /etc/init.d/slapd stop

and then start the Kolab bootstrap setup:

sudo kolab_bootstrap -b

and proceed with configuration for your server/domain.

Then restart all the services (e.g. sudo /etc/init.d apache2 start).

Notes: Kolab uses its own server components, and it is best to run Kolab on a dedicated server. However, it is possible to run other servers on the same machine, as long as you choose alternate ports if the server modules conflict.

Citadel

Citadel is a turn-key fully open source groupware solution (that is also Kolab compliant) with a structure rooted in bulletin-board systems, and is therefore user friendly. Installation instructions are found at the website.

eGroupware

eGroupware is a robust and stable free open source groupware solution (with GPL license) based on the LAMP stack (the default server stack included with Ubuntu Server) and the Postfix mail server (both of which should be installed first). There is a new version recently available, with a new corporate sponsor in Germany and a commercial enterprise version. Compatibility with many clients has been improved. Egroupware provides the easiest installation and quickest setup time of all groupware solutions. Much of the documentation for the current version, unfortunately, is not in English.

sudo apt-get install egroupware
Open-Xchange

Open-Xchange is a proprietary groupware solution (meant as an MS-Exchange replacement) that has released a "community edition" based on commercial versions. The latest .deb package is for Hardy Heron 8.04. It is compliant with many different types of clients, including Kontact, Outlook, and Palm PDAs. Installation instructions are at the website and are not trivial.

OpenGroupware

OpenGroupware is a groupware solution based on the postgreSQL database. There is an enterprise version and a limited open source version, and development appears to have been stagnant in 2008. Installation must be from source, as packages are very outdated. See the website for details.

Zarafa

Zarafa is the leading European MS-Exchange replacement/groupware solution. It is proprietary, but a GPL-licensed (except for trademarks) free open-source community edition was released in 2008. Download instructions are available from the website.

Zimbra

Zimbra is a proprietary groupware solution that offers an open source "community edition". Although currently free, the community edition is limited in features and does not have a GPL license. All submitted modifications and contributions become the property of Yahoo.

The latest version is for Hardy Heron 8.04 LTS and can be downloaded as a .tar.gz file from the website.

SugarCRM Server

SugarCRM is a commercial customer relationship management (CRM) platform and groupware server (sales, marketing, support, project management, calendaring) system with a community edition. It supports MySQL and MS SQL databases. For more info see SugarCRM Server Setup.

Groupware Clients

Many groupware solutions have connectors to interface with clients such as Kontact/KMail and Mozilla Thunderbird (or SeaMonkey).

Kontact Personal Information Manager

The Kontact Personal Information Manager, included in Ubuntu by default, interfaces with many groupware servers.

KDE Groupware Wizard

Kubuntu provides a wizard (script) to help clients (such as Kontact/Kmail) connect to a groupware server. Currently supported groupware servers are Kolab, eGroupware, SUSE Linux Openexchange, and Novell Groupwise.

Yahoo!zimbra Desktop in Ubuntu 8.04

Zimbra Desktop is a desktop that collaborates with Zimbra servers. For more info see Yahoo!zimbra Desktop Installation Guide.

Oracle Calendar Desktop Client

The Oracle Calendar Desktop Client is proprietary calendaring software for use with Oracle groupware/database systems.

Download Oracle Calendar Desktop Client:

wget http://www.k-state.edu/infotech/calendar/oracle-10-clients/DesktopClients/Linux/cal_linux_1011.tar.gz

Extract:

tar -xvf cal_linux_1011.tar.gz

Change into the extracted files directory:

cd OracleCalendar_inst/

Prepare the files:

mv cal_linux cal_linux.bak; cat cal_linux.bak | sed "s/export LD_ASSUME_KERNEL/#xport LD_ASSUME_KERNEL/" > cal_linux; rm cal_linux.bak

Change permissions:

chmod +x gui_install.sh cal_linux

Start the GUI installer:

sudo sh gui_install.sh

Wiki software

Wiki software allows an organization to have a manual that can be edited by a number of collaborators. Wikipedia is the best known example.

MediaWiki

MediaWiki is the free, open source server software that Wikipedia uses. It is scalable to very large uses. It runs on the LAMP server stack (which uses the MySQL database and is available as an installation option with the (K)ubuntu server), or it can be used with a postgreSQL database. Installation instructions are here.

Twiki

Twiki is an open source wiki engine used by many small to medium size companies internally. It has an active development team with multiple plugins. See the website for installation instructions.

TiddlyWiki

TiddlyWiki is an open source personal wiki. It is ideal for creating a list of things to do, note taking, or as a collaboration tool for a small team. It is a single HTML file that can reside on your computer or can even be uploaded to a web server and be used as a simple website. It is developed using a Firefox browser as an interface. Installation instructions are on the website.

Development

Kompozer Web Development Editor

Kompozer is a Gecko-based web authoring system that combines web page editing with web file management in a WYSIWYG manner. I supports XML, CSS, and JavaScript in an XUL architecture.

sudo apt-get install kompozer

Quanta Plus (Web IDE)

Quanta Plus is an integrated development environment integrated with the KDE desktop. It allows webpage development, database design, and XML design and scripting, for example, using multiple development tools. The latest stable version is 3.5, however, and integrates with the KDE 3.5 environment (Ubuntu Hardy Heron). You should therefore use Ubuntu Hardy Heron with this product. (There is also a commercial version (Quanta Gold), also oriented towards KDE 3).

sudo apt-get install quanta kompare kxsldbg cervisia

Netbeans IDE

Netbeans is a free open-source integrated development environment used to create applications using Ajax, Ruby, pHp, Groovy, Java, Javascript, C++, and other scripting tools.

sudo apt-get install netbeans

BlueFish Web Development Editor

BlueFish is a GTK-based (Gnome-oriented) editor to write websites, scripts and programming code. It supports perl, Python, pHp, CSS, XML, Java, Javascript, C, SQL, and other formats.

sudo apt-get install bluefish

Web Publishing

Drupal (Web content publishing)

Drupal is the leading open-source website creation and content collaboration tools. A modular approach to website building, from simple out-of-the-box websites to complex sites is possible with a short learning curve. Get more info on how to get started. Drupal requires a prior installation of a LAMP server stack.

Drupal is available as a package from Synaptic, or from the command-line terminal:

sudo apt-get install drupal5

Joomla (Web content publishing)

Joomla is a powerful open source website creation and content management tool that allows website creation for use in every arena from the simple to complex corporate environments. Info for beginners is a good place to start.

Scribus (Desktop publishing)

Scribus is an open-source package that provides professional-appearing desktop publishing.

sudo apt-get install scribus

Plone (Content Management System)

Plone is a free, open source (GPL-licensed) multi-platform content management system used by many large organizations around the world. It is available with an integrated installer here.

Science, Technology, and Engineering Applications

What .. you thought Ubuntu was just for play?

Health applications

WorldVistA (Enterprise Electronic Health Record)

WorldVistA is the largest and most robust CCHIT-approved electronic health record platform in the public domain. It is GPL licensed, is based on the US Veterans Administration health record system, and can be installed as an integrated database, server, and client system on Linux systems. (A Windows interface is available for networked Windows users.) Download and installation instructions are here.

Mathematical solutions

Scilab, Octave, and Freemat are three open source solutions for solving complex mathematical equations.

Octave

Gnu Octave is a free, open source (GPL licensed) platform for solving linear and non-linear equations, similar to (and mostly compatible with) Matlab. It interfaces well with Gnuplot. For troubleshooting tips, see this thread. Install:

sudo apt-get install octave3.0

Also recommended:

sudo apt-get install libatlas3gf-base gnuplot qtoctave

Note: QTOctave is a GUI for Gnuplot or Easyplot 1.1, and and the ATLAS library is an algebra-software-optimization set of utilities.

EasyPlot 1.1 is an alternative to GnuPlot, with a version that can be used with QTOctave. It must be installed from source.

An older GUI for Octave/Gnuplot is qgfe (available as the package qgfe).

Freemat

Freemat is a free, open source (GPL licensed) platform for solving linear and non-linear equations, similar to (and mostly compatible with) Matlab. Install from Add/Remove Programs (Edutainment) or

sudo apt-get install freemat

Amateur Radio applications

Fldigi is a free, open-source (GPL) application for digital-mode amateur radio communications using a sound card. Enable "Community Maintained Software (universe)" in Software Sources; then install either from Add/Remove Programs under (Amateur Radio) or by typing

sudo apt-get install fldigi

Utilities

Utilities facilitate everyday tasks, such as keeping the clock up to date, archiving utilities, and more.

Archiving Utilities

BChunk

BChunk is a command-line utility that allows you to convert .cue and .bin files into an .iso file (so that they can be opened and manipulated in Ubuntu). Warning: If the bin/cue image has audio tracks, they will be lost.

Get BChunk

sudo apt-get install bchunk

To convert .cue and .bin files, navigate to the folder and run this command (replacing filenames with your own):

bchunk inputfilename.bin inputfilename.cue outputfilename.iso

After the file is converted into ISO you can mount it using:

sudo mount -o loop outputfilename.iso /media/output

Navigate to /media/output and you should see all the content there. You can then copy it anywhere.

To unmount:

sudo umount /media/output

HJSplit Files Joiner/Splitter

HJSplit for Linux (Java version).

  • Make sure you have Java Runtime Environment installed:
sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jre
  • Download the HJSplit JAR file:
wget http://www.freebyte.com/download/hjsplit/hjsplit_g.jar
  • Create the directory for HJSplit:
sudo mkdir /opt/hjsplit
  • Move the file to an appropriate directory:
sudo mv hjsplit_g.jar /opt/hjsplit/ 
  • Run:
cd /opt/hjsplit/ && java -jar hjsplit_g.jar 
Note: You could also make a terminal shortcut (menu item) in K Menu Editor.

Rar

Rar archives files into the proprietary .rar format.

sudo apt-get install rar

This application is a 40-day trial.

Unrar

Unrar extracts files archived with the proprietary .rar format. This application is free for noncommercial use. It is installed with the ubuntu-restricted-extras package. If not, install:

sudo apt-get install unrar

7-Zip

The open-source 7-Zip archive format was originally designed for Windows (and DOS) but is also available for Ubuntu. The GNU/Linux version of 7-Zip does not come with a GUI, but Ark can hook into 7-Zip to handle 7z archives. Install:

sudo apt-get install p7zip-full

Hard Drive Utilities

KDiskFree (Hard drive properties monitor)

KDiskFree is a KDE utility for monitoring free disk space, etc.

sudo apt-get install kdf

Clock Utilties

Screensavers

Partition Managers

GParted Partition Manager

Gparted is a Gnome-based partition manager that can be used with KDE.

  • This utility works best as a LiveCD. Download the Gparted .ISO image here. Follow these instructions to burn the .ISO image to CD. Use the GParted LiveCD as your partition manager.
  • You can also install the package:
sudo apt-get install gparted

QTParted Partition Manager

QTParted is a QT-based partition manager still in development. It is similar to Partition Manager.

sudo apt-get install qtparted ntfsprogs

Network Monitors

There are two types of network monitors: those that monitor your own system's network settings and those that monitor network traffic. The latter includes security tools that can also be used as hackers tools. While we don't espouse the latter, it is worthwhile to know about these tools so you are aware of security risks to your network. A list of available tools is at Top Ubuntu Security Tools.

KSniffer

KSniffer is a network traffic analyzer for KDE. Install:

sudo apt-get install ksniffer

KNemo (Network interfaces monitor for systray)

KNemo is the network interface monitor for KDE 3. It is not compatible with KDE4.

sudo apt-get install knemo

Netstat

Netstat is the Linux command-line tool to monitor network status and functions. There are many usage parameters. See the manual for help.

netstat
Knetstats

Knetstats is the version for KDE 3.5's systray. A version for KDE 4 does not yet exist.

sudo apt-get install knetstats
Cacti Monitoring Server

Cacti is a complete, free open source network graphing solution designed to harness the power of RRDTool’s data storage and graphing functionality. Cacti provides a fast poller, advanced graph templating, multiple data acquisition methods, and user management features out of the box. It uses MySQL and PHP (part of the LAMP server stack). All of this is wrapped in an intuitive, easy to use interface that makes sense for LAN-sized installations up to complex networks with hundreds of devices. For more info see Cacti Server Setup.

Ubuntu System Administration

Automating Tasks

Tasks (cron events) can be automated/scheduled using a GUI interface.

System -> Administration -> Task Scheduler

Boot Menu

Login Menu settings

You can change the Login menu settings from the GUI interface:

System -> Administration -> Advanced -> Login Manager

You can choose an integrated theme or select individual components of the login screen/process.

GRUB boot manager settings

  • If you have multiple operating systems (OS) on your computer, you are likely using a GRUB boot manager to select which one to start at bootup. You can edit the options for GRUB from a GUI interface:
System -> Administration -> Advanced -> GRUB Editor
  • To edit the settings manually from the command line Terminal:
sudo nano /boot/grub/menu.lst

Default Applications

You can choose which program to use as your default program for a specific task.

System -> Administration -> Default Applications

Kill a process

Sometimes a program (or "process") just freezes. To "kill" (or end) the program/process:

System -> Administration -> System Monitor -> highlight the errant process -> Kill process

Enabling NUM LOCK On Startup

System -> Administration -> Keyboard & Mouse -> Keyboard ->"turn on Numlock on Startup"

System Backup

  1. System -> Administration -> Keep (Backup System)
  2. Click "Add a Directory to Backup"
  3. Select directories you wish to backup
  4. Select a location to place the backup
  5. Set how often you wish the backups to take place, and how long to keep them
  6. Click "Backup Now"
  7. Select the directory groups you wish to backup.

System Recovery

  1. System -> Administration -> -> Keep (Backup System)
  2. Click "Restore a Backup"
  3. Select the directory groups you wish to restore.

User Administration

  1. System -> Administration -> User Management -> Administrator Mode

Add New Users

  1. "New" button
  2. Change the "Login Name" to the desired username
  3. Click the "Passwords and Security" tab
  4. Enter the desired password

Modify Users

  1. Select the user you wish to modify
  2. Click the "Modify" button

Removing Users

  1. Select the user you wish to remove
  2. Click the "Delete" button

Change your user groups

It is quite often necessary to have extra privileges to do certain tasks. These privileges are assigned to your user by belonging to certain groups. The tasks are allowed to be performed by any user belonging to the group associated with that task.

Example: a "sudoer" is a user who can perform certain administative tasks, such as updating the system. To become a "sudoeer" a user must belong to the "sudo" group.
Applications menu -> System -> Kuser User Manager -> user -> Groups --> check sudo

To become an administrator, you must belong to the adm, admin, and sudo groups. To be a virtualbox user, you must belong to the virtualbox group. To change printer settings you must belong to lpadmin. To use the cdrom, you must belong to cdrom. To use hot-pluggable devices, you must belong to plugdev. To share Samba folders (on a Windows-based network), you must belong to sambashare. To access NTFS files using the virtual filesystem fuse, you must belong to the fuse group. To use many games, you must belong to the games group. The list is long, and not always obvious.

Unfortunately, while this is the feature that gives Linux such a high-level of security, it can also take diligence to remember to add your user to certain groups. It is not uncommon for programs and functions on your system not to work merely because you don't have privileges to do so because you forgot to add your user to the appropriate group(s).

Of most importance, you must already be an administrator in order to change membership in groups. Therefore, if you create a new user and intend to give that user administrative privileges (by assigning the user to the administrative groups), you must do so from your original administrator account (the one you set up at installation) or from another administrative user account.

Parental controls

Timekpr is a program to track and control the computer usage of user accounts.

  • If updating, remove any prior versions:
sudo dpkg --purge timekpr
deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/nedberg/ubuntu intrepid main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/nedberg/ubuntu intrepid main
  • Install:
sudo apt-get install timekpr
When prompted which default display manager to use, select "kdm"
  • Start:
System -> Administration -> Timekpr Control Panel

Web content filtering

DansGuardian provides web filtering capability, similar to NetNanny. It is useful for limitng objectionable content in publicly accessible workstations, or for filtering objectionable content for younger users. It integrates with ClamAV, and uses several criteria for filtering websites (which is difficult to modify). It is used with Tinyproxy (best for individual users) or the Squid proxy (best for a network server). Install:

sudo apt-get install dansguardian tinyproxy
or
sudo apt-get install dansguardian squid

See these installation instructions for setup details. In brief,

  • Edit the dansguardian configuration file:
sudo nano /etc/dansguardian/dansguardian.conf
comment out the UNCONFIGURED line:
#UNCONFIGURED
If using tinyproxy instead of Squid, change the proxyport to 8888:
proxyport 8888
  • Reinstall dansguardian:
sudo apt-get install --reinstall dansguardian
  • Set your browser to use the localhost:8080 proxy. For example, in Firefox:
  • Firefox -> Edit -> Preferences -> Advanced -> Network -> Settings
  • Manual proxy configuration -> HTTP proxy: localhost -> Port: 8080

Working with Menus

Create an encrypted folder

With Ubuntu, you can create a folder whose contents are encrypted. See these instructions.

Printers

The new CUPS interface recognizes many printers. Specific printers not recognized can often be installed using instructions found at the Linux Foundation OpenPrinting database.

Add a Printer

System -> Administration -> Printing -> New Printer -> New Printer

Most of the time, your printer (if connected and turned on) will be detected automatically.

My network printer with its own IP address at 192.168.0.124 was correctly installed at

socket://192.168.0.124:9100.

You can also choose printers on a Windows system via Samba and other types of networked printers, in addition to directly connected printers.

Use CUPS web interface

From any web browser, go to the URL:

http://localhost:631

Create a symlink from a file to another location

ln -s /path/to/source /path/to/destination

If /path/to/destination require superuser rights, use:

sudo ln -s /path/to/source /path/to/destination

This is similar to, but more powerful than, creating Shortcuts, with which former Windows users may be familiar.

Assign a root password

To be able to log in as root directly, you must assign a root password. This can be done with:

sudo passwd root

Afterwards, you can use

su

to get a root prompt. You would then use the root password.

Get a root prompt without using a root password

If you have not set a root password (or don't know it), you can obtain root user privileges anyway. From the command-line Terminal:

sudo -s
or
sudo su
or
sudo bash

You will use your own user password instead of a root password.

You could also get a prompt to become any other user on the computer by typing:

sudo su <username>

Use the File Manager as root

gksudo nautilus

Manually Mount and Unmount a device

To manually mount a device:

mount /dev/hda

replace /dev/hda with the location of the device.

To manually unmount a device:

umount /dev/hda

replace /dev/hda with the location of the device.

Windows Compatibility

Mounting NTFS Partitions (with read/write privileges)

Install NTFS-3G, the NTFS manager:

sudo apt-get install ntfs-3g

Note: You should also be a member of the fuse group to use ntfs-3g.

Find out the name of your ntfs partition:

sudo fdisk -l

Method 1: In this example, the NTFS drive is listed by fdisk as /dev/sda2, but yours may differ.

Make a mount point for the drive:

sudo mkdir /media/WindowsNTFS

Edit fstab:

sudo nano /etc/fstab

Comment out the automatically added lines by Ubuntu installation:

#/dev/sda2  auto nouser,atime,noauto,rw,nodev,noexec,nosuid 0 0
#/dev/sda2 /mnt auto user,atime,noauto,rw,nodev,noexec,nosuid 0 0

and instead add the line:

/dev/sda2 /mnt/WindowsNTFS ntfs-3g quiet,defaults,rw 0 0

Note: There are many ways to mount the drive, depending on your needs. The fstab file controls this process. See How to edit and understand fstab and Intro to using fstab.

In this example, I indicated that the file system was an ntfs-3g filesystem, so did not use the auto option (which detects the filesystem automatically). I used rw to specify read/write privileges for all users, but umask=0 and umask=000 are accepted by some kernels.


Method 2: Edit fstab:

sudo nano /etc/fstab

When Ubuntu installation finishes, it mounts all ntfs partitions automatically with ntfsprogs, adding a line similar to the following to fstab:

UUID=8466268666267956 /media/sda1     ntfs    defaults,gid=46 0       1

Change this line to:

UUID=8466268666267956 /media/sda1     ntfs-3g    defaults,nls=utf8,locale=zh_CN.UTF-8,rw,gid=46 0       1

In this example, I have a Chinese-language Windows installation on my first partition, so I set the locale parameter (locale=zh_CN.UTF-8) so that my Chinese documents can display correctly. Setting rw (same as umask=0 or umask=000) lets me read/write the partition without sudo. gid=46 specifies that the drive will belong to the group of hot-pluggable devices (plugdev) and is not necessary unless your ntfs drive is a hot-pluggable one (such as an external USB drive). nls=utf8 is the default and is optional for most ntfs users, but there are other options for Chinese (and other specialized character-set users).

Mounting FAT32 Partitions

Follow the above instructions, but use vfat instead of ntfs-3g.

In other words, if you have made a mount point directory /mnt/WindowsFAT32 and your FAT32 drive is /dev/sda3, then edit the /etc/fstab file to include the line:

/dev/sda3 /mnt/WindowsFAT32 vfat quiet,defaults,rw 0 0

Synchronize clock to network time server

The Network Time Protocol (NTP) allows time synchronization of your computer to time servers on the Internet.To enable it:

  • Applications menu -> System Settings -> Date & Time
  • Check the "Set date and time automatically" option
  • Choose an ntp time server near you.

Hardware

CPU

Graphics Card

Install Latest Nvidia/ATI drivers

Upon initial installation and after the first reboot, you will be prompted whether to use the current proprietary nVidia drivers. If you wish to use them, follow the prompts.

Fix Intel 915 resolution problem

sudo apt-get install 915resolution
Screen Keeps Flickering

If you have an Intel Corporation Mobile 915GM/GMS/910GML card, your screen may flicker every 5-10 seconds. To prevent this:

  • System -> Administration -> Advanced -> Service Manager
  • Uncheck "Detect RANDR (monitor) changes"

Reconfigure xserver-xorg

sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg

xorg.conf

Before installing any driver for ATI or nvidia, please make backup xorg.conf before following this method.

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /home/user

If you have edited this file but would like it to be automatically updated again, run the following command:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure -phigh xserver-xorg

If you want to try this xorg.conf after installing the driver, you must back up your xorg.conf as following. And then, edit /etc/X11/xorg.conf in text editor. Add or modify this xorg.conf sample.

xorg.conf for nvidia
 Section "Screen"
 Identifier "Default Screen"
 Device "Configured Video Device"
 Monitor "Configured Monitor"
 SubSection "Display"
 Depth 16
 Modes "1280x1024" "1024x768"
 Option "AddARGBGLXVisuals" "True"
 EndSubSection

 Option "AddARGBGLXVisuals" "True"
 Defaultdepth 24
 EndSection
 Section "Module"
 Load "glx"
 Load "GLcore"
 Load "v4l"
 EndSection
 Section "Device"
 Identifier "Configured Video Device"
 Boardname "vesa"
 Busid "PCI:1:0:0"
 Driver "nvidia"
 Screen 0
 EndSection
 
 Section "Device"
 Identifier "Device0"
 BoardName "Generic Geforce 5500"
 Driver "nvidia"
 Vendorname "NVIDIA Corporation"
 Option "DualHead" "1"
 Option "ShadowFB" "1"
 Option "FPScale" "1"
 Option "TwinView" "True"
 Option "TwinViewOrientation" "RightOf"
 Option "UseEdidFreqs" "True"
 Option "Metamodes" "1024x768,1024x768"
 Option "UseDisplayDevice" "DFP"
 EndSection
 
 Section "Device"
 Identifier "Videocard0"
 Driver "nv"
 VendorName "NVIDIA Corporation"
 BoardName "GeForce 7600 GT"
 EndSection
 
 Section "InputDevice"
 Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
 Driver "kbd"
 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
 Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
 Option "XkbLayout" "us"
 EndSection

 Section "InputDevice"
 Identifier "Configured Mouse"
 Driver "mouse"
 EndSection
 Section "ServerLayout"
 Identifier "Default Layout"
 screen 0 "Default Screen" 0 0
 EndSection
 
 Section "Extensions"
 Option "Composite" "Enable"
 EndSection

Installation of ATI and nVidia Graphics drivers

NVidia Driver

If you have problems with Nvidia drivers after upgrading, check This guide for common solutions to problems with nvidia.

  • Please make a backup of xorg.conf before following this method.

Install the nvidia-settings package:

 sudo apt-get install nvidia-settings

Download Nvidia driver at http://www.nvidia.com/Download/index.aspx?lang=en-us and place it at your home directory. After downloading, close all open windows and press <CTRL> <ALT> F1. Log in and enter password and then just connect to the internet. Press <ALT> F2, kill gdm or kdm season by entering sudo killall <your desktop manager>, example:

 sudo killall gdm      

Install the nvidia driver. Make sure you are in the nvidia driver directory. If you downloaded it and placed it on the Desktop, make sure to change directories first.

cd Desktop

To install it, enter /NVIDIA-Linux-x**-***.**-pkg1.run. For example, if you downloaded Nvidia version 173.80:

sudo sh NVIDIA-Linux-x86-173.80-pkg1.run

choose yes to any verbose response. After you are finished installing the driver, reboot your computer.

sudo reboot

ATI Driver

Monitors / Displays

Turn off power saving

Even when on AC power, the power saver feature of Ubuntu sometimes changes the screen brightness to the battery setting on laptops. This is a problem with the ACPI power management module.

To access the Guidance Power Manager module, click on the power icon on the desktop taskbar.
Change the brightness setting for "Battery powered" to maximum.

You can also turn off power management settings (invoked when the computer is idle):

System -> Administration -> Display -> Power Control -> uncheck "Enable display power management"

Configure Dual Monitors with nVidia

  • Make sure that the nVidia driver has been installed and is functioning properly on your first screen. Also, make sure both monitors are connected.
  • Open the command-line terminal Konsole and type:
sudo nvidia-settings
  • Select "X Server Display Configuration".
  • You should see 3 boxes (2 if your card doesn't have an S-Video out). From here you can configure all of your card's outputs.
  • Check the "(Disabled)" box.
  • Select "Configure...".
  • The most common choice is TwinView. Select it.
  • Setup the desired screen resolutions and positions of your two active displays.
  • The new display will likely have resolution set to "Auto" to match your first. Change this if you wish.
  • Leave the first screen's position as "Absolute" and set your second display's position relative to that.
  • "Clone" means the same output on both.
  • Once you are satisfied with your settings, hit Apply to test them.
  • Note: if your displays are side-by-side, the kicker may extend across both screens as well as any maximized applications. This will be corrected when the X server is restarted.
  • If everything else is ok, hit "Save to X Configuration File". Now hit Ctrl+Alt+Backspace to restart X. You now have 2 screens!
  • (The NVIDIA X Server Settings application can be also found in K -> System Settings to change settings later, but this does not always work because settings need to be changed as the root user.)
  • Troubleshooting: if the X server fails to reload you can recover your old X configuration. In a terminal:
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf.backup /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Hard Drives and USB Storage

Optical Drives

Printers & Scanners

The new CUPS interface recognizes many printers. Specific printers not recognized can often be installed using instructions found at the Linux Foundation OpenPrinting database.

Brother printers

Most Brother printers are auto-detected or can be installed directly from the CUPS interface. For information on a specific model, see the Linux OpenPrinting site.

Sound

Many programs require ALSA sound. If you are not hearing sound, try selecting ALSA as the default sound system:

System -> Administration -> System Settings -> Sound

Also check your program's preferences section to make sure ALSA is selected. This is necessary for many multimedia packages, for example.

Mice

Activate side-mouse-buttons in FireFox

Adding two lines to xorg.conf will activate side-mouse-buttons in FireFox.

  • This should work with most brands of the 5-button mouse. Here is a list of mice that worked with this instruction.
Logitech MX310
Logitech MX510
Logitech MX518
Logitech MX700
Logitech MX Revolution
Intellimouse Explorer (first edition)
Razer Copperhead
  • Backup X.org configuration file
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak
  • Modify the X.org configuration file
kdesu kate /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find the Input Device section for your mouse and add two lines as shown below.
  • You may also increase the number of buttons if your mouse has more than 7 -- just fix the rest of the section based upon the number of buttons.
Note: "back/forward", "wheel click" & "tilt left/right" all count as buttons
  • Change:
Section "InputDevice"
 Identifier "Configured Mouse"
 Driver "mouse"
 Option "CorePointer"
 Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice"
 Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
 Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5" 
 Option "Emulate3Buttons"       "true"
EndSection
to:
Section "InputDevice"
 Identifier "Configured Mouse"
 Driver "mouse"
 Option "CorePointer"
 Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice"
 Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
 Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"
 Option "Emulate3Buttons" "true"
 Option "Buttons" "7"
 Option "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 6 7"
EndSection

Touchpad

For Synaptics Touchpads:

sudo apt-get install gsynaptics

For more info, see the Ubuntu help wiki.

Remote Controls

LIRC (Infrared Remote Controls)

LIRC (Linux Infrared Control) allows you to use most infra-red remote controls. This can be installed from Applications -> Add/Remove Packages -> Settings -> Infrared Remote Control

or
sudo apt-get install lirc

Bluetooth

BlueZ is the package that allows Bluetooth connectivity in Ubuntu Linux. This package is included within the current kernel of Ubuntu. To add utilities to check whether your Bluetooth adapter's firmware is current, install:

sudo apt-get install bluez-utils bluez-firmware

then run

sudo dfutool

WiiMote

The Wiimote (Wii Remote Control) uses both Bluetooth and Infra-red technology. It communicates with Ubuntu Linux using the incorporated BlueZ Bluetooth drivers and/or LIRC drivers. (It can function with Bluetooth alone, however.) You will need a Bluetooth receiver on your PC (such as a Bluetooth USB stick or built-in Bluetooth receiver, for example). (Note: not all Bluetooth receivers will work with the Bluez drivers. Check this list or test yours first.)

  • Install the cwiid Wiimote controller package and the lswm Wiimote discovery package:
sudo apt-get install wminput lswm
  • Install the drivers (or just reboot):
modprobe uinput
Note: You can also add uinput to the modules files so it loads automatically at bootup:
sudo echo "uinput" >>/etc/modules

Run (while pressing button 1/2 on the Wiimote):

sudo wminput

For more info, and to learn how to enable the infra-red functions, see this guide.

USB

Wireless Cards

Atheros Cards

Atheros Wireless cards should work automatically with the new kernel by installing the proprietary driver. At installation, after the first reboot, you will be prompted whether to use the proprietary drivers.

It should no longer be necessary to install the following package:

sudo apt-get install madwifi-tools 

These instructions for the Atheros 802.11 b/g integrated card are here for reference only (or if you wish to install them manually instead):

madwifi-hal-0.10.5.6-current.tar.gz
  • Extract the files
  • Make sure your linux headers and build-essential packages are installed:
sudo apt-get install build-essential
sudo apt-get install linux-headers-$(uname -r)
  • Unload any drivers already running.
sudo ifconfig ath0 down
sudo ifconfig wifi0 down
  • Change to the directory where you extracted the driver.
cd <directory_where_driver_unzipped>
  • From that directory, run the installation scripts:
cd scripts
sudo ./madwifi-unload
sudo ./find-madwifi-modules.sh $(uname -r)
cd ..
  • Complete the installation by compiling the source and installing it.
sudo make
sudo make install
  • Add the installed drivers to your system.
sudo modprobe ath_pci

Following this, Network Manager was able to see the wireless card and I was able to configure everything else (WEP / WPA key, etc.) from there.

Complete instructions are available at MadWifi UserDocs.

Atheros AR242x

Alternate instructions for installing the Atheros AR242x card are here.

3G

3G protocols allow wide area cellular communications that include not only cellphone voice transmission but also integrated broadband internet connections. This can be integrated into a single device, or communications can be received through an EVDO adapter. Examples of 3G radio interfaces include Mobile WiMax, CDMA-2000, TD-CDMA, EDGE, and DECT. For info using 3G with the Ubuntu Network Manager, see this page. For additional info on using 3G with Ubuntu, see this guide.

he220r1

he220r1 is a (K)ubuntu driver package for the Huawei e220 USB modem. It has also been found to work with other 3G devices, such as Nokia, Sony Ericsson, and Motorola. See the website for download and installation instructions.

EVDO Cards

EVDO cards include USB modems and adapters to receive wide-area cellular broadband Internet connections.

Sprint

Sprint EVDO cards can be used most easily through KPPP. For instructions, read the Sprint Mobile Broadband Setup Guide. Also see the EVDO Forums.

Verizon

See this Crystal Networking guide.

Tethering your PC to your Verizon cell phone

This is a per-minute plan in which you can use Verizon broadband services through your cell phone (such as the Motorola RAZR) connected to your PC via a USB cable. See this guide.

Digital Cameras

WebCams

See the Ubuntu webcam guide for more info. Many webcams that worked in Hardy Heron may not work in Intrepid Ibex. This may be due to a migration from v4l (video for Linux) to v4l2. See this discussion.

EasyCam

EasyCam2 is a utility for finding and installing drivers for your webcam. See these installation instructions.

iSight

Linux drivers for the digital iSight camera (connected by FireWire), using ALSA for sound, are here. The video component is already supported by current kernels (see here for more information).

Luvcview (USB webcam viewer)

Luvcview can be used to view your USB webcam to test it. Install:

sudo apt-get install luvcview

View your webcam:

luvcview -f yuv

Netbooks

Ubuntu can be installed on netbooks. At this time the Ubuntu Netbook Remix (or equivalent) is preferred to the standard Gnome-based desktop, especially for new users. Ubuntu Netbook Remix is provided to several individual netbook manufacturers (such as Asus and Acer) to be optimised for that device. (You can contact your specific netbook manufacturer for specific details on this product.) If you already have Ubuntu Netbook Remix (or eeebuntu Netbook Remix) installed, you can choose to add the full Ubuntu (Gnome) desktop, if you wish:

sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop
  • Asus eeePC 1000H
  • Reduce font size one or two sizes, and set the screen DPI to 120.
  • eeebuntu Netbook Remix is available for this device.
  • Acer Aspire One
  • Dell Mini 9
  • Ubuntu Netbook Remix runs on this device well. See this guide.
  • HP Mini 1000 Mi
  • A custom edition of Ubuntu is installed on this version of this device. No additional configuration is necessary.


Another method is to install Ubuntu onto your netbook from scratch using a USB flashdrive LiveCD.

Palm

Other

Mobile Devices

Ubuntu Linux offers an operating system for Mobile Devices (such as the Samsung Q1 Ultra or Elektrobit MIMD) with a unique and simplified interface. For more information see the Ubuntu MID Edition site.

GPS

Tux Mobil has a list of Linux applications for use with GPS devices, and compatible hardware. Two GPS packages are available from the Ubuntu/Kubuntu respositories:

  • Viking is a free open source package to view GPS data in maps, and to plot co-ordinates. This has been reviewed as the best Linux GPS mapping program.
sudo apt-get install viking
  • GPS Drive is a free navigation software package that displays your position on a zoomable map using your GPS device. It is GTK-based but can be used in Kubuntu. It uses the gpsd daemon that interfaces with a variety of GPS hardware. A .deb package of the current version is also available from the website. Install:
 sudo apt-get install gpsdrive
  • tangoGPS is a beautiful, lightweight GPS mapping program that uses map data from the Openstreetmap project. Is is a GPL-licensed open source project. A .deb package can be found here.

Networking

Remote speakers for Airport Express

The Airport Express is a device with an audio output jack that can be connected to speakers or an amplifier. You can stream audio over the network (wired or wirelessly) to (or from) this device.

PulseAudio

These capabilities require the newest version 0.9.15 of Pulse Audio and Pulse Audio Volume Control 0.98, as well as pulseaudio-module-raop (for Airport Express). Instead of (or after) installing the default 0.9.14 packages from the Jaunty repositories, obtain them by adding the repositories from this Launchpad site:

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/themuso/ppa/ubuntu jaunty main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/themuso/ppa/ubuntu jaunty main

then install:

sudo apt-get install pulseaudio pavucontrol pulseaudio-module-raop

Then configure Pulse Audio:

Menu -> Settings -> PulseAudio Preferences Sound Audio preferences -> Network Access

and check both:

Make discoverable network sound devices available locally
Make discoverable Apple Airtunes devices available locally

Note: Make sure your firewall is not blocking ports 5353, 5000, and 6000.

GSTransmit

GSTransmit is a tool to allow GStreamer-based utilities to stream output to an Apple AirTunes Device (such as the Airport Express). It is available as a self-installing .deb file from the website.

raop-client

A method to stream audio to the Airport Express uses raop-client, a tool written in Ruby. See information here.

Airfoil

You can stream media from a PC running Windows or Mac OS X that is connected to an Airport Express network to your Ubuntu Linux desktop, using Airfoil. (Unfortunately you cannot send media output from Ubuntu to the Airport Express network, only receive from it.) This can be useful in a distributed multimedia system, for example, in which your Ubuntu PC is connected to a media center. You must be running Mono. You can download the .deb package at Rogue Amoeba. Installation instructions are at Rogue Amoeba Linux support.

Filesharing

NFS

NFS is the default networking protocol for network file sharing in *nix systems (including Ubuntu Linux).

Samba File Sharing

Samba is a networking protocol that allows compatibility with Windows-based networks.

  • Install Samba:
sudo apt-get install samba samba-tools system-config-samba
Note: samba-tools and system-config-samba are optional.
  • Modify Samba settings.
  • Method 1:
System -> Administration -> Advanced -> Samba
(Note: this is available only if you installed system-config-samba.)

It is recommended that your user be a member of the sambashare group, as well.

  • Method 2:
Enable File Sharing Server With User Login (Very Reliable Method)
Do the following on the machine that has the files to be shared:
  • Add current user to Samba:
sudo smbpasswd -a username
(replacing username with your login username)
  • Open the samba config file:
sudo nano /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Add the directories to be added (right at the end) in the following format:
[Pictures]
path = /home/username/<folder_to_be_shared>
(Replace username with your username and <folder_to_be_shared> with the folder you want to share)
Press CTRL+X and then Y to save.
  • Restart Samba
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
  • On Windows access the folder in the following format in Windows Explorer:
\\192.168.x.x
(replace 192.168.x.x with the actual IP address of your server which is serving the folder)
  • On Linux type the following in Konqueror or Nautilus:
smb://192.168.x.x
(replace 192.168.x.x with the actual IP address of your server serving the folder)

Note: If you use Sharing in KDE's System Settings panel, be aware that there is a small bug, reported here. In brief, you need to comment out/delete any instances of these two lines in /etc/smb.conf :

case sensitive
msdfs proxy

Recognizing Win98 machines

Microsoft networking is extremely quirky. To enable recognition of PCs with Windows 98, edit your Samba configuration file:

sudo nano /etc/samba/smb.conf

Then add the following lines to the file:

[global]
# THE LANMAN FIX
client lanman auth = yes
client ntlmv2 auth = no

Integrating into Mac OS X Network

See this guide for information on integrating Ubuntu into an existing Mac OS X Appletalk network.

Local Area Network

Modems / Dial-up

GPPP is the default modem dialing application.

Applications -> Internet -> GPPP Internet Dial-up

Wireless

Network Manager

Network Manager has been redesigned for Intrepid Ibex and now works quite well. You should not require other network managers, and, in fact, more than one network manager can cause conflicts.

It can be accessed from the tray icon.

Manual configuration from the command-line

3 steps for WEP:

sudo iwconfig eth[N] essid [SSID]
sudo iwconfig eth[N] key restricted s:[PASSWORD]
sudo dhclient

WPA is more complicated:

su
mkdir /etc/wpa_supplicant
cd /etc/wpa_supplicant
echo network = { > wpa_supplicant.conf
echo ssid="SSID" >> wpa_supplicant.conf
echo key_mgmt=WPA-PSK >> wpa_supplicant.conf
echo psk="PRESHAREDKEY" >> wpa_supplicant.conf
echo } >> wpa_supplicant.conf
cd /etc/network
vim interfaces

Now add after "auto eth[N] ..." & "iface eth[N] .." (press 'i'):

wpa-driver wext # or whatever driver your network card needs
wpa-conf /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

Save the file ('Esc', ':x', 'Enter') and restart your system.

Remote Access

There are several methods of remote access. VNC sharing allows you to view and control a remote computer's desktop. (Windows users use a similar proprietary protocol called remote desktop protocol (RDP)). XDMCP allows a complete remote X-windows based login. Remote connections are hazardous unless proper security precautions are taken to prevent unauthorized logins and to ensure encryption of transmitted data.

SSH

Secure Shell or SSH is a network protocol that allows data to be exchanged over a secure channel (or "tunnel") between two computers. Encryption provides confidentiality and integrity of data. SSH client is installed by default in Ubuntu so you can connect to another computer that is running a SSH server.

Connect to a remote SSH server
From the command-line terminal

Install the OpenSSH client (if not already installed):

sudo apt-get install openssh-client

From the command-line Terminal type:

ssh -C <username>@<computer name or IP address>
Note: The -C option indicates compression, which speeds up transmission through the tunnel.

For example:

ssh -C joe@remote.computer.xyz
or:
ssh -C mike@192.168.1.1
or
ssh -C 192.168.1.1 -l mike
Note: -l specifies the login id.


If the SSH server is listening on a port other than port 22 (the default), you can specify that in your connection (with the -p option). For example, if the SSH server is listening on port 11022, connect:

ssh -C joe.friday@remote.computer.xyz:11022
or
ssh -C remote.computer.xyz -p 11022 -l joe.friday

If you have made a public/private key using ssh-keygen, the private key must be stored in /home/user/.ssh. The key should be accessible only to user

sudo chmod 600 /home/user/.ssh/identity
or
sudo chmod 600 /home/user/.ssh/id_rsa 

To login with the key:

ssh -C remote.computer.xyz -p 11022 -l joe.friday

Note: You can run the command as a menu item, but the command must be "run in terminal."

Port forwarding through SSH

See Using SSH to Port Forward for full details.

In brief, use

ssh -C <remote ip> -p <SSH tunnel port> -L <local port>:<remote computer>:<remote port> -l <user>

This specifies that any communications from your computer (localhost) going out through <local port> will be transmitted securely through the the SSH tunnel port. To use VNC through the tunnel, you would use an application like Krdc or Vinagre:

krdc vnc:/localhost:<local port>

Note that for VNC, the default <local port> is 5900. In general, a remote VNC server (such as Krfb) is also listening on the default <remote port> 5900 as well. The default <SSH tunnel port> is 22, as discussed above. All these can be changed, however, if you desire greater security.

For me, I noticed that I had to set <remote computer> to be the internal LAN IP address of the remote computer (such as 192.168.1.155) instead of the remote router's IP address, which is specified in <remote IP>. (If the remote computer has a static IP address (i.e. is directly connected to the Internet without an intervening router), then <remote computer> and <remote ip> would be the same.)

Example: For extra security, my SSH Server uses <SSH tunnel port>=11022. I want to VNC to a remote computer on a remote LAN with a router whose IP address is <remote ip> = 244.205.123.123. The remote computer to which I want to connect has a static IP address within the remote LAN of <remote computer> = 192.168.1.155. I have set up a Krfb VNC server on this computer that is listening on <remote port> = 6912 (instead of the default 5900). I setup port forwarding on the router of this remote LAN to forward port 6912 to this server computer. I want to VNC to this remote computer from my laptop, through the Internet. My laptop VNC client (Krdc) will use the default <local port> = 5900. My name is <user> = joe.friday. This is my story.

ssh -C 244.205.123.123 -p 11022 -L 5900:192.168.1.155:6912 -l joe.friday
krdc vnc:/localhost:5900

If you have set up a private/ public key pair with a passphrase, or if your SSH server requires a passphrase, of course, you will be prompted for the passphrase after issuing the SSH command.

Note: Port forwarding assumes that the ports are also forwarded through the router(s) and through any firewalls. See the documentation for your router(s) and firewall to learn how to do this. The advantage of SSH tunneling is that only the <SSH tunnel port> needs to be open and forwarded by a router. All encrypted communications will go through your router using this single port. This is what makes the communications secure.

PuTTY

PuTTY is a GTK-based GUI client-interface for SSH connections and eases the setup for port forwarding, SSH public key authentication, and automated login.

sudo apt-get install putty

A user would run Putty to create the SSH tunnel (instead of the ssh command) and then run Krdc. Note that PuTTY security keys are not generally compatible with SSH security keys. I was not able to get PuTTY to work with Krdc.

Connect using SSH Agent

With SSH Agent you can automate the use of public key authentication and open an XDM or VNC session using a script. See this tutorial.

Setup an SSH server

Install the OpenSSH server:

sudo apt-get install openssh-server

Note: The OpenSSH server can also be installed when doing a server installation as an option from the LiveCD.

Note: An OpenSSH server can also be set up on a Windows server using Cygwin. See these instructions.

Limit authorized SSH users

See How to limit the user accounts that can connect through SSH.

OpenSSH Public Key Authentication

See this OpenSSH Public Key Authentication Tutorial.

In brief, it is necessary to generate a public / private key pair. On your client machine, generate the pair:

ssh-keygen

A prompt asks for a passphrase. If you wish to use SSH without a password from a secure client (to which no one but you has access), leave the passphrase blank. If you enter a passphrase, you will be asked for this passphrase each time you use the SSH client. By default, a 2048-bit RSA key pair is generated and stored in the /home/user/.ssh folder. The private key is named id_rsa and is meant to stay in that folder. The public key is id_rsa.pub and is meant to be copied to the SSH server. On the SSH server, there is a similar folder /home/user/.ssh (for whichever user is hosting the SSH server). In that folder is a file called authorized_keys2. The contents of id_rsa.pub must be copied into that authorized_keys2 file. (You can use a text editor or can concatenate the files with the cat command).

To keep keys private, they should be accessible only to user, the owner of the file. For example,

chmod 600 /home/user/.ssh/id_rsa

This makes the file only accessible to user. You could also make the entire .ssh folder accessible only to user:

chmod 700 /home/user/.ssh

VNC

Virtual Network Computing (VNC) mirrors the desktop of a remote ("server") computer on your local ("client") computer (it is not a separate remote login, as is XDMCP). A user on the remote desktop must be logged in and running a VNC server (such as Krfb or Vino). Keyboard and mouse events are transmitted between the two computers. VNC is platform-independent —- a VNC viewer on one operating system can usually connect to a VNC server on any other operating system.

Krfb VNC server

Krfb is the default VNC server in Kubuntu/KDE (use Vino in Ubuntu/Gnome). It can be started from:

Applications menu -> Internet -> Krfb

  • You can change the listening port in the Network section. Your router must forward this port to your computer (or you must use an SSH tunnel). A user trying to connect must know the listening port as well and explicitly specify it during the VNC connection.
  • You can accept uninvited connections in the Security section. You can require a password for these connections.
  • A user can connect using Krdc or any other VNC client.
How to use Krfb with SSH tunneling securely

It is less secure to leave Krfb's listening port open to the Internet, even with a password. (This can expose you to password cracking attempts.)

It is more secure to use SSH to tunnel your VNC connection. Under SSH port forwarding, Krfb's listening port is the <remote port>. To increase security, this listening port can be changed from the default 5900. Only the Kfrb server and the SSH client need to specify the <remote port> in a secure connection.

X11VNC Server
  • To install an X11VNC server to share your desktop with other computer, type each of these commands in order:
   sudo apt-get install x11vnc
   mkdir ~/.vnc
   x11vnc -storepasswd YOUR_PASSWORD ~/.vnc/x11vnc.pass
   echo "/usr/bin/x11vnc -rfbauth ~/.vnc/x11vnc.pass -o ~/.vnc/x11vnc.log -loopbg -display :0" > ~/.kde/Autostart/x11vnc.sh
   chmod +x ~/.kde/Autostart/x11vnc.sh
  • You can test the server by running the shell script:
~/.kde/Autostart/x11vnc.sh
and after restarting KDE, the script should start the VNC server automatically.
  • For customization of x11vnc server, edit the commands in the x11vnc.sh file enter after viewing "man:/x11vnc" in Konqueror, where a description of parameters for x11vn is given.
Using VNC with SSH

See Using VNC for additional information.

Krdc VNC client

Krdc is the default VNC client in Kubuntu. Use Vinagre in Ubuntu/Gnome.

  • K-Menu -> Internet -> Krdc
  • To connect to a VNC server, simply type
krdc vnc:/<remote IP>
  • If the remote (Krfp) VNC server is using a <remote port> other than the default 5900 port, use
krdc vnc:/<remote IP>:<remote port>
  • Krdc can also connect to a Windows server using RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol).
krdc rdp:/<remote IP>:<remote port>
Using Krdc VNC client with SSH

See this howto for an automated setup using a script (it did not work for me, but it might for you).

In brief, you would initiate an SSH tunnel with port forwarding using Putty or the command line:

ssh -C <remote ip> -p <SSH tunnel port> -L <local port>:<remote computer>:<remote port> -l <user>
then you would start Krdc:
krdc vnc:/localhost:<local port>

<local port> will usually be the default 5900, in which case you could simply use

krdc vnc:/localhost
XVNC4Viewer VNC Client

You can also install XVNC4Viewer (if you prefer it over Krdc) using:

sudo apt-get install xvnc4viewer

FreeNX

FreeNX is a remote desktop display server/client solution that natively incorporates SSH tunneling (unlike VNC). It is therefore more secure than VNC (unless VNC is coupled with SSH tunneling).

FreeNX Server

The Free server .deb package can be downloaded from No Machine free server downloads.

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/freenx-team/ubuntu intrepid main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/freenx-team/ubuntu intrepid main
  • Install the package:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get install freenx
FreeNX Client

Download the self-installing .deb file from No Machine Client downloads.

XDMCP

XDMCP allows a separate remote login by an authorized user. This login is separate from the local user.

  • XDMCP is not secure over the Internet and should only be used within a LAN. It cannot be tunnelled through SSH. It is turned off by default in Ubuntu. To enable it, edit the KDE configuration file:
kate /etc/kde3/kdm/kdmrc
  • Find and change the line from false to true so that it reads:
[Xdmcp]
Enable=true

Telnet

VPN

OpenVPN

OpenVPN is a free, pseudo-open-source VPN solution. Installation instructions for the source package are available at the website.

LTSP (Thin client support)

LTSP adds thin-client support to Linux servers. The package is free, GPL-licensed, and the client can be used to run programs on either Linux or Windows LTSP servers. Installation instructions are here.

Web meetings

Web meeting software allows video conferencing among many clients, with one server as host.

DimDim

DimDim OpenSource Edition is a free community version of a commercial product of the same name. Scheduling and recording to notes are not available in the community edition, but the other features are. Servers are bundled into a VMWare appliance for easy installation on any platform.

WebHuddle

WebHuddle is a free, open source Java-based browser client (and server) for web meetings.

Security

Ubuntu by default is a fairly safe system. However, if you intend to use Ubuntu as a server, or for critical applications in which loss of data (by accident or by malicious intrusion) would be disastrous, you should learn how to make Ubuntu more secure. A good introduction to Ubuntu Security Best Practices is available.

Firewall

Network communications go through "channels" called ports. You can restrict which ports are available ("open") for network communications, creating a barricade to unwanted network intrusion. Firewalls do this job for you. But I guarantee that if you install one before you know how to use it that one or more networking programs on your system will stop working. Read every bit of documentation about a firewall before installing it -- you won't regret the time invested. All of these packages modify iptables, which is the set of rules that controls network access in and out of your computer. (You can modify iptables manually from the command line, as well, but if you are that much of an expert, you probably don't need this guide.)

Firestarter

Firestarter is an intuitive firewall manager used to set the iptables values which provide firewall capabilities in Linux (including Ubuntu). It has a very easy-to-use GUI.

sudo apt-get install firestarter

Guarddog

Guarddog is a GUI firewall configuration utility that has been used for KDE. It has a complex array of configuration, and is difficult to use for some beginners.

sudo apt-get install guarddog

Uncomplicated Firewall

Uncomplicated Firewall is installed in Ubuntu Intrepid Ibex by default, but is disabled by default. It is configurable through the command-line interface (i.e. Konsole). See this forum thread , or this usage tutorial for tips on how to set up and use it. If not installed, it can be installed:

apt-get install ufw
Gufw

Gufw is a graphical user interface for Uncomplicated Firewall. A self-installing .deb file is available from the website. For sample screenshots see this UbuntuGeek guide.

Anti-virus

If you are running a file server, interface frequently with Windows drives, or use virtualization, you will want a virus checker for your Windows files.

ClamAV

ClamAV is the open source virus tool for Linux. To install ClamAV with a KDE frontend:

sudo apt-get install klamav

Anti-spam

Spam Assasin

SpamAssasin is written in perl, and is mostly for use with a server (such as a groupware server or Apache).

Rootkit checkers

Rootkits are malicious trojan-like programs to allow an intruder to become a root user and therefore have complete administrative control over the system. There aren't many rootkits in the wild for Linux. Still, this is a growing security problem (especially in other operating systems) and it is a matter of time before more rootkits appear in Linux. Checking for rootkits isn't always successful from a system that is already infected. Your rootkit checker should therefore be run from another system, or a USB pendrive with a Ubuntu LiveCD installation. See the rootkit checker manuals for instructions how to do this. If you are infected with a rootkit, you must backup all your files and re-install your system. (Thank goodness this is easy with Ubuntu, unlike with other operating systems).

Chkrootkit

Chkrootkit checks locally for signs of a rootkit. See the chkrootkit manual for usage instructions.

Install:
sudo apt-get install chkrootkit
Run:
sudo ./chkrootkit

Rootkit Hunter

Rootkit Hunter is compatible with (K)ubuntu systems. See the usage instructions.

Install:
sudo apt-get install rkhunter
Run:
sudo rkhunter

Security hardening

Nmap

Nmap is a free open source utility for network exploration (including showing open ports and running services) and security auditing. Install:

sudo apt-get install nmap

Scan your own PC:

nmap localhost

(Once you have found out which ports are open, use a firewall to close the ones you don't want open.)

Nmap GUI

Install:

sudo apt-get install nmapfe

Or you can try

Install:

sudo apt-get install zenmap

Nessus

Nessus is a proprietary comprehensive vulnerability scanning suite that is free for personal, non-enterprise usage. See the website for details.

AppArmor

AppArmor is a set of security enhancements developed by Novell for SUSE Linux. It is installed in (K)ubuntu by default.

Disable AppArmor

AppArmor can prevent some services from running as expected. To disable it:

/etc/init.d/apparmor stop
update-rc.d -f apparmor remove
apt-get remove apparmor apparmor-utils

SELinux

SE Linux (Security Enhanced Linux) is an NSA (US National Security Administration) recommended set of tools for enhanced security in Linux systems. It enforces strict access controls (privileges) and is meant for mission-critical installations. It is not suitable for the casual desktop user. It was first available in Hardy Heron and is being updated for Intrepid Ibex. It is not compatible with AppArmor (which must first be removed).

sudo apt-get install selinux

Servers

You can have a GUI desktop with an Ubuntu Server. If you intend such as setup (or want to use packages that require server capabilities, such as Drupal with Apache, etc.), then it is best to install Ubuntu Server edition first and then install the Ubuntu (Gnome) desktop afterwards. For complete information see the Ubuntu Server Guide.

Note that Intrepid Ibex is not a long-term support version, and there are many changes from Hardy Heron to Intrepid Ibex, including some new bugs in the Intrepid Ibex desktop. Unless new features, such as Xen (virtualization) support or the Tomcat (Java) server, are desired, many users recommend Hardy Heron's stability whenever a server/desktop combination is intended.

  • Download the latest Ubuntu Server ISO image from Ubuntu downloads.
  • See this guide for burning the ISO image to a CD.
  • Use the CD for installation of the server.

LAMP server installation

During server installation, you will have the option of installing a LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, pHp) server stack. Many (but not all) open source servers use this integrated server stack. Drupal, for example, needs to have a LAMP server installed. If you intend to install a groupware server, however, make sure it is compatible with a LAMP server stack before choosing this option. Many groupware servers will install LAMP (or their own variation) automatically, so you do not need to install the LAMP stack. Others will install and use postgreSQL instead of MySQL, so you would not need to install a LAMP server.

Other servers

During server installation, you can choose other servers to install, as well. These include a Mail server (Postfix with Dovecot), a DNS server (bind9), the OpenSSH server, a print server, a Tomcat Java web server, a Samba file server (for use with Windows networks), and a virtual machine host (Xen). Again, if you are using a groupware solution, you should be careful about installing these services, as they may conflict with similar (but competing) servers which the groupware solution will install by default.

OpenSSH server

OpenSSH allows encrypted communications through a designated secure port. The OpenSSH server can be installed as an option during the Ubuntu Server LiveCD installation. Also see setting up an SSH server.

Postfix (Mail Server)

Postfix is a free open source mail server. It can be installed as the "Mail server" option when installing the Ubuntu server from the LiveCD. It interfaces directly to Dovecot, the free open source IMAP and POP3 server.

Bind9 (DNS server)

BIND DNS servers are the most commonly used on the Internet. Bind9 is the current edition and is installed by selecting the "DNS server" option when installing Ubuntu server from the LiveCD. See the usage instruction here.

Apache Tomcat (Java server)

Tomcat is a free open source platform from Apache which provides a "pure Java" HTTP web server environment for Java code to run (see here for more info).

It is not part of the Apache2 web server. Installation can be done by checking the "Install Tomcat server" option at the time of the initial Ubuntu server installation from LiveCD.

Xen virtual machine host

Xen is a free open source virtualization platform that allows the host to run "guest" operating systems simultaneously (see here for more info). Xen implementation in the (K)ubuntu server is based on integration with KVM, the kernel-based virtualization platform in Linux. KVM integrates with QEMU components, which have been merged with Xen.

Note: KVM requires a 64-bit processor with a virtualization extension, i.e. an Intel VT or AMD-V CPU, therefore this package currently is successful only with the 64-bit Ubuntu server installation and on those CPUs.

Installation can be done by checking the "Install virtual machine host" option at the time of the initial Ubuntu server installation from LiveCD.

Print server

Ubuntu uses the CUPS print server, which is integrated into the desktop. Installing a print server in Ubuntu Server is necessary only if you do not intend to use a desktop (i.e. you intend a "headless" server). Because this guide is orientated towards users who will install a Ubuntu desktop on top of the server, please see Ubuntu server documentation for this option.

Apache2 Webserver with PHP and Perl support

To install an Apache webserver (but not the entire LAMP stack) with both PHP and Perl CGI support, see this guide.

Network Monitoring and Management

Monitor your network or datacenter with a framework of utilities. Comparable to IBM Tivoli (which can cost thousands of dollars), these solutions are generally available as either community or enterprise editions.

  • Hyperic is an open-source network monitoring framework that can be used in either a datacenter or a cloud environment (it is used for Amazon Cloud). Both a free community version and a subscription enterprise version are available.
  • Groundwork OpenSource offers a community edition that integrates other packages such as Nagios, Nmap, and others. There is a subscription enterprise version as well. It has its roots in a university setting.
  • OpenQRM is the GPL-licensed, free open-source community successor to the very popular network monitoring solution Qlusters. It is available as a Debian/Ubuntu package. See the website for details.
  • Canonical offers the Landscape network management service for $150 per node, with a free trial available.
  • Zenoss is a commercial network monitoring subscription package (about $150/node) with a limited free "core" edition also available.

Nagios

Nagios is a free open source network monitoring solution. It is available as a package installation in Ubuntu. It is administered from a web interface (http://localhost/nagios) and is expandable using a large number of available plugins. Install:

sudo apt-get install nagios3

Add the Ubuntu desktop to a server

Once you have completed installation of your Ubuntu server, you can add an Ubuntu desktop to it. This can only be done as root.

  • Login with the administrator login/password which you created during Ubuntu Server installation.
  • Create a root user password
sudo passwd root
and enter the password you intend to use for root
  • Login with root user privileges
sudo -s

(Note: To use this command, your user must be part of the sudo group. Use your user's password, not the root password.)

  • Update your server
apt-get update
apt-get upgrade
  • Install the Ubuntu desktop
apt-get install ubuntu-desktop

Go get some coffee. And some lunch. Perhaps a movie. Come back later. When you get back to the command line prompt after installation is complete, reboot. Now you will have an "Ubuntu server."

Internet Cafe software

Internet Cafe (or CyberCafe) software is specialized LAN-administration software that includes time usage monitoring, billing, and administration. It can also be used in schools, libraries, and organizations with multiple monitored workstations requiring usage limits.

OutKafe

OutKafe is a free, open-source, GPL-licensed cybercafe solution based on a postgreSQL database server stack. It is run on hundreds of sites. It is GTK-based.

OpenKiosk

OpenKiosk is a free open source multi-platform server/client solution for administering and monitoring groups of workstations, such as in libraries, school labs, and internet cafes. Installation is from source files. See the website for details.

CafePilot

CafePilot is a free multi-platform Java-based server/client solution for real-time monitoring and billing of Cybercafe workstations. A complete custom Ubuntu-based LiveCD server/multiple-client solution (including OS and many applications for unlimited workstations) is available for $100 here.

Enterprise Network Firewall

IPCop

IPCop is a free open source (GPL-licensed) firewall solution for use as an independent appliance (on a dedicated PC) in an enterprise network. It allows remote management and can protect multiple servers, including web and email servers. IPSec-based OpenVPN is supported. The CD image .iso and other files can be downloaded here. Installation instructions are on the website.

SmoothWall

SmoothWall Express is an award-winning, free, open source (with a GPL license) firewall solution for use as an independent appliance (on a dedicated PC) in an enterprise network. Download the installation CD .iso image here (server OS included), burn onto a CD, and install on a new, dedicated PC. Many features, however, such as VPN server, database access authentications, and content filtering are only implemented in a commercial version, however, and are not available in the community version.

Endian

Endian is a very robust, free, open source universal threat management appliance similar to IPCop and Smoothwall. It also incorporates OpenVPN. Like Smoothwall, Dansguardian is used for content filtering (and is included in the community edition). Commercial and hardware versions with some additional features, automatic updates, and professional support are available. See the website for details.

Tips & Tricks

Run Command

You can run any application in your path using the Run Command. Use Alt+F2.

Turn off Hot Keys

This is the most evil option on any operating system, in my opinion. A mis-stroke enables any number of random events. Unfortunately, this problem is pervasive in operating systems and is difficult to turn off.

System -> Administration-> Advanced -> Input Actions -> General Settings -> check "Disable KHotKeys daemon"
System -> Administration-> Advanced -> Input Actions -> Gestures Settings -> check "Disable mouse gestures globally"

If you wish to be selective about it (this doesn't often work, however), start by disabling unnecessary desktop hotkeys.

System -> Administration-> Advanced -> Keyboard & Mouse -> Keyboard Shortcuts

Also, you may want to deactivate linking gestures to sticky and slow keys:

System -> Administration -> Accessibility -> Activation Gestures -> uncheck "Use gestures for activating sticky keys and slow keys"

Note: You probably will have to disable hotkeys in many applications, as well.

Hotkeys from the Synaptics Touchpad can be selectively turned off using this information from the Ubuntu documentation.

Run Ubuntu LiveCD from a USB pendrive

The Ubuntu LiveCD can be installed on and run from a USB pendrive. Settings can be "persistently" saved (but the LiveCD kernel modules can not be upgraded). Programs can be installed and run, however, and files saved to the USB drive. (The installed programs will remain installed). See these Pendrivelinux instructions. An Ubuntu Live CD is needed to do the install.

The USB "LiveCD" can also be used to install Ubuntu on computers (including netbooks) that do not have CD-ROM/DVD drives.

USB pendrives to be used to run Ubuntu should have a minimum of 2 Gb (preferably 4 Gb). If you wish to install a fast, fully functional Linux system on a pendrive that has less memory than that, use PuppyLinux.

Create a boot CD to allow booting from the USB drive

Many computers do not allow booting from a USB drive (but they do allow booting from the CD-ROM). You can create a CD-ROM using these Pendrivelinux instructions and set your BIOS to boot from this CD-ROM. When you boot from this CD-ROM, it will use the bootup files on the Ubuntu USB drive you previously created (in the step above).

USB Creator

You can make a "LiveCD" on a USB pendrive using USB Creator and either a LiveCD or an .iso version of the LiveCD stored on your hard drive. See these instructions or these PendriveLinux instructions. Install:

sudo apt-get install usb-creator

Associate default applications

System -> Administration-> Advanced -> File Associations -> x-content -> video-dvd -> Applications Preference order -> Add...
then choose your favourite media player. There are similar options for Blu-Ray (video-bluray) and HD DVD (video-hddvd). Set each individually.
  • To assign the default player for playing mpegs (or other video formats):
System -> Administration-> Advanced -> File Associations -> video -> mpeg -> Applications Preference order -> Add...
then choose your favourite media player. You can do this for a host of video file formats, including .wmv (x-ms-wmv, or Microsoft WMV format), .flv (x-flv, or Flash video), quicktime, and so on.

Capture a screenshot

See this tutorial.

Save any streaming Flash video

Most Flash videos download to the /tmp directory while you watch the video, creating a randomly-named video file there (such as Flashuh4G6s). When you close the webpage, this file in the /tmp directory will be erased. After the entire video has downloaded, but before you close the webpage, copy that file (such as Flashuh4G6s) to your home directory (where it will not be erased). Of course, for this to work, you must change your Flash (or Gnash) settings to allow an unlimited buffer. While watching your Flash video, right click to bring up the Flash -> Settings window. Set the Buffer to "Unlimited."

Once you have copied the file, rename it appropriately with the .flv added to the filename. You can then watch it using VLC or Mplayer.

Here is another method that involves making a symbolic link.

Run a KDE desktop from Ubuntu

It is possible to install the KDE-based desktop (the default in Kubuntu) in Ubuntu.

apt-get install kubuntu-desktop

There is a risk of software bloat and some incompatibilities between modules when doing this. At login, you can choose (as an option) whether to start the KDE (Kubuntu) desktop or the Gnome (Ubuntu) desktop. Nevertheless, when there are two modules trying to perform the same function (one from each desktop), it is possible to have conflicts.

Kill (end) a process

There are many tricks to try to fix a frozen PC. Press Alt+F2, and use killall to end the frozen application. Example:

killall amarok
killall firefox

Another trick to try is pressing AltGr+SysRq+K (RightAlt+PrintScreen+K). This will log you out. But, what happens if this does not work? Try pressing Ctrl+Alt+F1,login, enter your password and run:

sudo killall gdm
sudo startx

View hidden files

In the Nautilus file manager, press:

Ctrl+ H

Alien

Alien is a method for converting (Red Hat) .rpm packages into (Debian) .deb packages. It is not reliable and converted packages must be tested extensively for functionality, with line changes often required. It is often more reliable to create (Debian) .deb packages from source, and even the Alien software maintainers do not recommend using Alien for important packages. To keep alien from changing the version number, use the following command

alien -k rpm_file_name.rpm

Convert the package.rpm into a package.deb

alien -d package-name.rpm

Convert the package.rpm into a package.deb, and install the generated package

alien -i package-name.rpm

To convert .rpm to debian

sudo alien -k *.rpm

Software Troubleshooting

Permissions error on program startup

If you get a permissions error, try the following:

sudo chown -R user /home/user 
Note: Replace user with the actual username. This command changes the owner of the folder /home/user to user. -R means "recursively", i.e. including all subfolders.

CD-ROM Troubleshooting

If you receive the "cdrecord has no permission to open the device" error while burning using a CD burner, open a terminal and type:

 sudo chmod 777 /dev/scd0
Note: replace "/dev/scd0" with your own device.
Note: chmod 777 is the universal option for granting full permission to a folder. The 777 mask indicates that read, write, and execute permission is given to all users.


Licenses

Linux is largely a community of volunteers and as such represents one of the largest altruistic efforts on earth. This includes companies who decide to contribute their own software into the public domain for free use. The continued success of sharing depends on licenses that keep software free and usable for anyone who wants to use it. However, there must be a method for Linux users and developers to make money, as well. Licensing helps protect each of these efforts. See the Wikipedia Free Software Licensing article and the GNU operating system licensing page for more complete information.

GPL license

The GPLv3 license intends that the software module or package is free to use in any environment, and furthermore, any software that relies on that GPLv3-licensed module must in turn also be completely free. Commercial and proprietary software packages can't use or incorporate GPLv3-licensed modules.

LGPL license

The Lesser GPL license intends that the software module or package is free to use in any environment, including in commercial and proprietary software packages. This allows companies to develop proprietary packages which includes LGPL-licensed modules, from which they can make a profit. The disadvantage is that their products (which benefit from the LGPL-licensed modules) are not required to be in the public domain in turn. (Many companies often later donate their entire package into the public domain, however, after they no longer make a profit from them.)

Proprietary licenses

There is a vast array of proprietary licenses, all different. You never know what your limitations for software are unless you read every word. Most are attempts by lawyers to have an opportunity to create a lawsuit in the future. Some may be called "free" licenses but have many limitations which you will not be aware of until you are in the middle of a lawsuit. No license outside of the GPLv3 license is recommended. Be careful when committing your organization to a mission-critical software package with a proprietary license. Also see this outstanding article on the Open Source Enterprise Trap.

Requests

Place your requests here.

  • How can I contribute?

Как да разберете коя версия на Ubuntu, която използвате

Open the command terminal and type: Отворете командния терминал и вид:

lsb_release -a lsb_release-а 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] How to find out which kernel you are using Как да разбера кой ядрото, която използвате

uname -r uname-R 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Newer Versions of Kubuntu По-нови версии на Kubuntu

   * Ubuntu has a six month release cycle, with releases in April and October. Ubuntu е от шест месеца съобщение на цикъла, с пресата през април и октомври.
   * Karmic Koala (9.10) , scheduled for release in October 2009. Karmic Koala (9,10), планирани за пускане през октомври 2009. This will not be an LTS version. Това няма да бъде LTS версия.
   * (10.04 LTS), scheduled for release in April 2010, will be the next LTS (Long-term support) version. (10,04 LTS), планирани за пускане през април 2010 г., ще бъде следващата LTS (Дългосрочна поддръжка) версия. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Older Versions of Ubuntu По-стари версии на Ubuntu

   * Intrepid Ibex (8.10) (supported until April 2010) Безстрашен ибекс (8,10) (поддържа до април 2010 г.)
   * Hardy Heron (8.04 LTS) (Long Term Support version with desktop support until April 2011 and server support until April 2013) Харди Херон (8,04 LTS) (дълготрайна поддръжка версия с десктоп подкрепа до април 2011 г. и сървъра подкрепа до април 2013)
   * Gutsy Gibbon (7.10) (no longer supported) Страстен гибон (7,10) (вече не се поддържа)
   * Feisty Fawn (7.04) (no longer supported) Възрастна светлобежов (7,04) (вече не се поддържа)
   * Dapper Drake (6.06 LTS) (Long Term Support version with desktop support until June 2009 and server support until June 2011) Dapper Дрейк (6,06 LTS) (дълготрайна поддръжка версия с десктоп подкрепа до юни 2009 г. и сървъра подкрепа до юни 2011 г.) 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] General Notes Общи бележки

   * Ubuntuguide is unofficial and is not associated with Canonical Ltd. Ubuntuguide е неофициална и не е свързано с канонически ООД
   * Ubuntu allows a user to accomplish tasks from either a menu-driven Graphical User Interface (GUI) or from a text-based command-line interface (CLI). Ubuntu позволява на потребителя да изпълни задачите, или от меню, задвижвано от графичния потребителски интерфейс (GUI) или от текстово базирани на командния ред интерфейс (CLI). In Ubuntu, the command-line-interface terminal is called Terminal, which is started: Applications -> Accessories -> Terminal. В Ubuntu, на командния ред интерфейс терминал е наречено терминал, който е започнал: Приложения -> Принадлежности -> Terminal. 
Text inside the grey dotted box like this should be put into the command-line Terminal. Текст в сива пунктирана кутия като това трябва да бъдат поставени в командния ред на терминала. 
   * Many changes to the operating system can only be done by a User with Administrative privileges. Много промени в операционната система може да бъде направено само от потребители с административни привилегии. 'sudo' elevates a User's privileges to the Administrator level temporarily (ie when installing programs or making changes to the system). "sudo" elevates на потребителя привилегии на ниво администратор временно (т.е. при инсталиране на програми или извършване на промени в системата). Example: Пример: 
sudo bash sudo трясване 
   * 'gksudo' should be used instead of 'sudo' when opening a Graphical Application through the "Run Command" dialog box. "gksudo" трябва да се използва вместо 'sudo', когато отваряте графични приложения чрез "Run командване" диалоговия прозорец. Example: Пример: 
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list gksudo gedit / т.н. / ап / sources.list 
   * "man" command can be used to find help manual for a command. "Човекът" команда може да се използва за да получите помощ за ръчна команда. For example, "man sudo" will display the manual page for the "sudo" command: Например, "човекът sudo" ще покаже ръчно страница за "sudo" команда: 
man sudo мъж sudo 
   * While "apt-get" and "aptitude" are fast ways of installing programs/packages, you can also use the Synaptic Package Manager , a GUI method for installing programs/packages. Докато "ап-да" и "стаж" са бързи начини за инсталиране на програми / пакети, можете да използвате Synaptic пакет Управител, A GUI метод за инсталиране на програми / пакети. Most (but not all) programs/packages available with apt-get install will also be available from the Synaptic Package Manager. Повечето (но не всички) програми / пакети с ап-да инсталирате също ще бъдат на разположение от Synaptic пакет мениджър. In this guide, when you see В това ръководство, когато видите 
sudo apt-get install package sudo ап-да инсталирате пакет 

you can search for package in Synaptic and install it that way. Можете да търсите за пакет в Synaptic и да го инсталирате този начин.

   * "Applications" means the bottom-left (or upper-left) button, akin to the Start button in Microsoft Windows. "Приложения" означава "отдолу-ляво (или горния ляв) бутон, близък до старт бутона в Microsoft Windows.
   * If you are using the 64-bit version, replace any "i386" with "amd64" Ако използвате 64-битова версия, замени всеки "i386" с "AMD64" 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Installing Ubuntu Инсталиране на Ubuntu [ edit ] [Редактиране] Hardware requirements Хардуер изисквания

Ubuntu Jaunty Jackalope runs well with as little as 384 Mb RAM. Ubuntu жизнерадостен Jackalope работи добре с по-малко 384 Mb RAM. (The installer requires a minimum of 256 Mb RAM, while the alternative installer can run using only 192 Mb RAM.) Netbooks can run Ubuntu Jaunty Jackalope. (Инсталиращата изисква минимум 256 MB RAM, докато алтернативният монтажник може да работи, като се използват само 192 Mb RAM.) Netbooks може да работи Ubuntu жизнерадостен Jackalope.

The install takes between 3-4 Gb hard drive space, and 8 - 10 Gb will be needed to run comfortably. На инсталацията отнема между 3/4 Gb хард диск пространство, и 8 - 10 Gb, ще се наложи да тичам комфортно.

If you have an older computer with less memory than this, consider Xubuntu (if between 256 Mb and 512 Mb RAM) or PuppyLinux or DSL (if less than 256 Mb RAM). Ако имате по-стар компютър с по-малко памет, отколкото това, помислете Xubuntu (ако е между 256 MB и 512 MB RAM) или PuppyLinux или DSL (ако е по-малко от 256 Mb RAM). [ edit ] [Редактиране] Fresh Installation Свежи Инсталация

Download the latest ISO image from Ubuntu 9.04 . See this guide for burning the ISO image to a CD. Свалете най-новите ISO изображение от Ubuntu 9,04. Виж това ръководство, за изгаряне на ISO образ на диск.

Use the CD for installation. Използване на диска за инсталиране. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Dual-Booting Windows and Ubuntu Dual-Начално зареждане Windows и Ubuntu

Rarely, a user may experience problems dual-booting Ubuntu and Windows. Рядко, потребителят може да изпита проблеми с двойна зареждане Ubuntu и Windows. In general, a Windows OS should be installed first, because its bootloader is very particular. Като цяло, A Windows ОС следва да бъде инсталиран на първо място, защото му bootloader е много специално. A Windows installation usually occupies the entire hard drive, so the partition needs to be shrunk, creating free space for the Ubuntu partition. А Windows инсталация обикновено заема целия твърд диск, така че този дял трябва да бъде shrunk, създаване на свободно място за Ubuntu дял. (You should clean up unnecessary files and defragment the drive before resizing.) The Windows partition can be resized from within Windows Vista using the shrink/resize option in the Administrative Tools --> Disk Management tool. (Трябва да се почисти излишните файлове и дефрагментирате диска, преди да преоразмерите.) На Windows дял може да бъде resized от Windows Vista с помощта на психиатър / оразмерите опция в Административния Инструменти -> Управление на дискове инструмент. If using Windows XP (or other Windows OS), use GParted partition manager to shrink the Windows partition and thereby leave free space on the hard drive for the Ubuntu partition. Ако използвате Windows XP (или друг Windows OS), използвайте GParted дял мениджър да се свие на Windows дял и по този начин се оставя свободно пространство на твърдия диск за Ubuntu дял. If done this way, there is no problem installing Ubuntu as the second operating system and it is done automatically from the Ubuntu LiveCD. Ако направи това, няма проблем с инсталирането на Ubuntu като втора операционна система и тя се извършва автоматично от Ubuntu LiveCD. Allow the Ubuntu LiveCD to install to "largest available free space." Оставете Ubuntu LiveCD за инсталиране на "най-голямата налична свободно пространство."

A Windows partition should be at least 20 Gb (recommended 30 Gb), and a Ubuntu partition at least 10 Gb (recommended 20 Gb). А Windows дял трябва да бъде най-малко 20 GB (препоръчително 30 GB) и Ubuntu дял най-малко 10 Gb (препоръчително 20 GB). Obviously, if you have plenty of disk space, make the partition for whichever will be your favoured operating system larger. Очевидно е, че ако имате достатъчно дисково пространство, да направи дял за което ще ви бъде облагодетелствана операционна система-големи. For a perspective on other partitioning schemes, see this Psychocats Guide to Partitioning . За перспектива за други разделителни схеми, вижте тази Psychocats Ръководство за разделяне.

Alternatives include: Възможности включват:

   * Wubi (Windows-based Ubuntu Installer), an officially supported dual-boot installer that allows Ubuntu to be run mounted in a virtual-disk within the Windows environment (which can cause a slight degradation in performance). Wubi (Windows-базирани Ubuntu Installer), официално се поддържа двойна обувка монтажника, който позволява на Ubuntu да се управлява, монтирани във виртуална-диск в Windows среда (което може да доведе до леко влошаване при изпълнение). Because the installation requires an intact functioning Windows system, it is recommended to install Ubuntu in this manner for short-term evaluation purposes only. Тъй като инсталацията изисква здрава функционираща система Windows, е препоръчително да инсталирате Ubuntu по този начин за краткосрочна оценка цели. A permanent Ubuntu installation should be installed in its own partition, with its own filesystem, and should not rely on Windows. Постоянен Ubuntu инсталация трябва да бъде инсталиран в своя собствен дял, със своя собствена файлова система, и не трябва да разчитате на Windows.
   * EasyBCD , a free Windows-based program that allows you to dual-boot Windows Vista and Ubuntu (as well as other operating systems) by configuring the Vista bootloader. EasyBCD, свободен Windows базирана програма, която ви позволява да двойствен-обувка Windows Vista и Ubuntu (както и други операционни системи) с конфигурирането на Vista bootloader. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Use Startup Manager to change Grub settings Използвайте Startup управител, за да промените настройките за бедни

Grub is the bootup utility that controls which OS to load by default and other bootup settings. Компилатори е зареждащата програма, която контролира OS, която да се зареди по подразбиране и други зареждащата настройки. You can change Grub settings from the Startup Manager: Можете да промените настройките на компилатори от Startup Управител:

System -> Administration -> Startup Manager Система -> Администрация -> Startup мениджър

If Startup Manager is not installed, install it: Ако Startup Мениджър не е инсталирана, да го инсталирате:

sudo apt-get install startupmanager sudo ап-да инсталирате startupmanager 
   Note: You can also edit the Grub settings manually from the command-line interface. Забележка: Можете да промените настройките на компилатори ръчно от командния ред интерфейс. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Dual-Booting Mac OS X and Ubuntu Dual-Начално зареждане Mac OS X и Ubuntu

Mac OS X has a similar structure to Linux (it is BSD Unix based). Mac OS X има сходна структура за Линукс (то е BSD Unix базирани). Dual-booting Mac OS X and Ubuntu detailed instructions can be found here . Dual-зареждане Mac OS X и Ubuntu подробни инструкции могат да бъдат намерени тук. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Installing Mac OS X after Ubuntu Настанявам Mac OS X след Ubuntu

   * If you decide to dual boot with OS X, choose ext2 as your partition type during the Ubuntu installation. Ако решите да двойствен обувка с OS X, изберете ext2 като дял вид по време на Ubuntu инсталация. (For this the Super Grub Disk CD is a useful utility. You can download the Super Grub .iso image file at forjamari.linex.org and burn the image to a CD-ROM.) (За това Супер компилатори диск CD е полезен полезност. Можете да изтеглите Супер компилатори. ISO имидж файл на forjamari.linex.org и горят образа на CD-ROM.) 
   * Once you have installed Ubuntu, edit the Grub start-up list: Щом имате инсталиран Ubuntu, редактирате компилатори началния етап списък: 
sudo nano /boot/grub/menu.lst sudo нано / обувка / ровя / menu.lst 
   and add the following lines: и да добавите следните редове: 
title Mac OS X Заглавие на Mac OS X 
root (hd0,0) коренче (hd0, 0) 
makeactive makeactive 
chainloader +1 chainloader 1 

Reboot your Mac and go to the terminal in Max OS X (if you have any issues booting, boot from your Mac OS X DVD). Рестартирайте вашия Mac и отидете до терминал в Макс OS X (ако имате някакви въпроси, зареждане, зареждане от вашия Mac OS X DVD). Press F8 and enter -s. Натиснете F8 и въведете-те години. Enter: Въведете:

fdisk -e /dev/rdisk0 Fdisk-д / dev/rdisk0 
flag 2 <--note that flag 2 is my Mac partition number two флаг 2 <- имайте предвид, че знамето 2 Mac дял е моят номер две 
quit затворите 
y Y 
reboot отскачам 
   * If are still unsure whether it is working correctly, use the Super Grub Disk CD and make grub active. Ако все още са сигурни дали то работи правилно, използвайте Супер компилатори диск CD и да ровя активни. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Installing Ubuntu after Mac OS X Инсталиране на Ubuntu след Mac OS X

   * If you get an error message during boot such as HFS+error in the bootloader, you can also use the Super Grub Disk for recovering Linux GRUB and the Windows MBR (Master Boot Record). Ако получите съобщение за грешка по време на зареждане, като например HFS + грешка в bootloader, можете да използвате Супер компилатори диск за възстановяване на GRUB Linux и Windows MBR (Master Обувка Запис). 
   * Once you have installed Ubuntu, edit the Grub start-up list: Щом имате инсталиран Ubuntu, редактирате компилатори началния етап списък: 
sudo nano /boot/grub/menu.lst sudo нано / обувка / ровя / menu.lst 
   and add the following lines: и да добавите следните редове: 
title Mac OS X Заглавие на Mac OS X 
root (hd0,0) коренче (hd0, 0) 
makeactive makeactive 
chainloader +1 chainloader 1 
   If you have issues with Mac OSX or Windows in GRUB, try changing the Mac OS X Grub entry Ако имате проблеми с Mac OSX или Windows в GRUB, опитайте се променя Mac OS X компилатори влизане 
   change root (hd0,0) to root (hd0,1) промяна корен (hd0, 0) до корен (hd0, 1) 

This means you will boot into partition number 1. Това означава, че ще стартира в дял номер 1. You can try any partition number until you get it right. Можете да опитате някоя дял номер, докато не получи това право. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Upgrading Intrepid to Jaunty Надграждането безстрашен да жизнерадостен

If you are using an older version of Ubuntu, you may wish to upgrade to Jaunty. Ако използвате по-стара версия на Ubuntu, може да искате да надстроите до наперен. A new installation is recommended to prevent software bloat. Новата инсталация се препоръчва да се предотврати софтуер подувам.

   * It is possible to do a distribution upgrade using Synaptic by clicking on the "Full Upgrade option." Възможно е да се направи разпределение надграждане чрез Synaptic, като кликнете върху "Пълен Upgrade опция." 
   * Alternatively, use the update-manager (all editions): Освен това, използването на актуализацията-мениджър (всички издания): 
sudo apt-get install update-manager sudo ап-да инсталирате актуализацията-мениджър 
sudo update-manager -d sudo актуализация-мениджър-D 
   * You can also use: Можете да използвате също: 
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade sudo ап-получите dist-ъпгрейд 

Screenshots of the upgrade process are available at UbuntuGeek upgrade guide . Снимки от играта на ъпгрейд процес са на разположение на UbuntuGeek надстроите ръководство. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Reinstalling applications after a fresh install Преинсталирането на заявления след прясна инсталирате

If you upgrade your Ubuntu system with a fresh install, it is possible to mark the packages and services installed on your old system (prior to the upgrade) and save the settings ("markings") into a file. Ако надстроите Ubuntu система с прясна инсталирате, е възможно да се отбележи пакети и услугите, инсталирани на вашия старата система (преди надстройката) и запишете настройките ( "маркировки") във файла. Then install the new version of Ubuntu and allow the system to reinstall packages and services using the settings saved in the "markings" file. След това инсталирайте новата версия на Ubuntu и позволяват на системата да преинсталирате пакети и услуги, използвайки настройките запаметяват в "маркировки" файл. For instructions, see this Ubuntu forum thread . За инструкции вижте тази Ubuntu форум темата. In brief: Накратко:

   * On the old system: Synaptic Package Manager -> File -> Save Markings На старата система: Synaptic пакет мениджър -> Файл -> Запис Маркировки
   * Save the markings file to an external medium, such as USB drive. Съхранете файла маркировки на външен носител, като USB устройство.
   * Complete the backup of your system's other important files (eg the /home directory) before the fresh install of the new system. Завършване на резервно копие на системата си на други важни файлове (напр. / начало директория) преди прясна инсталирате на новата система.
   * In the freshly installed new system, again open Synaptic Package Manager -> File -> Read markings and load the file on your USB drive (or other external storage) previously saved. В прясно инсталирана нова система, отново отворете Synaptic пакет мениджър -> Файл -> Прочети маркировки и заредете файла на вашия USB устройство (или други външни съхранение), предварително запаметени. 

Note: Many packages, dependencies, and compatibilities change between version of Ubuntu, so this method does not always work. Automated updates remains the recommended method. Забележка: Много от опаковки, зависимости и compatibilities промяна между версията на Ubuntu, така че този метод не винаги работи. Автоматични актуализации остава препоръчва метод. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Ubuntu Resources Ubuntu ресурси

   * Ubuntu Forums has a large community for online solutions and specific help. Ubuntu форуми има голяма общност за интернет решения и конкретни помогне.
   * UbuntuGeek's Tutorials, Howto's and Tips -- a collection of random tips in blog format UbuntuGeek на уроци, как и Съвети - колекция от случайни съвети в блог формат 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Gnome Project Gnome Проект

   * Gnome is the default desktop in Ubuntu. Gnome е по подразбиране работния плот в Убунту. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Ubuntu Screenshots and Screencasts Ubuntu Снимки от играта и Screencasts

There are old screenshots available at: Има стари снимки на екрани на разположение на адрес:

   * Phorolinux Screenshots Gallery Phorolinux Снимки Галерия
   * New screenshots of 9.04 Jaunty Jackalope: Нови снимки на екрани от 9,04 жизнерадостен Jackalope:
   * Modified Ubuntu Theme screenshot Променен Ubuntu Тема на екрана
   * The Coding Studio Ubuntu Screenshots В Кодиране Студио Ubuntu Изгледи
   * Ubuntu Videos at DailyMotion Ubuntu Videos най DailyMotion 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] New Applications Resources Нови приложения ресурси

   * GetDeb - Features the latest versions of software available from the official repositories as well as software not available in the official repositories. GetDeb - Функции на най-новите версии на софтуера достъпен от официалните хранилища, както и софтуер, не е на разположение в официалните хранилища. Available in easy-to-install .deb files (see Apt and Package Basics ). Предлага се в лесен за инсталиране. Дебютантка файлове (вж. Ап и пакет основи).
   * Top 100 Open source Applications Топ 100 приложения с отворен код 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Other *buntu guides and help manuals Други * buntu ръководства и наръчници Помощ

   * Kubuntuguide Kubuntuguide
   * Xubuntu Desktop Guide -- Xubuntu can run with as little as 256 Mb RAM. Xubuntu Desktop гид - Xubuntu може да работи с най-малко 256 MB RAM. It is better for older machines with limited resources. По-добре е за по-старите машини с ограничени ресурси. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Add Extra Ubuntu Repositories Добави Екстра Ubuntu хранилища

Software packages and programs are freely available for download at multiple online sites with standardized structures, called repositories. Софтуерни пакети и програми са свободно достъпни за сваляне на множество интернет сайтове с стандартизирани структури, наречени хранилища. There are repositories officially sanctioned and monitored by the Kubuntu/Ubuntu developer community, while other repositories are independently provided, without official sanction or supervision (and should be used with caution). Има хранилища официално санкционирани и наблюдавани от Kubuntu / Ubuntu Developer общност, докато други хранилища са самостоятелно, без официална санкция или надзор (и трябва да се използва с внимание). Additional information is available from the Ubuntu Repository Guide . Допълнителна информация можете да получите от хранилището на Ubuntu гид. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Types of Repositories Типове хранилища

   * There are four major package repository types in Ubuntu: Съществуват четири основни пакета хранилище типове в Убунту: 
       * main - Supported by Canonical. Основните - Поддържани от канонична. This is the major part of the distribution. Това е най-голямата част от дистрибуцията.
       * restricted - Software not licensed under the GPL (or similar software license), but supported by Canonical. ограничено - Софтуер не лицензирани под GPL (или подобен софтуер лиценз), но подкрепени от канонична.
       * universe - Software licensed under the GPL (or similar license) and supported by users. вселената - Софтуер, лицензирани под GPL (или подобен лиценз) и се поддържат от страна на потребителите.
       * multiverse - Software not licensed under the GPL (or similar license), but supported by users. multiverse - Софтуер не лицензирани под GPL (или подобен лиценз), но подкрепени от потребителите. 
   * There are also these additional types of repositories: Има също така тези допълнителни типове хранилища: 
       * jaunty-updates - Updates to official packages. жизнерадостен-актуализации - Актуализации на официалните пакети.
       * jaunty-backports - Current version software from Jaunty+1 (Karmic) that have been backported to Jaunty Jackalope. жизнерадостен-backports - Текуща версия софтуер от наперен 1 (Karmic), които са били backported да жизнерадостен Jackalope.
       * jaunty-proposed - Proposed updates & changes (bleeding edge stuff). жизнерадостен-предложената - Предложени промени & промени (кървене ръба неща). 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Third party repositories Трета страна хранилища

Software developers often maintain their own repositories, from which software packages can be downloaded and installed directly to your computer (if you add the repository to your list). Разработчици на софтуер често се запазят своите собствени хранилища, от софтуерни пакети, които може да бъде свален и инсталиран директно на вашия компютър (ако добавите към списъка си хранилище). Many of these third party repositories and software packages have never been reviewed by the (K)Ubuntu/Debian community and can present a security risk to your computer. Много от тези трети лица, хранилища и софтуерни пакети, никога не са били прегледани от (K) Ubuntu / Debian на Общността и могат да представляват риск за сигурността на вашия компютър. Trojans, backdoors, and other malicious software can be present at any unregulated repository. Троянски, backdoors и други зловреден софтуер може да се представи по всяко нерегламентирано хранилище. When using repositories not endorsed by the (K)ubuntu/Debian community, make sure you have utter confidence in that site before enabling the repository and installing a software package from it. При използване на хранилища не е одобрен от (K) Ubuntu / Debian общност, се уверете, че имате външния доверие в този сайт, преди да дава възможност на хранилище и инсталиране на софтуерния пакет от него. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Add Repositories using Synaptic Package Manager Добавяне на хранилища с Synaptic пакет мениджър

This is the preferred method. Това е предпочитаният метод.

   * System -> Administration -> Synaptic Manager -> Settings -> Repositories. Система -> Администрация -> Synaptic мениджър -> Настройки -> хранилища.
   * Here you can enable the repositories for Ubuntu Software and Third Party Software. Тук може да се даде възможност на хранилища за Ubuntu софтуер и софтуер от трети лица.
   * For Third Party Software select Add -> enter the repository's address. За трета страна Софтуер изберете Добави -> въведете хранилище на адрес. It will have a format similar to: Той ще има подобен формат на: 
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty main restricted дебютантка http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ жизнерадостен основните ограничен 
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty main restricted дебютантка-SRC http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ жизнерадостен основните ограничен 
       * Example: To add the Medibuntu repository, Add: Пример: За да добавите Medibuntu хранилище, добави: 
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ jaunty free non-free дебютантка http://packages.medibuntu.org/ жизнерадостен свободно несвободна 
       * Download the repository key to a folder. Изтегляне от хранилището ключът към папка. 
               * Example: The Medibuntu key can be downloaded from Пример: Medibuntu ключ може да бъде изтеглен от 
                       http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg 
           * Then add the key from: След това добавете ключа от: 
       System -> Administration -> Synaptic Manager -> Settings -> Repositories -> Authentication -> Import Key File... Система -> Администрация -> Synaptic мениджър -> Настройки -> хранилища -> Удостоверяване -> Импорт Ключови файл ... 
       * (Alternatively, you can manually add the key from the command line Terminal. See Add Repository keys .) (Освен това, можете ръчно да добавите ключ от командния ред на терминала. Вижте Добави хранилището ключове.) 
   * Refresh the package list from the new repository: Опресняване пакета списък от новите хранилище: 
       Synaptic -> Reload Synaptic -> Презареждане 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Manually add repositories Ръчно добавяне на хранилища

   * Do this at your own risk. Направете това на свой собствен риск. Modify the default Ubuntu sources.list only if you understand what you're doing. Модифицирайте по подразбиране Ubuntu sources.list, само ако сте разбрали това, което правите. Mixing repositories can break your system. Смесване хранилища могат да се счупят вашата система. For more information see the Ubuntu Command-line Repository guide . За повече информация вижте Ubuntu командване онлайн хранилището ръководство. 
       * Create a backup of your current list of sources. Създаване на резервно копие на текущия Ви списък с източници. 
sudo cp -p /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup sudo CP-P / и т.н. / ап / sources.list / т.н. / ап / sources.list_backup 

Note: sudo - runs the command with root privileges. Забележка: sudo - писти командата с корен привилегии. cp = copy. CP = копие. -p = prompt to overwrite if a file already exists. -P = ред да презапишете Ако файлът вече съществува.

       * Edit the list of sources: Редактиране на списъка на източници: 
sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list sudo нано / т.н. / ап / sources.list 
       or using a graphical editor: или с помощта на графичен редактор: 
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list gksudo gedit / т.н. / ап / sources.list 
           * Note: To use your local mirror you can add " xx. " Забележка: За да използвате местните огледалото можете да добавите "хх." before archive.ubuntu.com , where xx = your country code. преди archive.ubuntu.com, където ХХ = вашия код на страната. 
                   Example: deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty main restricted universe multiverse indicates a repository for Great Britain (gb). Пример: дебютантка http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu жизнерадостен основните ограничен вселената multiverse показва хранилище за Великобритания (GB). 
       * Here is a sample sources.list. Ето една извадка sources.list. At the end have been added repositories for Medibuntu and Google: В края са добавени хранилища за Medibuntu и Google: 
#deb cdrom:[Ubuntu 8.10 _Jaunty Jackalope_ - Release i386 (20081029.1)]/ jaunty main restricted # дебютантка CDROM: [Ubuntu 8,10 _Jaunty Jackalope_ - излизане i386 (20081029,1)] / жизнерадостен основните ограничен 
# See http://help.ubuntu.com/community/UpgradeNotes for how to upgrade to # Вижте http://help.ubuntu.com/community/UpgradeNotes за това как да надстроите до 
# newer versions of the distribution. # По-нови версии на дистрибуцията. 
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty main restricted дебютантка http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ жизнерадостен основните ограничен 
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty main restricted дебютантка-SRC http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ жизнерадостен основните ограничен 
## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the # # Майор бъг фиксира актуализации, произведени след окончателното освобождаване на 
## distribution. # # Разпределение. 
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates main restricted дебютантка http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ жизнерадостен-актуализации основните ограничен 
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates main restricted дебютантка-SRC http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ жизнерадостен-актуализации основните ограничен 
## NB software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu # # NB софтуер от това хранилище е изцяло Неподдържана от Ubuntu 
## team. # # Екип. Also, please note that software in universe WILL NOT receive any Също така, моля, имайте предвид, че софтуера в вселената няма да получите никаква 
## review or updates from the Ubuntu security team. # # Преразглеждане или актуализации от Ubuntu сигурност екип. 
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty universe дебютантка http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ жизнерадостен вселената 
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty universe дебютантка-SRC http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ жизнерадостен вселената 
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates universe дебютантка http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ жизнерадостен-актуализации на вселената 
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates universe дебютантка-SRC http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ жизнерадостен-актуализации на вселената 
## NB software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu # # NB софтуер от това хранилище е изцяло Неподдържана от Ubuntu  
## team, and may not be under a free licence. # # Екип, и не могат да бъдат под свободен лиценз. Please satisfy yourself as to Моля отговарят сами, че да  
## your rights to use the software. # # Правата ви да използвате софтуера. Also, please note that software in Също така, моля, имайте предвид, че софтуера в  
## multiverse WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu # # Multiverse няма да получавате всеки преглед или актуализации от Ubuntu 
## security team. # # Сигурността екип. 
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty multiverse дебютантка http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ жизнерадостен multiverse 
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty multiverse дебютантка-SRC http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ жизнерадостен multiverse 
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates multiverse дебютантка http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ жизнерадостен-актуализации multiverse 
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates multiverse дебютантка-SRC http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ жизнерадостен-актуализации multiverse 
## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'backports' # # Uncomment следните две линии, за да добавите софтуер от "backports" 
## repository. # # Хранилище. 
## NB software from this repository may not have been tested as # # NB софтуер от това хранилище може да не са били тествани като 
## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes # # Степен като тази, съдържаща се в основната версия, макар и да включва 
## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features. # # По-нови версии на някои приложения, които могат да предоставят полезни функции. 
## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review # # Също така, моля, имайте предвид, че софтуера в backports няма да получавате всеки преглед 
## or updates from the Ubuntu security team. # # Или актуализации от Ubuntu сигурност екип. 
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-backports main restricted universe multiverse дебютантка http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ жизнерадостен-backports основните ограничава вселената multiverse 
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-backports main restricted universe multiverse дебютантка-SRC http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ жизнерадостен-backports основните ограничава вселената multiverse 
## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical's # # Uncomment следните два реда за добавяне на софтуер от канонически 
## 'partner' repository. # # "Партньор" хранилище. This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is Този софтуер не е част от Ubuntu, но е 
## offered by Canonical and the respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu # #, Предлагани от канонична и съответните търговци като услуга на Ubuntu 
## users. # # Потребители. 
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu jaunty partner дебютантка http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu жизнерадостен партньор 
deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu jaunty partner дебютантка-SRC http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu жизнерадостен партньор 
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty-security main restricted дебютантка http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu жизнерадостен сигурност основните ограничен 
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty-security main restricted дебютантка-SRC http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu жизнерадостен сигурност основните ограничен 
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty-security universe дебютантка http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu жизнерадостен сигурност вселената 
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty-security universe дебютантка-SRC http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu жизнерадостен сигурност вселената 
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty-security multiverse дебютантка http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu жизнерадостен сигурност multiverse 
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty-security multiverse дебютантка-SRC http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu жизнерадостен сигурност multiverse 
## Medibuntu - Ubuntu 8.10 "jaunty jackalope" # # Medibuntu - Ubuntu 8,10 "наперен jackalope" 
## Please report any bug on https://bugs.launchpad.net/medibuntu/ # # Моля, съобщавайте за всякакви бъгове по HTTPS: / / bugs.launchpad.net / medibuntu / 
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ jaunty free non-free дебютантка http://packages.medibuntu.org/ жизнерадостен свободно несвободна 
deb-src http://packages.medibuntu.org/ jaunty free non-free дебютантка-SRC http://packages.medibuntu.org/ жизнерадостен свободно несвободна 
# Google software repository # Google софтуер хранилище 
deb http://dl.google.com/linux/deb/ stable non-free дебютантка http://dl.google.com/linux/deb/ стабилна несвободна 


       * Download and add the repository keys to your keyring. Изтеглете и добавете хранилище ключовете си Keyring. See Add repository keys . Вижте Добавяне на хранилище ключове. 
       * Refresh the packages list from the new repositories: Опресняване пакетите списъка от нови хранилища: 
sudo apt-get update sudo ап-да обновите 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Add repository keys Добавяне на хранилище клавиши

       * Download the gpg keys for the repositories and automatically add them to your repository keyring: Изтеглете още ключове за хранилища и автоматично ги добавите към вашия хранилище Keyring: 
               * Example: To obtain and add the Medibuntu repository key: Пример: За да се получи и да добавите Medibuntu хранилище ключ: 
wget --quiet http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O - | sudo apt-key add - wget - тиха http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg-O - | sudo ап ключ добави -- 
               * Example: To obtain and add the Google repository key: Пример: За да се получи и да добавите Google хранилище ключ: 
wget --quiet https://dl-ssl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub -O - | sudo apt-key add - wget - тиха HTTPS: / / dl-ssl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub-O - | sudo ап ключ добави -- 

Note: wget - retrieves a file from a network location. Забележка: wget - извлича файл от мрежа местоположение. --quiet = no output. - тихо = Няма изход. -O = Output downloaded item to terminal. -О = Изходен изтеглили елемент към терминала. The | (pipe symbol) is used to capture the output from the previous command (in our case the screen) and use it as an input for the piped command (ie apt-key, which adds it to the keyring). В | (тръба символ) е използван за заснемане на продукцията от предходната команда (в нашия случай на екрана) и да я използват като вход за Свирихме команда (т.е. ап ключ, който добавя, че до Keyring). [ edit ] [Редактиране] Ubuntu Package Installation and Updates Ubuntu пакет за инсталиране и актуализации [ edit ] [Редактиране] Apt and Package Basics Ап и пакет Основи

   * Read General Notes Прочетете Общи бележки
   * Read Add Extra Ubuntu Repositories Прочетете Добави Екстра Ubuntu хранилища 

Most new users will use the Synaptic Package Manager to install packages. Най-новите потребители ще използват Synaptic пакет мениджър за да инсталирате пакети. These instructions are for installing packages from the command-line Terminal. Тези инструкции са предназначени за инсталиране на пакети от командния ред на терминала. Terminal can be started: Терминал може да започне:

   Applications -> Accessories -> Terminal Молбите -> Принадлежности -> Terminal 
   * Install packages: Инсталирайте пакета: 
sudo apt-get install packagename sudo ап-да инсталирате packagename 
           * Example: Пример: 
sudo apt-get install mpd sbackup sudo ап-да инсталирате MPD sbackup 
   * Remove packages: Премахване на пакети: 
sudo apt-get remove packagename sudo ап-да премахнете packagename 
   * To remove all dependencies: За да премахнете всички зависимости: 
sudo apt-get autoremove sudo ап-получите autoremove 
           * Example: Пример: 
sudo apt-get remove mpd sbackup sudo ап-да премахнете MPD sbackup 
   * Search for packages: Търсене на пакета: 
apt-cache search <keywords> ап-кеша търсене <keywords> 
           * Examples: Примери: 
apt-cache search Music MP3 ап-кеша търсене Музика MP3 
apt-cache search "Text Editor" ап-кеша търсене "текстов редактор" 
   * Update the apt package database after adding/removing repositories : Обнови ап пакет данни след добавяне / премахване на хранилища: 
sudo apt-get update sudo ап-да обновите 
   * Upgrade packages: Надстройка пакети: 
sudo apt-get upgrade sudo ап-получите ъпгрейд 
   * Upgrade the entire distribution (eg from Intrepid to Jaunty): Надстройка цялото разпределение (напр. от безстрашен да жизнерадостен): 
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade sudo ап-получите dist-ъпгрейд 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Installing .deb packages Инсталиране. Дебютантка пакети

Debian (.deb) packages are the packages that are used in Ubuntu. Debian (. Дебютантка) пакетите са пакетите, които се използват в Ubuntu. You can install any .deb package in your system. Можете да инсталирате някоя. Дебютантка пакет във вашата система. .deb files can generally be installed from your file manager (Nautilus) merely by clicking on them, since file associations with the default installer is already set in Ubuntu. . дебютантка файлове, като цяло могат да бъдат инсталирани от файловия мениджър (Nautilus) просто като щракнете върху тях, тъй като на файловите асоциации с по подразбиране инсталационната програма вече е в Ubuntu. These instructions are for those who wish to install packages from the command-line terminal (Terminal). Тези инструкции са за онези, които желаете да инсталирате пакети от командния ред терминал (Terminal).

   * Install a downloaded Debian (Ubuntu) package (.deb): Инсталирайте изтеглен Debian (Ubuntu) опаковката (. Дебютантка): 
sudo dpkg -i packagename .deb sudo dpkg-I packagename. дебютантка 
   * Remove a Debian (Ubuntu) package (.deb): Премахнете Debian (Ubuntu) опаковката (. Дебютантка): 
sudo dpkg -r packagename sudo dpkg-R packagename 
   * Reconfigure/Repair an installed Debian (Ubuntu) package (.deb): Конфигурацията на / Ремонт инсталиран Debian (Ubuntu) опаковката (. Дебютантка): 
sudo dpkg-reconfigure packagename sudo dpkg-конфигурацията на packagename 
       *Example: * Пример: 
sudo dpkg-reconfigure mpd sudo dpkg-конфигурацията на MPD 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Handling (Tar/GZip) and (Tar/Bzip2) archives Работа (Катран / GZip) и (Tar/Bzip2) Архив

(Tar/GZip) archives end in ".tar.gz" and (Tar/Bzip2) archives end in ".tar.bz2". (Катран / GZip) архиви в края ". Tar.gz" и (Tar/Bzip2) архиви в края ". Tar.bz2". Bzip2 is the newer, more efficient compression method. Bzip2 е по-нова, по-ефективен метод за компресиране. These files can generally be automatically extracted by merely clicking on them from your file manager (Nautilus), since file associations with the appropriate archival utilities are set by default in Ubuntu. Тези файлове могат да бъдат автоматично извлича чрез просто щракване върху тях от вашия файл мениджър (Nautilus), тъй като на файловите асоциации със съответните архивни услуги са зададени по подразбиране в Ubuntu. These instructions are for those who wish to use the command line Terminal. Тези инструкции са за онези, които желаете да използвате командния ред на терминала.

       * To extract: За да извлечете: 
tar xvf packagename .tar.gz катран xvf packagename. tar.gz 

Note: tar is an application which can extract files from an archive, decompressing if necessary. Забележка: катран е приложение, което може да извлечете файлове от архив, decompressing, ако е необходимо.

       -x means extract. -X означава екстракт. 
       -v means verbose (list what it is extracting). -V означава многословно (списък за какво се извлича). 
       -f specifies the file to use. -F уточнява файл за използване. 
   * Decompressing ".gz" files Decompressing ". Gz" файлове 
gunzip file .gz gunzip файл. gz 
   * Decompressing ".bz2" files Decompressing ". Bz2" файлове 
bunzip2 file .bz2 bunzip2 файл. bz2 
       Note: You can also decompress a package first by using the command gunzip (for .gz) or bunzip2 (for .bz2), leaving the .tar file. Забележка: Можете също така намаляване натиска на първия пакет с помощта на командата gunzip (за. Gz) или bunzip2 (за. Bz2), напускащи. Катран файл. You would then use tar to extract it. Може би след това използвайте катран да извлечете него. 
       * To create a .gz archive: За да създадете. Gz архив: 
tar cvfz packagename .tar.gz folder катран cvfz packagename. tar.gz папката 
       * To create a .bz2 archive: За да създадете. Bz2 архив: 
tar cvfj packagename .tar.bz2 folder катран cvfj packagename. tar.bz2 папката 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Installing a package from source Инсталиране на пакета от източника

   * Make sure you have all the necessary development tools (ie libraries, compilers, headers): Уверете се, че имате всички необходими инструменти за развитие (т.е. библиотеки, компилатори, заглавки): 
sudo apt-get install build-essential sudo ап-да инсталирате изгради-съществените 
sudo apt-get install linux-headers-`uname -r` sudo ап-да инсталира Linux-заглавките-"uname-R" 
       Note: "uname -r" lists the current kernel you are using Забележка: "uname-R" списъци текущата ядрото, която използвате 
   * Extract the archive that contains the source files: Извличане на архива, който съдържа изходния файл: 
tar xvf sourcefilesarchive .tar.gz катран xvf sourcefilesarchive. tar.gz 
   * Build the package using the package's script (in this case the configure script), compile the package (make), and install the compiled package into your system (make install): Изграждане на пакет с помощта на пакет в скриптове (в този случай конфигурирате скрипт), съставяне на пакет (прави), и да инсталирате съставена пакет в системата си (да инсталирате): 
cd /path/to/extracted/sourcefiles CD / път / до / извлечена / sourcefiles 
./configure . / конфигурирате 
sudo make sudo правят 
sudo make install sudo да инсталирате 
       Note: typing ./ before a filename in the current folder allows the Linux shell to try and execute the file as an application even if it is not in the path (the set of folders which it searches when you type a command name). Забележка: За да пишете. / Преди името на файла в текущата папка позволява на Linux черупка да се опитам да извърша файла като заявление, дори ако тя не е в пътя (множеството от папките, които го търси, когато напишете командата име). If you get a "permission denied" error, the file is not marked as being executable. Ако получи "разрешение отказан" грешка, преписката не е маркирана като изпълним. To fix this: За да оправите това: 
sudo chmod +x filename sudo chmod + X файла 
       Example: In the above instructions, configure is the shell script to build the package from source. Пример: В горните инструкции, конфигурирате е черупката скрипта за създаване на пакет от изходен код. To be sure the configure script is executable: За да се уверите в конфигурирате скрипта е изпълними: 
sudo chmod +x configure sudo chmod + X конфигурирате 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Create a .deb package from source files Създайте. Дебютантка пакет от източника файлове

If your build from source is successful, you can make a Debian (Ubuntu) package (.deb) for future use: Ако вашият изгради от източник е успешно, можете да направите Debian (Ubuntu) опаковката (. Дебютантка) за бъдещо използване:

   * Install package tools: Инсталирайте пакета инструменти: 
sudo apt-get install checkinstall sudo ап-да инсталирате checkinstall 
   * Rebuild package using "checkinstall": Отпор пакет с "checkinstall": 
cd /path/to/extracted/package CD / път / до / извлечена / пакет 
./configure . / конфигурирате 
sudo make sudo правят 
sudo checkinstall sudo checkinstall 
   * Keep the resulting ".deb" file for future use. Съхранявайте резултат ". Дебютантка" файл за бъдеща употреба. It can later be installed using: Тя може да бъде инсталиран късно, като се използват: 
sudo dpkg -i packagename .deb sudo dpkg-I packagename. дебютантка 

Note: These are basic instructions that may not always work. Забележка: Това са основните инструкции, които могат не винаги работи. Some packages require additional dependencies and optional parameters to be specified in order to build them successfully. Някои пакети изискват допълнителни зависимости и незадължителни параметри, които следва да бъдат уточнени, за да ги изгради успешно. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Aptitude Aptitude

Aptitude is a terminal-based package manager that can be used instead of apt-get. Aptitude е терминал-базирани пакет мениджър, който може да се използва вместо ап-получите. Aptitude marks packages that are automatically installed and removes them when no packages depend on them. Aptitude марки пакети, които се инсталират автоматично и ги премахва, когато няма пакети зависи от тях. This makes it easy to remove applications completely. To use Aptitude, replace apt-get with aptitude in the command line. Това прави по-лесно да се премахне напълно приложения. За да използвате Aptitude, ап-да се замени със стаж в командния ред. Example: Пример:

sudo aptitude install packagename sudo стаж инсталирате packagename 
sudo aptitude remove packagename sudo стаж премахнете packagename 
sudo aptitude update sudo стаж обновяване 
sudo aptitude upgrade sudo стаж ъпгрейд 

For an ncurses-based graphical user interface, type За ncurses-базирани графичен потребителски интерфейс, тип

sudo aptitude sudo стаж 

For more information, see the aptitude documentation . За повече информация вижте стаж документация. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Synaptic Package Manager Synaptic пакет мениджър

While "apt-get" and "aptitude" are fast ways of installing programs/packages, you can also use the Synaptic Package Manager (System -> Administration -> Synaptic Manager), a GUI method for installing programs/packages. Докато "ап-да" и "стаж" са бързи начини за инсталиране на програми / пакети, можете да използвате Synaptic пакет мениджър (Система -> Администрация -> Synaptic управител), A GUI метод за инсталиране на програми / пакети. Most (but not all) programs/packages available with apt-get install will also be available from the Synaptic Package Manager. Повечето (но не всички) програми / пакети с ап-да инсталирате също ще бъдат на разположение от Synaptic пакет мениджър. This is the preferred method for most desktop users. Това е най-предпочитаният метод за повечето десктоп потребители. In this guide, when you see В това ръководство, когато видите

sudo apt-get install package sudo ап-да инсталирате пакет 

you can simply search for package in Synaptic and install it that way. Вие можете просто да потърсите пакет в Synaptic и да го инсталирате този начин.

   * System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager Система -> Администрация -> Synaptic пакет мениджър
   * Search for the name of the program/package. Търсене за името на програмата / пакета. You can also search for a word in its description. Можете също така да търсите дума в своето описание.
   * Check the box "Mark for Installation" Поставете отметка в полето "Марк за Инсталация"
   * Click the "Apply" button. Кликнете на "Apply" бутона.
   * The selected program(s) will be automatically installed, along with its dependencies. Избраната програма (и) ще се инсталира автоматично, заедно с неговите зависимости. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Add/Remove Programs Добавяне / Премахване на програми

Not all packages available from apt-get, aptitude, and Synaptic Package Manager are available in Add/Remove Programs. Не всички пакети от ап-получим, стаж и Synaptic пакет мениджър, са на разположение в Добавяне / Премахване на програми. However, it is the easiest interface for new users of Ubuntu and directs them to preferred packages. Въпреки това, той е най-лесният интерфейс за нови потребители на Ubuntu и ги насочва към предпочитани пакети.

   * Applications -> Add/Remove Programs Молбите -> Add / Remove Programs
   * Search for the sort of program you want to add. Търсене за сортиране на програмата, която искате да добавите. Example: type MP3 to see a list of mp3 software. Пример: тип MP3 да видите списък на Mp3 софтуер.
   * Check the box "Mark for Installation" Поставете отметка в полето "Марк за Инсталация"
   * Click the "Apply" button. Кликнете на "Apply" бутона.
   * The selected program(s) will be automatically installed. Избраната програма (а) ще бъдат автоматично инсталирани. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Manual Updates Ръчно актуализации

   * Read General Notes Прочетете Общи бележки
   * Read Add Extra Ubuntu Repositories Прочетете Добави Екстра Ubuntu хранилища 
   * Manually, from Terminal (command line interface): Ръчно, от Терминалните (командния ред интерфейс): 
sudo apt-get update sudo ап-да обновите 
sudo apt-get upgrade sudo ап-получите ъпгрейд 
   or или 
   * Use Synaptic Package Manager: Използвайте Synaptic пакет Управител: 
       System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager -> "Reload" then "Mark all upgrades" Система -> Администрация -> Synaptic пакет мениджър -> "Презареждане" и "Марк всички ъпгрейди" 
   If there are packages available for updating, you will be prompted whether to install them. Ако има пакети за актуализация, ще бъдете подканени дали да ги инсталирате. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Automated Updates Автоматични актуализации

   * Use Synaptic Package Manager: Използвайте Synaptic пакет Управител: 
           * System -> Administration -> Synaptic Manager -> Settings -> Preferences -> General -> Reloading Outdated Package Information -> Automatic Система -> Администрация -> Synaptic мениджър -> Настройки -> Настройки -> Общи -> претоварване остарели пакет информация -> Автоматично 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Ubuntu Addon Applications Ubuntu Адон Приложения

See our full list of add-on applications . Вход за пълния списък на добавки по молби. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Eye Candy Applications Ай Кенди Приложения

Eye Candy Applications refer to the decoration of the graphical user interface. Ай Кенди Молбите се отнасят за декорация на графичния потребителски интерфейс. These can be add-on icons, themes, wallpapers, 3-D effects, etc. Те могат да се добавят по-икони, теми, тапети, 3-D ефекти и др [ edit ] [Редактиране] Gnome Eye-Candy Resources Gnome EYE-Кенди ресурси

   * Gnome Look has wallpapers, splash screens, icons, and themes for windows managers (including Metacity and Compiz) and other applications. Виж Gnome има тапети, изпръсквам екрани, икони, както и теми за Windows мениджъри (включително Metacity и Compiz) и други приложения. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Metacity Metacity

Metacity is the default desktop compositing manager in Gnome. Metacity е основен работен плот compositing мениджър в GNOME. It is lightweight, streamlined and does not have many configurable options, but has multiple themes available at Gnome Look. Тя е лека, опростена и не са много конфигурируеми опции, но има много теми, на разположение на Gnome Виж. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Compiz Fusion Compiz синтез

Compiz Fusion is available as a separate Windows Manager, to allow advanced desktop effects such as the rotating cube desktop. Compiz синтез е наличен като отделен Windows мениджър, за да позволи на напредналите десктоп ефекти като ротационното куб Desktop. Many Ubuntu users choose to run Compiz, which is quite fast in Ubuntu. Много Ubuntu потребителите избират да тече Compiz, което е доста бързо в Ubuntu. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install compiz compizconfig-settings-manager compiz-fusion-plugins-main compiz-fusion-plugins-extra emerald librsvg2-common sudo ап-да инсталирате compiz compizconfig-настройки-мениджър compiz-синтез-приставки-главното compiz-синтез-приставки-извънзонални смарагдов librsvg2-чести 

To change to Compiz as the Window Manager: За смяна на Compiz като Window Управител:

   * Select Compiz Configuration: Избери Compiz конфигурация: 
   System -> Preferences -> CompizConfig Settings Manager Система -> Настройки -> Настройки на Мениджър CompizConfig 
   Note: You must logout and log back in for the change to take effect. Забележка: Вие трябва да излезете и влезте обратно за промяната да влезе в сила. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Fusion Icon Синтез Икона

Fusion Icon is a tray icon that allows you to easily switch between window managers, window decorators, and gives you quick access to the Compiz Settings Manager. Синтез Икона е иконата в лентата, която ви позволява лесно да превключвате между мениджърите прозорец, прозорец декоратори, и ви дава бърз достъп до настройките на Compiz мениджър. This allows quick toggling of 3-D desktop effects (that may not be compatible with some applications). Това позволява бързо toggling на 3-D Desktop реакции (които могат да не бъдат съвместими с някои приложения).

sudo apt-get install fusion-icon sudo ап-да инсталирате синтез-икона 
   Applications -> System Tools -> Compiz Fusion Icon Молбите -> Система Инструменти -> Compiz синтез Икона 

You can then easily access CompizConfig Settings Manager from the icon. След това можете да лесно достъп CompizConfig Настройки мениджър на иконата. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Rotate the Compiz Cube Завъртане на Compiz Cube

Set the CompizConfig Settings Manager to enable the "Desktop Cube" and "Rotate Cube" and "Viewport Switcher" options. Задайте CompizConfig Настройки управител, за да се даде възможност на "Desktop Cube" и "Завърти Cube" и "Viewport Switcher" опции. Click on the icon for each to customize settings. Кликнете върху иконата за всеки да персонализирате настройките. For example, to change the appearance of the cube, click on the Desktop Cube icon to access its settings. Например, за да промените външния вид на куб, щракнете върху Desktop Cube икона за достъп до настройките му. You can set the hotkey buttons for rotating the cube in the "Viewport Switcher" settings. Можете да зададете клавиш бутони за въртящи куба в "Viewport Switcher" настройки. Otherwise, hold down the Ctrl+Alt+Left mouse button and drag the mouse (or touchpad) the direction you want to rotate the cube. В противен случай, задръжте на Ctrl + Alt + Ляв бутон на мишката и плъзнете мишката (или тъчпада) посоката, която искате да завъртите куб.

Remember, the cube rotates between desktops. Не забравяйте, куба върти между настолни компютри. It's not a cube unless you have at least 4 desktops running. Това не е куб, ако не са най-малко 4 работни вървят. You will not get a cube if you are only using 2 desktops (you will get a "plate"). Вие няма да получите куб, ако са само с 2 настолни компютри (вие ще получите "табела"). You can still rotate the sides of the plate, of course, but it will not be a cube. Все още можете да завъртите страни на табелата, разбира се, но тя няма да бъде куб. (Recent users from the Windows OS may have no experience with the concept of simultaneous desktops, but they are nice once you learn how to use them). (Нова потребителите на Windows OS може да няма опит с концепцията за симултанен настолни компютри, но те са добре, след като се научите как да ги ползват).

When running Compiz fusion as the Windows Manager, you must change the default number of desktops from within CompizConfig Settings Manger. Когато вървят Compiz синтез като Windows мениджър, Вие трябва да промените основната брой работни от CompizConfig Настройки яслите. To enable 4 desktops: За да се даде възможност на 4 работни:

   CompizConfig Settings Manager -> General -> General Options -> Desktop Size -> Horizontal Virtual Size -> 4 CompizConfig Настройки на Мениджър -> Общи -> Общи опции -> Desktop Размер -> Хоризонтален Виртуален Размер -> 4 

When you start an application, you can assign it to any one of the 4 desktops by right-clicking the upper left corner of the application window and choosing the "To Desktop..." Когато стартирате приложение, можете да присвоите, че на всеки един от 4 работни чрез щракване с десния горния ляв ъгъл на прозореца на приложението и изберете "Да Desktop ..." option. опция. Rotating the cube shows the different desktops. Завъртането на куба показва различни настолни компютри. You can also go to a desktop using the taskbar icon which shows the 4 desktops. Можете също да отидете на работния плот, използвайки задачите икона която показва 4 настолни компютри. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Emerald Емералд

Emerald is the theme engine for Compiz Fusion. Емералд е темата на двигателя за Compiz синтез. Multiple themes are available. Много теми са на разположение. (These themes originated from the Beryl project before it merged with Compiz to form Compiz Fusion.) The Emerald Theme Manager for Compiz Fusion can be installed: (Тези теми произхождат от хрисолит проекта преди сливането с Compiz за образуване Compiz синтез.) В Емералд Тема Мениджър за Compiz синтез може да се инсталира:

sudo apt-get install emerald sudo ап-да инсталирате смарагдов 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Ubuntu Wallpaper Ubuntu Wallpaper

   * Download free Earthenibex wallpapers . Изтеглете безплатна Earthenibex тапети. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Change USplash Boot Screen Промяна USplash Обувка екран

This is the splash screen you see at bootup, when you are asked for a login and password. Това е кално петно на екрана, които виждате в зареждащата, когато ще бъдете попитани за потребителско име и парола. You can change the USplash screen using the utility startupmanager. Можете да смените USplash екрана с помощта на ютилити startupmanager. (Startup Manager can also be used to change GRUB bootup settings if you use multiple OS's on your computer). (Startup мениджър може да се използва и за да промените настройките на GRUB зареждащата ако използвате множество ОС е на вашия компютър). Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install startupmanager sudo ап-да инсталирате startupmanager 
   Start: Старт: 

System -> Administration -> Startup Manager Система -> Администрация -> Startup мениджър

You could alternatively use a different splashscreen manager, Splashy , instead of USplash. Може да се използва като алтернатива различна splashscreen мениджър, Splashy, вместо USplash. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install splashy splashy-themes sudo ап-да инсталирате кален кален-теми 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Google Desktop Google Desktop

Google Desktop for Linux is a proprietary suite of widgets and applications to give Google control over your computer and thereby allow you to use Google services. Google Desktop за Linux е имуществена апартамент на джунджурии и приложения за Google дават контрол над компютъра ви и по този начин да ви позволи да използвате Google услуги. A .deb package can be downloaded and installed from Google Linux Downloads . A. Дебютантка пакет може да бъде свален и инсталиран от Google Линукс за сваляне. For installation instructions, see Google Desktop for Linux Instructions . За инструкции за инсталиране, вижте Google Desktop за Linux инструкции. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Dock applications Закачане приложения

Avant Window Manager, Cairo Dock, and Wbar are dock-like applications for Ubuntu Linux. Avant Window мениджър, Кайро Dock, и Wbar са док-подобни молби за Ubuntu Linux. A dock represents running programs as icons at the bottom of the screen (as is done on the Mac OS X desktop), instead of by toolbar panel segments (as is done in Windows and other Linux window managers). А док представлява изпълняват програми като икони в долната част на екрана (както е направено за Mac OS X десктопа), вместо от лентата с инструменти панел сегменти (както се прави в Windows и Linux прозорец управители). See this brief comparison of dock applications . Вижте това кратко сравнение на подсъдимата скамейка приложения. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Avant Window Navigator Avant Window Navigator

   * Avant Window Navigator requires that a desktop composition manager (such as Metacity, Compiz, Xcompmgr, KDE4 (Kubuntu), or xfwm4 (Xubuntu)) be installed and running. Avant Window Navigator изисква настолен състава мениджър (например Metacity, Compiz, Xcompmgr, KDE4 (Kubuntu), или xfwm4 (Xubuntu)) да бъдат монтирани и пуснати.
   * Install and upgrade proprietary nVidia or ATI graphics drivers so that the compositing manager functions properly. Инсталиране и надграждане на собственост или NVidia ATI графични драйвери, така че compositing мениджър функции правилно.
   * Install AWN: Инсталирайте осил: 
sudo apt-get install avant-window-navigator awn-manager sudo ап-да инсталирате Avant-прозорец-навигатор осил-мениджър 
   (Note: If you are using Gnome (Ubuntu) and do not already have a compositing manager installed (such as Compiz), Metacity will be installed as part of the installation.) (Забележка: Ако използвате Gnome (Ubuntu) и все още имате инсталиран compositing мениджър (като Compiz), Metacity ще се инсталира като част от инсталацията.) 
   * Enable automatic startup of AWN at bootup: Включване на автоматичното стартиране на осил в зареждащата: 
       * Menu -> System -> Preferences -> Sessions -> Add... Меню -> Система -> Настройки -> сесии -> Добави ... 
avant-window-navigator Avant-прозорец-навигатор 
   * Select which applets should run from the dock menu by default: Изберете аплети, които трябва да текат от лапад меню по подразбиране: 
       * Menu -> Applications -> Accessories -> Avant Window Navigator Manager Меню -> Приложения -> Принадлежности -> Avant Window Navigator мениджър 
   You can drag application icons onto the list, then activate or deactivate the applets from the list. Можете да плъзнете прилагането икони в списъка, след това активирате или деактивирате аплети от списъка. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Cairo Dock Кайро Dock

Cairo Dock can be used either with a desktop compositing manager (such as Metacity for Gnome, Compiz, or the KDE4 Window Manager) or without one. Кайро Dock може да се използва с настолен compositing мениджър (например Metacity за GNOME, Compiz или KDE4 Window управител) или без един. See the Ubuntu installation instructions for details. Вижте инструкции за инсталиране на Ubuntu за подробности. It is available from the repositories: Той е на разположение на хранилища:

sudo apt-get install cairo-dock cairo-dock-plugins sudo ап-да инсталирате Кайро док Кайро док-приставки 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] wbar wbar

wbar is a quick-launch bar (not a dock) that has an appearance similar to Avant Window Manager and Cairo Dock. wbar е бързо стартиране бар (не е лапад), която има вид подобен на Avant Window Мениджър и Кайро Dock. It is GTK (Gnome) based but can work in all desktop environments. Тя е GTK (Gnome) на базата, но могат да работят във всички десктоп среди. It does not require a compositing manager to be installed and is therefore quicker and more suitable for low-end hardware systems. Тя не изисква compositing мениджър да бъде инсталиран и затова е бързо и по-подходящ за ниско-крайни хардуерни системи. It is the default in the Google gOS desktop and is available as a .deb package from Google. Тя е по подразбиране в Google Desktop gOS и е на разположение под формата на. Дебютантка пакет от Google. Download and install (from the command-line Terminal): Изтеглете и инсталирайте (от командния ред Terminal):

wget http://wbar.googlecode.com/files/wbar_1.3.3_i386.deb wget http://wbar.googlecode.com/files/wbar_1.3.3_i386.deb  
sudo dpkg -i wbar_1.3.3_i386.deb sudo dpkg-I wbar_1.3.3_i386.deb 
   * Start wbar with custom start options (eg by pressing alt+F2). Започнете wbar със собствени проекта опции (например чрез натискане на ALT + F2). Here is an example: Ето един пример: 
wbar -isize 48 -j 1 -p bottom -balfa 40 -bpress -nanim 3 -z 2.5 -above-desk wbar-isize 48-J 1-р отдолу-balfa 40-bpress-nanim 3-Z 2,5-горе гише 
   Here is another example: Ето друг пример: 
wbar -above-desk -pos bottom -isize 60 -nanim 1 -bpress -jumpf 0.0 -zoomf 1.5 wbar-горе гише поз-отдолу isize 60-nanim 1-bpress-jumpf 0,0-zoomf 1,5 

For a full list of command-line startup options, see: За пълния списък на командния ред при стартиране възможности, вижте:

wbar --help wbar - Помощ 

Tip: If you want the "wave" effect just increase the -nanim value. Съвет: Ако искате "вълна" ефект само увеличи-nanim стойност. I like the icons to just pop up so I don't use it, but with 9 icons 5 there is a nice "wave" effect. Харесва ми иконите само поп така аз не го използвате, но с 9 икони 5 е хубаво "вълна" ефект.

Obviously, you could create a menu item with the command line options (similar to the examples above), or a batch file that can be automatically started at system startup (as a cron event or startup session). Очевидно е, че бихте могли да създадете меню с опции за командния ред (подобно на примера по-горе), или партида файл, който може да се стартира автоматично при стартиране на системата (като cron събитие или стартиране сесия).

You can also change wbar startup options by editing the configuration file: Можете също да промените опциите за стартиране wbar чрез редактиране на конфигурационния файл:

sudo gedit /usr/share/wbar/dot.wbar sudo gedit / ЮЕсАр / акции / wbar / dot.wbar 

See this example configuration file . Вижте този пример конфигурационния файл. However, not all options are able to be set from the configuration file and must be run from the command line. Все пак, не всички опции са в състояние да се определя от конфигурационния файл и трябва да се управлява от командния ред. For more info see this wbar guide . За повече информация вижте този wbar ръководство. [ edit ] [Редактиране] wbarconf wbarconf

A simple wbar configuration utility can be downloaded as a .deb package and installed: А просто wbar ютилити конфигурация може да бъде изтеглена като. Дебютантка пакет и инсталирани:

wget http://koti.kapsi.fi/~ighea/wbarconf/wbarconf_0.7.2-1_i386.deb wget http://koti.kapsi.fi/ ~ ighea/wbarconf/wbarconf_0.7.2-1_i386.deb 
sudo dpkg -i wbarconf_0.7.2-1_i386.deb sudo dpkg-I wbarconf_0.7.2-1_i386.deb 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Virtualization Virtualization

Virtualization allows a second operating system (OS), such as Windows or OS X, to be run from within Ubuntu. Virtualization позволява втора операционна система (ОС), например Windows или OS X, за да бъде стартирано от Ubuntu. This requires extra RAM (because both Ubuntu and the virtualized second OS require separate amounts of RAM) and a license for the second OS. Това изисква допълнително RAM (тъй като и двете Ubuntu и виртуализирани втора ОС изисква отделно сумите на RAM) и лиценз за втори OS. If you wish to run a virtualized instance of Windows XP, for instance, you must have a license for Windows XP. Ако желаете да пуснете виртуализирани копие на Windows XP, например, трябва да имат лиценз за Windows XP. [ edit ] [Редактиране] VirtualBox VirtualBox

VirtualBox is a fast and complete virtualization solution owned and maintained by Sun Microsystems. VirtualBox е бързо и цялостно решение виртуализация, притежавани и поддържани от Sun Microsystems. There is a free and fully open-source edition available under the GNU GPL license. Там е безплатна и напълно отворен код версия достъпна под GNU GPL лиценз.

   * Install the open-source edition: Инсталирайте отворен код издание: 
sudo apt-get install virtualbox-ose virtualbox-ose-source sudo ап-да инсталирате virtualbox-РОЗА virtualbox-РОЗА-източник 
   * Start VirtualBox: Започнете VirtualBox: 
   VirtualBox OSE PC virtualization solution VirtualBox РОЗА PC виртуализация разтвор 

For usage instructions, see the End-user documentation . За инструкции за употреба, вижте Габаритни потребителска документация. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Xen Xen

Xen is an efficient open-source virtualization ("hypervisor") platform which includes a recent merge with QEMU. Xen е ефикасен отворен код виртуализация ( "hypervisor") платформа, която включва последните слее с QEMU. It is free open source under a GPL license. Той е безплатен с отворен код под GPL лиценз. Installation for the desktop must be from source (see the website for details). Инсталация за десктопа трябва да бъде от източник (вижте уебсайта за подробности). A commercial version is offered by Citrix. Търговският вариант е предложен от Citrix.

A Xen virtual machine host can also be installed automatically with certain 64-bit CPUs , using the 64-bit Ubuntu Server LiveCD. А Xen виртуална машина домакин може да се инсталира автоматично с някои 64-битови процесори, като се използва 64-битово Ubuntu Server LiveCD. (An Ubuntu desktop can then later be added -- see Ubuntu server ). (AN Ubuntu Desktop-късно може да се добави - виж Ubuntu Server). [ edit ] [Редактиране] VMWare VMWare

VMWare is a commercial virtualization platform that currently offers a free license (renewable yearly) for use with its server software . VMWare е търговска платформа за виртуализация, които в момента предлага безплатен лиценз (възобновяеми годишно) за употреба с неговите сървърен софтуер. Installation instructions are on the website. Инструкции за инсталиране се намират на интернет страницата. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Keyboard errors in VMware guest Клавиши за грешки в VMware гост

After installing VMWare 6.5, and installing a guest OS, the Function, arrow and Del/End/etc keys do not function. След инсталиране на VMWare 6.5, и инсталиране гост OS, функцията, стрелки и Del / Край / т.н. клавишите не функционират. This is a bug with VMWare´s code. Add this line to ~/.vmware/config (create file if necessary) to fix this issue: Това е бъг с VMWare на код. Добави тази линия, за да ~ / .vmware / конфиг (създаване на файла, ако е необходимо) за решаване на този проблем:

xkeymap.nokeycodeMap = true xkeymap.nokeycodeMap = вярно 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Crossover for Linux Кръстосан за Linux

Codeweavers' Crossover Office for Linux is a subscription-based commercial package that allows many Windows programs to be run on Ubuntu without the need for a Microsoft OS license or a complete virtualization system. Codeweavers "Кръстосан Службата за Linux е абонамент, базирани търговска опаковка, която позволява много Windows програми, да се движат по Ubuntu, без да е необходимо за Microsoft OS лиценз или пълна виртуализация система. See the website for more info. Вижте уебсайта за повече информация. Codeweavers releases older versions of this product as the free package Wine. Codeweavers съобщения по-стари версии на този продукт, както на свободния пакет вино. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Wine Вино

Wine is a free open-source package that essentially consists of an older and more limited implementation of CrossOver for Linux. Виното е безплатен отворен код пакет, който по същество се състои от по-старо и по-ограничено прилагане на кросоувър за Linux. It is provided by Codeweavers. Тя се осигурява от Codeweavers. Like CrossOver for Linux, no Microsoft license or virtualization platform is required to run Windows programs. Както кросоувър за Linux, Microsoft не лицензия или виртуализация платформа се изисква да тече Windows програми.

sudo apt-get install wine sudo ап-да инсталирате вино 

Also consider installing Microsoft's TrueType fonts: Също така считат, инсталиране на Microsoft TrueType шрифтове:

sudo apt-get install msttcorefonts sudo ап-да инсталирате msttcorefonts 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Internet Explorer 6 Internet Explorer 6

Internet Explorer 6 can function under Wine, albeit imperfectly. Internet Explorer 6 могат да функционират при виното, макар и imperfectly. For most purposes, Firefox can be used (with the User Agent Switcher plugin) to mimic Internet Explorer, but for those instances when it can't, IE6 may be useful. За повечето цели, Firefox могат да се използват (с потребителя Агент Switcher плъгин), за да имитират Internet Explorer, но и за онези случаи, когато тя не може да IE6, могат да бъдат полезни. A beta implementation of Internet Explorer 7 is also available from this package. А бета изпълнението на Internet Explorer 7 е достъпен от този пакет. For more info, see IEs 4 Linux . За повече информация виж те години 4 Linux.

   * Make sure you have wine and cabextract packages: Уверете се, че сте вино и cabextract пакети: 
sudo apt-get install wine cabextract sudo ап-да инсталирате вино cabextract 
   * Download IEs 4 Linux and install: Изтегляне те години 4 Linux и инсталирате: 
wget http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads/ies4linux-latest.tar.gz wget http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads/ies4linux-latest.tar.gz 
tar zxvf ies4linux-latest.tar.gz катран zxvf ies4linux-latest.tar.gz 
cd ies4linux-* CD-ies4linux * 
./ies4linux --no-gui ./ies4linux - не-GUI 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Transgaming Cedega Transgaming Cedega

Cedega is a commercial application (similar to CrossOver Office and Wine), for installing and running some Windows applications, specifically games, without the need for virtualization or a Microsoft license. Cedega е търговска заявката (подобно на кросоувър ведомство и вино), за инсталиране и управление някои Windows приложения, специално игри, без да е необходимо за виртуализация или Microsoft лиценз. It provides 3D support, software acceleration support, and a high level of DirectX support. То предвижда, 3D поддръжка, софтуерни ускорение подкрепа, както и високо ниво на DirectX подкрепа. Installation instructions are found on the website. Инструкции за инсталиране се намират на интернет страницата. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Mono Моно

Mono is a free open source project sponsored by Novell to allow .NET programs to function in Linux (Ubuntu) and Mac OS X. The Jaunty version is 1.9. Моно е безплатен отворен код проект спонсориран от Novell да разрешите. NET програми да функционират в Linux (Ubuntu) и Mac OS X. В жизнерадостен версия 1.9. Mono 2 is also available here . Моно 2 също е на разположение тук.

sudo apt-get install mono-2.0-devel sudo ап-да инсталирате едно-2,0-разви 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Moonlight Лунна светлина

Moonlight is part of the Novell Mono project that is an open source implementation of Silverlight (the Microsoft multimedia presentation platform). Лунна светлина е част от Novell Моно проект, който е с отворен код за изпълнението на Silverlight (Майкрософт мултимедийна презентация платформа). It is based on FFMpeg. Тя се основава на FFMpeg. It is made to work best with the Firefox 3 web browser, as a plugin. То е направено за да работи най-добре с Firefox 3 уеб браузър, като плъгин. It is available here . Той е на разположение тук. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Netflix under Moonlight Netflix под лунна светлина

Netflix streaming requires Silverlight 2.0. Netflix стрийминг изисква Silverlight 2.0. The current version of Moonlight is 1.0 (corresponding to Silverlight 1.0). Moonlight 2.0 is anticipated for mid-year 2009. Текущата версия на лунна светлина е 1,0 (съответстващи на Silverlight 1.0). Лунна светлина 2,0 се очаква за средата на 2009 година. Until this project is complete, or until Netflix agrees to stream video using Flashplayer, there are currently no methods for streaming Netflix in Linux. До този проект е пълен, или докато Netflix съгласява да поточно видео с Flashplayer, там в момента не методи за стрийминг Netflix в Linux. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Edutainment Applications Edutainment Приложения

There are many, many superb applications that can be installed with a single click. Има много, много превъзходни приложения, които могат да се инсталират само с едно кликване.

       Applications -> Add/Remove Software -> Edutainment. Молбите -> Добавяне / Премахване на софтуер -> Edutainment. 

Below are a few examples that can be installed from this menu: По-долу са няколко примера, които могат да бъдат инсталирани от това меню:

   * Stellarium -- an astounding planetarium for the desktop Stellarium - даден поразителен планетариум за работния плот
   * K3DSurf -- a program for modeling 3,4,5, and 6 dimensional models. K3DSurf - програма за моделиране 3,4,5, и 6 математически модели.
   * Bibletime -- a Bible study tool for KDE. Bibletime - A Библията проучване средство за KDE.
   * Zekr -- an Islamic Quran study tool (available in Utilities instead of Edutainment) Zekr - даден Ислямска Корана проучване инструмент (на обществените услуги, вместо Edutainment)
   * Oregano -- a program for electrical engineering schematics Риган - програма за електротехниката схеми
   * RlPlot -- a high quality graph generator RlPlot - високо качество на графиката генератор
   * Mnemosyne -- a flash-card tool Mnemosyne - флаш-карта инструмент
   * Gramps -- map your family-tree and co-operate with genealogy projects. Дядо - карта вашето семейство-дърво и да си сътрудничат с родословие проекти. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Google Earth Google Earth

Google Earth gives you an annotated eagle's eye view of our planet. Google Earth Ви дава анотиран орлов поглед на нашата планета. This is a free proprietary package (you must accept the license to use this package). Това е безплатна имуществена пакета (вие трябва да приемете лицензионното да ползвате този пакет).

sudo apt-get install googleearth-package sudo ап-да инсталирате googleearth-пакет 
make-googleearth-package --force грим googleearth-пакет - сила 
   Doubleclick on the resulting .deb file. Doubleclick за резултат. Дебютантка файл. 
               -- or -- - Или -- 

To install the latest Linux binary, download and save the GoogleEarthLinux.bin package from Google Earth downloads . Then install: За да инсталирате най-новите Linux двоичен, свалите и запазите GoogleEarthLinux.bin пакет от Google Earth сваляне. После инсталирате:

chmod +x GoogleEarthLinux.bin chmod + X GoogleEarthLinux.bin 
./GoogleEarthLinux.bin . / GoogleEarthLinux.bin 

Run: Пусни:

   Applications -> Internet -> Google Earth 3D planet viewer Молбите -> Интернет -> Google Earth 3D планета Viewer 

You should turn off the Google Earth -> View -> Atmosphere setting, or you might see clouds everywhere and the ground won't show up. Можете да изключите Google Earth -> View -> Атмосфера настройка, или можете да видите облаци навсякъде и на земята, няма да се появи. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Troubleshooting Отстраняване на проблеми

If Google Earth opens, shows the splash screen, and then crashes, you’re probably experiencing a common issue. Ако Google Earth се отваря, показва изпръсквам екран, а след това се срива, вие вероятно имате общ проблем. Running ~/google-earth/googleearth in a terminal will show this error: ./googleearth-bin: relocation error: /usr/lib/i686/cmov/libssl.so.0.9.8: symbol BIO_test_flags, version OPENSSL_0.9.8 not defined in file libcrypto.so.0.9.8 with link time reference Работещи ~ / google-earth/googleearth в терминала ще се появи тази грешка:. / Googleearth-бен: преместване грешка: / usr/lib/i686/cmov/libssl.so.0.9.8: символ BIO_test_flags, версия OPENSSL_0.9.8 не дефинирани в файл libcrypto.so.0.9.8 с линк справочен

To fix this, browse to the folder you installed Google Earth into. За да коригирате това, отидете до папката сте инсталирали Google Earth в. By default this will be google-earth in your home folder. По подразбиране това ще бъдат Google-земята в дома си папка. Find the file libcrypto.so.0.9.8 and rename it to something else, like libcrypto.so.0.9.8.bak. Намерете файла libcrypto.so.0.9.8 и го преименувайте на нещо друго, като libcrypto.so.0.9.8.bak. Google Earth should now start correctly. Google Earth трябва да стартира правилно.

cd ~/google-earth CD ~ / Google-земните 
sudo mv libcrypto.so.0.9.8 libcrypto.so.0.9.8.bak sudo СрН libcrypto.so.0.9.8 libcrypto.so.0.9.8.bak 
sudo ln -s /usr/lib/libcrypto.so.0.9.8 ~/google-earth/libcrypto.so.0.9.8 sudo По-S / usr/lib/libcrypto.so.0.9.8 ~ / google-earth/libcrypto.so.0.9.8 
   (Note: You can also specify /home/ user /google-earth instead of ~/google-earth ). (Забележка: Можете също да посочите / Начало / потребител / Google-земни вместо ~ / Google-земя). 

For other issues, see the Ubuntu help pages on Google Earth . За други въпроси, вижте Ubuntu помогне страници на Google Earth. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Uninstall Google Earth Деинсталиране на Google Earth

To uninstall run the uninstall shell script located in the /home/ user /google-earth folder (or whichever folder you installed google-earth into). За да деинсталирате Run деинсталирането черупки скрипт намира в / Начало / потребител / Google-земни папка (или папка, която сте инсталирали Google-под земята). [ edit ] [Редактиране] Proprietary Applications Патентно Приложения

Proprietary software helps you maximize your Internet experience, but is not open source. Собственически софтуер помага да увеличите вашия Интернет опит, но не е с отворен код. The software available includes Multimedia Codecs, Java Runtime Environment, and plug-ins for Firefox. Софтуерът включва налични Мултимедия Codecs, Java Runtime среда и Plug-In за Firefox. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Restricted Extras Ограничена Екстри

The Ubuntu Restricted Extras will install Adobe Flash Player, Java Runtime Environment (JRE) (sun-java-jre) with Firefox plug-ins (icedtea), a set of Microsoft Fonts (msttcorefonts), multimedia codecs (w32codecs or w64codecs), mp3-compatible encoding (lame), FFMpeg, extra Gstreamer codecs, the package for DVD decoding (libdvdread3, but see below for info on libdvdcss2), and the unrar archiver. В Ubuntu Ограничена Екстри ще инсталирате Adobe Flash Player, Java Runtime околната среда (JRE) (неделя-Java-jre) с Firefox Plug-In (icedtea), набор от "Майкрософт" Шрифтове (msttcorefonts), мултимедийни кодеци (w32codecs или w64codecs), MP3 съвместимо кодиране (ламе), FFMpeg, допълнителни Gstreamer кодеци, пакетът за декодиране на DVD (libdvdread3, но виж по-долу за информация относно libdvdcss2) и unrar archiver. This is a single command approach. Това е една команда подход.

sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras sudo ап-да инсталирате Ubuntu-ограничен статисти 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Games Applications Игри Приложения

There are some phenomenal games for Ubuntu Linux. Има някои феноменален игри за Ubuntu Linux.

   * Best Linux Games for 2008 . Best Linux игри за 2008 г..
   * Best 25 Linux Games of 2007 . Най-добри 25 Linux игри на 2007 година.
   * Ubuntu Gamers Arena . Ubuntu Gamers Арена. 

There are hundreds of free, open-source games available in Ubuntu. Има стотици свободни, с отворен код игри в Ubuntu. Most (including the KDE Games collection and the Gnome Games collection) can be accessed: Повечето (включително на KDE игри за събиране и Gnome Игри колекция) може да бъде достъпен:

       Applications -> Add/Remove Software -> Games Молбите -> Добавяне / Премахване на софтуер -> Игри 

Examples are: Примери за това са:

   * KMahjongg -- the solitaire Mahjongg tile-matching game. KMahjongg - на пасианс Mahjongg плоча-съвпадение на играта.
   * PouetChess -- an excellent 3-D chess game. PouetChess - отличен 3-D шахмат игра.
   * PokerTH -- a very nice Texas Hold 'Em Poker PokerTH - много хубаво Тексас Задръжте "Ем покер
   * Planet Penguin Racer -- Penguin slides down a 3-D luge run, catching fish. Planet Penguin Racer - Penguin пързалки определяне на 3-D пързаляне Run, улов на риба. ( Extreme Tux Racer is a newer version, but works in 32-bit only.) (Екстремни смокинг Racer е по-нова версия, но работи в 32-битов само.)
   * Ksirk -- play Risk against the computer or in a multiplayer environment. Ksirk - Риск играе срещу компютъра или в мултиплейър среда.
   * TORCS -- the 3-D Car Racing game TORCS - на 3-D автомобил Racing игра
   * Pingus -- a Lemmings clone (similar to Super Mario Bros.) that uses penguins instead of lemmings. Pingus - A Lemmings клонинг (подобно на Super Mario Bros.), която използва пингвини вместо lemmings.
   * Frozen Bubble -- the award-winning, addicting, time-wasting, bubble-popping game. Замразени Bubble - наградата за престъпления, addicting, губите времето, балон-пръкват игра.
   * Frets on Fire -- similar to Guitar Hero. Frets на пожар - подобно на китара Герой. You can import songs from Guitar Hero and from community sites . Можете да вносни песни от китара Hero и от общността сайтове. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Vdrift Vdrift

Vdrift is a free open source 3-D racing game, similar to Need for Speed, with realistic physics, multiple drift tracks, and multiplayer games. Vdrift е безплатен с отворен код за 3-D състезателни игра, подобна на Необходимост от скоростта, с реалистична физика, плаващите няколко песни, и много игри. Support for joysticks, mice and keyboard is included. Подкрепа за joysticks, мишката и клавиатурата е включена. A binary package for Linux is available from the website. А бинарен пакет за Linux е достъпна от сайта. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Action Екшън

Incredible action games (including those from the Top 25) are available in Ubuntu. Incredible действие игри (включително тези от Топ 25) са на разположение в Ubuntu. Many can be installed using: Много може да се инсталира, като се използват:

       Applications -> Add/Remove Software -> Games Молбите -> Добавяне / Премахване на софтуер -> Игри 

Examples are: Примери за това са:

   * Alien Arena -- a multi-player first person shooter action game with free servers. Alien Арена - мулти-плеър първо лице стрелецът действие, игра с безплатни сървъри. The repositories have version 7.0-1. В хранилища имат версия 7.0-1. For the current version 7.2 see the website. За текущата версия 7,2 вижте уебсайта.
   * OpenArena -- an open-source multi-player first person shooter action game, with free servers. OpenArena - отворен код мулти-плеър първо лице стрелецът действие игра с безплатни сървъри. The repositories have version 7.7. В хранилища имат версия 7.7. For the current 8.1 version see the website. За текущата 8,1 версия вижте уебсайта.
   * Tremulous -- a Halo-like multiplayer first person shooter action game. Трепетлив - A Halo-подобен мултиплейър първо лице стрелецът действие игра. The repositories have the current version. В хранилища имат текущата версия.
   * Sauerbraten - a multiplayer graphics-rich first person shooter game evolved from Cube. Sauerbraten - A мултиплейър графики богати първо лице стрелецът играта еволюира от Cube. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Nexuiz Nexuiz

   * Nexuiz is an open-source multi-player first person shooter game with free servers and tournaments. Nexuiz е отворен код мулти-плеър първо лице стрелецът игра с безплатни сървъри и турнири. 

The current version 2.4.2 is in the repositories. Настоящата версия 2.4.2 е в хранилища.

sudo apt-get install nexuiz nexuiz-music sudo ап-да инсталирате nexuiz nexuiz-музика 

You must have desktop effects turned off (System -> System Settings -> Desktop). Трябва да имате десктоп ефекти изключен (Система -> Настройки на системата -> Desktop). There are a few other problems. Има няколко други проблеми. See the Nexuiz forums . Вижте на Nexuiz форуми. Some recommend running from a shell: Някои препоръчват текат от черупки:

sudo ./nexuiz-linux-glx.sh sudo. / nexuiz-Linux-glx.sh 

or или

sudo ./nexuiz-linux-sdl.sh sudo. / nexuiz-Linux-sdl.sh 


   * A 35 map community pack is available here . А 35 на сайта общността пакет е на разположение тук. To install, extract the map pack to /home/ username /.nexuiz/data (or ~/.nexuiz/data ). За да инсталирате, екстракт от картата пакет от / Начало / потребителско име / .nexuiz / данни (или ~ / .nexuiz / данни). 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] UrbanTerror UrbanTerror

UrbanTerror is a multiplayer first person shooter action game. UrbanTerror е мултиплейър първо лице стрелецът действие игра. It uses the open-source quake 3 engine and features many real weapons and free-to-use servers for multi-player functionality. Тя използва отворения код земетресение 3 двигателя и функции много истинско оръжие и свободен за употреба сървъри за мулти-плеър функционалност. See the Installation instructions at the website. Вижте инструкции за инсталиране на уебсайта.

   * Alternative installation with a script: Алтернативен инсталация със сценария: 
           * UrbanTerror Installation Script 1 or UrbanTerror Installation Script 2 UrbanTerror Инсталиране Сценарий 1 или UrbanTerror Инсталиране Сценарий 2 
           * After downloading the script open Terminal into your download directory then make the script executable with the following command: След свалянето на скрипт открит терминал в своя свалите директория тогава направи скрипт изпълним със следната команда: 
sudo chmod +x urt40-linux-installer.sh sudo chmod + X urt40-Linux-installer.sh 
           * Now double click on the script to execute and follow the directions Сега кликнете двукратно върху сценария за изпълнение и следвайте указанията
           * The install will take a while, as the script executes a download of the necessary files which are about 541MB На инсталацията ще отнеме известно време, тъй като изпълнява скрипт файл за изтегляне на необходимите файлове, които са около 541MB 
   * After the install you will have a nice UrbanTerror icon on your desktop (unless you installed as root) След като инсталирате ли ще има по-хубаво UrbanTerror иконата на работния плот (ако сте инсталирали, както корен) 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Spring Пролет

The Spring Project is a scripting engine platform to develop and play free multiplayer games such as Star Wars Imperial Winter and Complete Annihilation . Пролетният Проектът е машина за скриптове платформа за разработване и играят свободно мултиплейър игри като Star Wars "Империал" зима и Пълното унищожение. See these installation instructions for adding the repository, then installing as a package. Виж тези инструкции за инсталиране за добавяне на хранилище, а след това да инсталирате като пакет. [ edit ] [Редактиране] PlaneShift PlaneShift

PlaneShift is a promising free full-immersion online fantasy game (MMPORG). PlaneShift е обещаващ безплатни пълно потапяне фантазия онлайн игра (MMPORG). Client downloads and patches are available here . Клиент изтегли и петна са на разположение тук.

   * Make the downloaded binary installation file executable: Направете изтеглили двоичен инсталация изпълнимия файл: 
cd /directory_where_downloaded CD / directory_where_downloaded 
chmod +x PlaneShift-v.0.42-x64.bin chmod + X PlaneShift-v.0.42-x64.bin 
   * Run the executable binary as root (this must be done from the command line Terminal): Стартирайте изпълнимия двоичен като коренов (това трябва да бъде направено от командния ред Terminal): 
sudo ./PlaneShift-v.0.42-x64.bin sudo ./PlaneShift-v.0.42-x64.bin 
   * Follow the instructions for installation. Следвайте инструкциите за инсталация. When prompted whether to manually set permissions, answer "no." Когато се появи подкана дали за ръчно задаване на разрешения, отговори "Не."
   * During installation, most users have recommended installing this game to your /home directory as a single user installation, instead of to /opt for all users. По време на инсталацията, повечето потребители се препоръчва инсталирането на тази игра на вашата / начало директория като един потребител инсталация, вместо към / изберат за всички потребители. This avoids permissions problems. Това предотвратява разрешения проблеми. I was able to install to /opt, but it takes some effort. Бях в състояние да инсталират до / изберат, но е необходимо известно усилие.
   * Make sure your user belongs to the games group: Уверете се, че вашето потребителско принадлежи на игри група: 
   System -> User Manager -> user -> Groups -> check games Система -> Мениджър за потребителя -> потребител -> Групи -> провери игри 
   * Download the updater patch psupdaterlinux64.zip and unzip it to your download directory. Изтеглете Updater пластир psupdaterlinux64.zip и го разархивирайте в директорията свалени.
   * Run the updater as root: Стартирайте Updater както корен: 
chmod +x psupdater chmod + X psupdater 
chmod +x psupdater.bin chmod + X psupdater.bin 
sudo ./psupdater sudo. / psupdater 
   * Register for a free account at PlaneShift Registration . Регистрирайте се за безплатен профил на адрес PlaneShift регистрация.
   * If you installed the game to the menu, it will be in Ако сте инсталирали играта в менюто, то ще бъде в 
   Applications -> Lost & Found -> Client and Setup Молбите -> Забравена & Намерени -> Клиентски и инсталиране 

To run it from the menu, I had to edit the menu entries by checking the box: "Run in terminal." Alternatively, run it from the command-line Terminal: За да изпълните това от менюто, аз трябваше да редактирате менюто вписванията чрез проверка в квадратчето: "Изпълни в терминал." Алтернативно, пуснете го от командния ред на терминала:

sudo /opt/PlaneShift/pssetup sudo / изберат / PlaneShift / pssetup 
sudo /opt/PlaneShift/psclient sudo / изберат / PlaneShift / psclient 

Notes: This game ran very slowly for me on a 32-bit installation with a DSL connection and I gave up. Забележка: Тази игра се завтече много бавно, за мен на 32-битовата инсталация с DSL връзка и аз се отказах. The 64-bit installation worked better, but there were still many freezes. 64-битовата инсталация работи по-добре, но има все още много замръзва. This is a game very much in development, and is still in alpha stage. Това е игра много в развитието, и все още е в алфа етап. [ edit ] [Редактиране] PrBoom - the classic Doom2 game PrBoom - класическия Doom2 игра

PrBoom is a free open source port of the original first person shooter action game, Doom . PrBoom е безплатен отворен код порт на оригинала първо лице стрелецът действие игра, Дуум.

sudo apt-get install prboom freedoom timidity timidity-interfaces-extra sudo ап-да инсталирате prboom freedoom плахост плахост-интерфейси-извънзонални 

There are thousands of extra maps (Wads) available for this game. Има хиляди допълнителни карти (голямо количество), предназначени за тази игра. It is easiest to keep a directory for your wads in your home directory: Това е лесният да водят директория за вашите голямо количество в дома си директория:

mkdir /home/ user /wads mkdir / Начало / потребител / голямо количество 

Place your doom2.wad, tnt.wad, or plutonia.wad (from your original game) into this folder. Поставете вашия doom2.wad, tnt.wad, или plutonia.wad (от оригиналната игра) в тази папка. If you don't have one, you can copy the Freedom version of doom2.wad from /usr/share/games/freedoom into this folder. Ако нямате такъв, можете да копирате Свобода версия на doom2.wad от / ЮЕсАр / акции / игри / freedoom в тази папка. Place any new .wad's you have downloaded from the Internet into this folder as well. Поставете всяко ново. Затулям на сте изтеглили от Интернет в тази папка, както добре. Then run the game using both the original iwad map as well as your new .wad map (you will only see the new map). След стартиране на играта използва както на оригинала iwad сайта, както и новите си. Затулям карта (може само ще видите нова карта).

prboom -iwad /home/ user /wads/doom2.wad -file /home/ user /wads/ new_wad .wad prboom-iwad / Начало / потребител / wads/doom2.wad файл / Начало / потребител / голямо количество / new_wad. затулям 

Note: Only doom2.wad, tnt.wad, or plutonia.wad can be used as an iwad. Забележка: Само doom2.wad, tnt.wad, или plutonia.wad може да се използва като iwad. You must have one of these in addition to any new wad you wish to use. Трябва да имате един от тези, в допълнение към всички нови затулям желаете да използвате. When in doubt, use doom2.wad. Когато се колебаете, използвайте doom2.wad.

   Note: this game can also be installed using Applications -> Add/Remove Software -> Games as Freedoom, but you must also install timidity and timidity-interfaces-extra. Забележка: Тази игра може да бъде инсталиран използвайки приложения -> Добавяне / Премахване на софтуер -> Игри, както Freedoom, но вие също трябва да инсталирате плахост и боязливост-интерфейси-екстра. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Wing Commander Privateer Крило командващ каперство

The Linux version of this free version of Wing Commander can be downloaded as a binary here . В Линукс версия на тази безплатна версия на авиацията може да бъде изтеглена като двоична тук. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Graphics and Video Applications Графичен и видео приложения

Graphics and Video Applications allow you to edit your favourite photos, create stunning 3D drawings, or professionally edit your videos and movies. Графичен и видео приложения ви позволи да редактирате вашите любими снимки, създават зашеметяващ 3D графики, или професионално редактирате вашите видеоклипове и филми. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Kino (Non-linear Video Editing Suite) Кино (нелинейни Видео Редактиране Suite)

Kino is a widely used GUI-based non-linear video editing suite for Linux. Кино е широко използван GUI базирани нелинейно редактиране на видео пакет за Linux.

sudo apt-get install kino mjpegtools sudo ап-да инсталирате Кино mjpegtools 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Cinelerra (Non-linear Video Editing Suite) Cinelerra (нелинейни Видео Редактиране Suite)

Cinelerra Community Version is a complete high-end open source video editing suite that is a derivative of a similar commercial system. Cinelerra общност Вариант е пълен висок клас с отворен код за видео редактиране апартамент, който е производен на подобна търговска система. Follow the installation instructions for Ubuntu Intrepid . Следвайте инструкциите за инсталация Ubuntu безстрашен. [ edit ] [Редактиране] KdenLive (Non-linear Video Editing Suite for KDE) KdenLive (нелинейни Видео Редактиране Suite за KDE)

Kdenlive is a GUI-based non-linear video editing suite for KDE based on FFmpeg and the MLT video framework. Kdenlive е GUI базирани нелинейна видео редактиране апартамент за KDE базирани на FFmpeg и MLT видео рамка. It is optimised for KDE 4. Той е оптимизиран за KDE 4.

sudo apt-get install kdenlive mjpegtools sudo ап-да инсталирате kdenlive mjpegtools 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Dia (Diagram editor) Dia (Диаграма редактор)

Dia is a free open source GTK-based diagram creation program for Gnome. Dia е безплатен отворен код GTK базирана програма за създаване на схема за Gnome. It is similar to Visio. Тя е подобна на Visio.

sudo apt-get install dia sudo ап-да инсталирате Dia 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Kivio (Diagram editor) Kivio (Диаграма редактор)

Kivio is an open source flow-chart and diagram creation program that is part of the KOffice Suite for KDE. Kivio е с отворен код за потока на таблицата и диаграма създаването програма, която е част от KOffice Suite за KDE. It supports Dia stencils. Той подкрепя Dia стенсили.

sudo apt-get install kivio sudo ап-да инсталирате kivio 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] GIMP (Image Manipulator) GIMP (Image манипулатор)

Gimp is a powerful, full-featured, free open-source graphics and image editor, similar to Adobe Photoshop. Gimp е мощен, пълен черти, безплатни с отворен код графика и редактор на изображения, подобен на Adobe Photoshop.

sudo apt-get install gimp sudo ап-да инсталирате Gimp 

There is an extra set of brushes, palettes, and gradients for The GIMP. Има допълнителен набор от четки, палитри и градиентите за GIMP.

sudo apt-get install gimp-data-extras sudo ап-да инсталирате Gimp-данни-статисти 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Inkscape Vector Illustrator Inkscape Векторни Illustrator

Inkscape Vector Illustrator is an open source drawing program similar to Illustrator and CorelDraw. Inkscape Векторни Illustrator е с отворен код за съставяне програма подобна на Illustrator и CorelDraw.

sudo apt-get install inkscape sudo ап-да инсталирате Inkscape 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] recordMyDesktop (Desktop Session Recording) recordMyDesktop (Desktop сесия запис)

recordMyDesktop is a desktop recording utility, which has both pyGTK and a pyQT4 GUI frontends available. recordMyDesktop е десктоп запис полза, която е едновременно pyGTK и pyQT4 GUI входни блокове на разположение. Recordings are saved in Theora video/Vorbis audio files. To install: Записите се запазват в Theora видео / Vorbis аудио файловете. За да инсталирате:

sudo apt-get install recordmydesktop sudo ап-да инсталирате recordmydesktop 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Istanbul (Desktop Session Recording) Истанбул (Desktop сесия запис)

Istanbul is a desktop recorder for the Gnome desktop. Истанбул е десктоп рекордер за Gnome Desktop. It records your session into an OGG Theora video file. Той записа своя сесия в OGG Theora видео файл.

sudo apt-get install istanbul sudo ап-да инсталирате Истанбул 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Wink (Presentation Editor) Намигване (Представяне на редактора)

Wink is a open source tutorial and presentation editor. Намигване е с отворен код за начинаещи и представянето редактор. It allows you to capture screenshots and use them for presentations. Тя ви позволява да улови картинките и да ги използват за презентации.

sudo apt-get install wink sudo ап-да инсталирате намигване 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Digikam (Photo Organiser) Digikam (Photo Организатор)

Digikam is a comprehensive open source digital photo organiser and editor. Digikam е пълна с отворен код за дигитална снимка организатор и редактор. Install it: Инсталирайте я:

sudo apt-get install digikam kipi-plugins digikam-doc sudo ап-да инсталирате digikam kipi-приставки digikam-док 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Google Picasa (Photo Organiser) Google Picasa (Photo Организатор)

Google Picasa is a photo editor and organiser similar to Digikam. Google Picasa е снимка редактор и организатор, подобни на Digikam. It allows uploads to a Google web server for online exchange. For more info, see the Picasa for Linux FAQ . Тя позволява качени в Google уеб сървър за онлайн обмен. За повече информация вижте Picasa за Linux ЧЗВ. A self-installing .deb file is available at Picasa 2.7 downloads . Самостоятелно инсталиране. Дебютантка досие е на разположение в Picasa 2,7 сваляне. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Camorama (Web Cam) Camorama (Web Cam)

Camorama is a simple GTK-based (ie Gnome-based) interface for webcams using the v4l (video for linux) drivers. Camorama е прост GTK базирана (т.е. Gnome базирана) интерфейс за уеб камери, използвайки v4l (видео за Линукс) драйвери.

sudo apt-get install camorama sudo ап-да инсталирате camorama 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Internet Applications Интернет приложения

Internet applications enable you to make full use of your Internet connection. Интернет приложения могат да се използват изцяло на вашата Интернет връзка. Web browsers, Email clients, Instant Messengers, and more are included in this category. Уеб браузъри, мейл клиенти, Instant пощальони и други, са включени в тази категория. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Web Browsers Уеб браузър [ edit ] [Редактиране] Mozilla Firefox Mozilla Firefox

Mozilla Firefox is the ubiquitous web browser. Mozilla Firefox е вездесъщ уеб браузър. Based on open source components, it is trademarked and cannot be altered or re-distributed with any change that involves the name or trademarks. Install the current version: Въз основа на компоненти с отворен код, е с търговска марка и не може да бъде променена или повторно разпространява с всяка промяна, която включва името или търговски марки. Инсталирайте сегашната версия:

sudo apt-get install firefox sudo ап-да инсталирате Firefox 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Firefox Plug-ins Firefox Plug-In [ edit ] [Редактиране] Adblock plug-in (block ads in a web page) Adblock Plug-In (печатни реклами в уеб страница)

Adblock Plus blocks ads that appear in web pages. Adblock Plus блокира реклами, които се появяват в уеб страниците. You can subscribe to a free filter service, and can add ads to block with a single click. Можете да се абонирате за безплатен филтър услуга, както и да добавяте реклами да блокират само с един клик.

sudo apt-get install mozilla-firefox-adblock sudo ап-да инсталирате Mozilla-Firefox-adblock 
   * You can also add this extension from Firefox -> Tools -> Add-ons -> Get Add-ons -> Browse All Add-ons. Можете да добавите разширението от Firefox -> Инструменти -> Add-ONS -> Махни добавките -> Преглед Всички добавките. (This method will also ensure that automatic updates are installed by Firefox.) (Този метод ще гарантира също така, че автоматично актуализации са инсталирани от Firefox.) 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Noscript plug-in (controls scripts) Noscript Plug-In (контроли скриптове)

The Noscript plugin is considered one of the most important security measures for browsing the Internet. В Noscript плъгин се счита за един от най-важните мерки за сигурност за браузване в Интернет. Most viruses and trojans gain access to computers from the Internet through scripts. Повечето вируси и троянски получат достъп до компютрите от Интернет чрез скриптове. This plugin allows you to choose which scripts to allow and blocks the rest. Този плъгин ви позволява да избирате скриптове, които да позволят и блокира останалите.

sudo apt-get install mozilla-noscript sudo ап-да инсталирате Mozilla-noscript 
   * You can also add this extension from Firefox -> Tools -> Add-ons -> Get Add-ons -> Browse All Add-ons. Можете да добавите разширението от Firefox -> Инструменти -> Add-ONS -> Махни добавките -> Преглед Всички добавките. (This method will also ensure that automatic updates are installed by Firefox.) (Този метод ще гарантира също така, че автоматично актуализации са инсталирани от Firefox.) 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] User Agent Switcher plug-in for Firefox Потребителски агент Switcher Plug-in за Firefox

The User Agent Switcher plugin allows a browser to masquerade as another browser, allowing (most of the time) browser-specific content to be displayed. В потребителя Агент Switcher плъгин позволява на браузъра да се маскирам като друг браузър, позволяващ (по-голямата част от времето) на браузъра, специфични за съдържание, за да бъдат показани.

   * You can add this extension from Firefox -> Tools -> Add-ons -> Get Add-ons -> Browse All Add-ons. Можете да добавите разширението от Firefox -> Инструменти -> Add-ONS -> Махни добавките -> Преглед Всички добавките. (This method will also ensure that automatic updates are installed by Firefox.) (Този метод ще гарантира също така, че автоматично актуализации са инсталирани от Firefox.) 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Video Download Helper plug-in for Firefox Видео Изтегли Helper Plug-in за Firefox

The Video Download Helper plugin allows the download of videos from sites like YouTube. В Видео Изтегляне Helper плъгин позволява изтеглянето на клипове от сайтове като YouTube.

   * You can add this extension from Firefox -> Tools -> Add-ons -> Get Add-ons -> Browse All Add-ons. Можете да добавите разширението от Firefox -> Инструменти -> Add-ONS -> Махни добавките -> Преглед Всички добавките. (This method will also ensure that automatic updates are installed by Firefox.) (Този метод ще гарантира също така, че автоматично актуализации са инсталирани от Firefox.) 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Unplug Download Management Изключете Изтегляне Мениджмънт

The UnPlug add-on lets you save video and audio which is embedded on a webpage. В изключете добави-он ви позволява да запазите видео и аудио, който е вграден в уеб страница.

   * You can add this extension from Firefox -> Tools -> Add-ons -> Get Add-ons -> Browse All Add-ons. Можете да добавите разширението от Firefox -> Инструменти -> Add-ONS -> Махни добавките -> Преглед Всички добавките. (This method will also ensure that automatic updates are installed by Firefox.) (Този метод ще гарантира също така, че автоматично актуализации са инсталирани от Firefox.) 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Adobe Acrobat Reader for Firefox Plug-in Adobe Acrobat Reader за Firefox Plug-In

   * Read Add Extra Ubuntu Repositories Прочетете Добави Екстра Ubuntu хранилища 
sudo apt-get install acroread mozilla-acroread acroread-plugins sudo ап-да инсталирате acroread Mozilla-acroread acroread-приставки 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Adobe Flash Player for Firefox Plug-in Adobe Flash Player за Firefox Plug-In

To install the official Adobe Flash plugin (Flash 10) for Firefox: За да инсталирате Adobe Flash плъгин официален (Flash 10) за Firefox:

sudo apt-get install adobe-flashplugin sudo ап-да инсталирате Adobe-flashplugin 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Gnash Plug-in (Open source Flash Player replacement) Скърцам със зъби от яд Plug-In (с отворен код Flash Player подмяна)

Gnash is available in a 64-bit version as well as a 32-bit version. Скърцам със зъби от яд се предлага в 64-битова версия, както и 32-битова версия. It is the open source replacement for Adobe Flashplayer. Той е с отворен код за подмяна на Adobe Flashplayer.

sudo apt-get install gnash sudo ап-да инсталирате скърцам със зъби от яд 

After installing, change your web browser's Preferences -> Applications so that SWF and SPL files use Gnash. След инсталирането, промените своя уеб браузър предпочитания -> приложения, така че SWF и SPL файлове използват скърцам със зъби от яд. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Java Runtime Environment (JRE) for Firefox plug-in Java Runtime околната среда (JRE) за Firefox, Plug-in

This package also installs the Java Runtime Environment. Този пакет също инсталира Java Runtime среда. (JRE is also installed when OpenOffice or ubuntu-restricted-extras is installed.) (JRE е инсталиран когато OpenOffice или Ubuntu-ограничен статисти е инсталиран.)

sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jre sun-java6-plugin sudo ап-да инсталирате слънце java6-jre слънце java6-плъгин 

Note: You must accept the license to use this product. Забележка: Вие трябва да приемете лицензионното да използвате този продукт. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Kaffeine Plug-in for Firefox Kaffeine Plug-In за Firefox

This package also installs the Kaffeine player. Този пакет инсталира също Kaffeine плеър.

sudo apt-get install kaffeine-mozilla sudo ап-да инсталирате kaffeine-Mozilla 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] MPlayer plug-in for Firefox MPlayer Plug-in за Firefox

This package also installs MPlayer. Този пакет инсталира също MPlayer.

sudo apt-get install mozilla-mplayer sudo ап-да инсталирате Mozilla-mplayer 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] VLC plug-in for Firefox VLC Plug-in за Firefox

This package also installs the VLC player. Този пакет инсталира също VLC играч.

sudo apt-get install mozilla-plugin-vlc sudo ап-да инсталирате Mozilla-плъгин-VLC 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Helix player plug-in for Firefox Хеликс Player Plug-in за Firefox

This package also installs the Helix player , which is the open source player that plays Real Player content in Linux. Този пакет инсталира също хеликс играч, който е с отворен код плеър, че играе за недвижими Player съдържание в Linux.

sudo apt-get install mozilla-helix-player sudo ап-да инсталирате Mozilla-спирала-плейър 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] FireFTP for Firefox FireFTP за Firefox

FireFTP is a Firefox extension for FTP transfers. FireFTP е разширение за Firefox FTP трансфери. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Firefox Widgets Firefox Widgets [ edit ] [Редактиране] IceCat IceCat

IceCat is Firefox distributed without the Mozilla trademark restrictions. IceCat е Firefox разпространява без Mozilla марка ограничения. It is endorsed by the Debian project (on which Ubuntu is based). Тя е одобрена от Debian проект (на която се основава Ubuntu). It is formerly known as IceWeasel and is also known as IceApe Browser. Install the current version: Той е бивш известен като IceWeasel и е известен още и като IceApe Browser. Инсталирайте текущата версия:

sudo apt-get install iceape-browser sudo ап-да инсталирате iceape-браузър 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] SeaMonkey SeaMonkey

SeaMonkey is an open-source integrated internet application suite (including web browser, IM (IRC) client, Email client, RSS/News reader, and web development tools). SeaMonkey е отворен код интегрирани интернет заявлението апартамент (включително уеб браузър, IM (IRC) клиент, Email клиент, RSS / Новини четец, както и инструменти за уеб програмиране). It is based on the same components as the Mozilla products and shares the trademark and branding restrictions. То се основава на същите компоненти като Mozilla продукти и акции на търговски марки и марковите ограничения. There are many plugins , similar to those for Thunderbird and Firefox. Има много плъгини, подобни на тези, за Thunderbird и Firefox. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install seamonkey sudo ап-да инсталирате seamonkey 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] IceApe IceApe

IceApe is an open-source integrated internet application suite (including web browser, IM (IRC) client, Email client, RSS/News reader, and web development tools). IceApe е отворен код интегрирани интернет заявлението апартамент (включително уеб браузър, IM (IRC) клиент, Email клиент, RSS / Новини четец, както и инструменти за уеб програмиране). It is based on the same components as the Mozilla product SeaMonkey, but has no restrictive trademark licensing, and is endorsed by the Debian project (on which Ubuntu is based). Install the current version: То се основава на същите компоненти като Mozilla SeaMonkey продукта, но няма ограничителни търговски марки за лицензиране и е одобрен от Debian проект (на която се основава Ubuntu). Инсталирайте сегашната версия:

sudo apt-get install iceape sudo ап-да инсталирате iceape 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Opera Opera

Opera is a proprietary browser and internet suite (currently free on PCs) also used in some mobile devices and gaming consoles. Opera е имуществена браузър и интернет апартамент (в момента свободни за компютри), също използва в някои мобилни устройства, както и игрални конзоли. It includes email, an address book, IRC chat, integrated BitTorrent, and webfeeds. Тя включва електронна поща, адрес книга, IRC чат, интегриран BitTorrent и webfeeds. A limited number of plugins are also available. Ограничен брой плъгини са също на разположение.

sudo apt-get install opera sudo ап-да инсталирате опера 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Download Managers Изтегляне Управители [ edit ] [Редактиране] Downloader for X Изтегляне за X

Downloader for X is a GTK-based free-standing download manager utility. За изтегляне X е GTK базирана свободно стоящи свалите мениджър полза. Still included in current repositories, the project appears dead. Все пак, включени в настоящите хранилища, проектът изглежда мъртъв. It is open-source, but does not have a GPL license. Той е с отворен код, но не разполага с GPL лиценз.

sudo apt-get install d4x sudo ап-да инсталирате d4x 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Email Clients Email Клиенти [ edit ] [Редактиране] Evolution Еволюция

Evolution is the default Gnome-based email client in Ubuntu. Evolution е стандартната Gnome-базирани имейл клиент в Ubuntu. If not installed: Ако не се инсталира:

sudo apt-get install evolution sudo ап-да инсталирате еволюция 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Evolution and PGP Еволюция и PGP

Email messages can be encrypted in PGP and sent by email using Evolution. E-mail съобщенията могат да бъдат кодирани в PGP и изпратени по електронна поща с Evolution. See this tutorial for an example how to configure it. Вижте инстркцията пример за това как да я конфигурирате. [ edit ] [Редактиране] KMail KMail

KMail (Kontact Mail) is the default email client included with Kontact in KDE (Kubuntu). KMail (Kontact Mail) е по подразбиране, имейл клиент, включени с Kontact в KDE (Kubuntu). Kontact includes email, an address book, a calendar, reminders, pop-up notes, a link to the Akregator News/RSS reader, time-tracking, and more. Kontact включва електронна поща, адрес книга, календар, напомняния, поп-горе бележки, връзка към Akregator Новини / RSS четец, време проследяване и други. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install kontact sudo ап-да инсталирате kontact 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Thunderbird Thunderbird

Mozilla Thunderbird is a licensed and trademarked free open-source email client that is compatible with Firefox. Mozilla Thunderbird е лицензиран и търговска марка свободен отворен код мейл клиент, който е съвместим с Firefox. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install mozilla-thunderbird sudo ап-да инсталирате Mozilla-буревестник 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Enigmail Enigmail

Enigmail is an add-on to Thunderbird that allows you to easily encrypt your email using OpenPGP , which is included in the kernel by default. Enigmail е добавка към Thunderbird, който ви позволява лесно да шифровате вашия имейл с OpenPGP, която е включена в ядрото по подразбиране. It also allows you to create and manage the encryption keys. Той също така ви позволява да създавате и управлявате криптиране ключовете. Go the website and click "Download Now". Отиди на уеб страница и кликнете върху "Изтегляне Сега". Install: Инсталиране:

   Thunderbird -> Tools -> Add-ons -> Install -> select downloaded file Thunderbird -> Инструменти -> Add-ONS -> Инсталирайте -> изберете изтегления файл 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] New Mail Icon for Thunderbird Икона за нова поща Thunderbird

"New Mail Icon" is an experimental tray add-on which notifes you of new mail. "Новата поща Икона" е експериментална тава добавка, на която notifes ви нова поща. Download from the website. Изтегляне от интернет страница. Install: Инсталиране:

   Thunderbird -> Tools -> Add-ons -> Install -> select downloaded file Thunderbird -> Инструменти -> Add-ONS -> Инсталирайте -> изберете изтегления файл 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Newsreaders Newsreaders [ edit ] [Редактиране] Akregator Akregator

Akregator is the default news/RSS reader included with Kubuntu (KDE). Akregator е стандартната Новини / RSS четец, включени с Kubuntu (KDE). Usage instructions are found in the Handbook . Инструкции за употреба, са намерени в Наръчника. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install akregator sudo ап-да инсталирате akregator 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] RSSOwl RSSOwl

RSSOwl is a Java-based RSS | RDF | Atom Newsfeed Reader. These installation instructions only work with RSSOwl version 1_2_3. RSSOwl е Java-базирани RSS | RDF | Atom Newsfeed Reader. Тези инструкции за инсталиране работи само с RSSOwl версия 1_2_3.

In order to use the internal browser, install first the packages xulrunner and firefox , either via Synaptic Manager or by typing this command into Terminal: С цел да се използва вътрешен браузър, инсталирайте първо пакетите xulrunner и Firefox, било чрез Synaptic управител или от въвеждането на тази команда в терминала:

sudo apt-get install firefox xulrunner sudo ап-да инсталирате Firefox xulrunner 

Change to your "opt" directory: Промяна на своя "изберат" директорията:

cd /opt CD / откажете 

Download the tar.gz-archive into your opt directory: Изтеглете tar.gz-архив в откажете директория:

sudo wget http://belnet.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/rssowl/rssowl_1_2_3_linux_bin.tar.gz sudo wget http://belnet.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/rssowl/rssowl_1_2_3_linux_bin.tar.gz 

Extract the archive and remove the extracted file: Извличане на архива и извадете извлечена файл:

sudo tar zxvf ./rssowl_1_2_3_linux_bin.tar.gz && sudo rm ./rssowl_1_2_3_linux_bin.tar.gz sudo катран zxvf ./rssowl_1_2_3_linux_bin.tar.gz & & sudo RM ./rssowl_1_2_3_linux_bin.tar.gz 

Make a startscript: Направете startscript:

sudo nano /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh sudo нано / ЮЕсАр / хамбар / runRSSOwl.sh 

and add the following lines to your starter-script file /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh и да добавите следните редове към вашия стартер-скрипт файл / ЮЕсАр / хамбар / runRSSOwl.sh

    export MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME=/usr/lib/xulrunner Износа MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME = ЮЕсАр / lib / xulrunner 
    export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:${MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME}:${LD_LIBRARY_PATH} износа LD_LIBRARY_PATH = $ LD_LIBRARY_PATH: $ (MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME): $ (LD_LIBRARY_PATH) 
    cd /opt/rssowl_1_2_3_linux_bin CD / opt/rssowl_1_2_3_linux_bin 
    ./run.sh . / run.sh 

Make the startscript executable: Направете startscript изпълними:

sudo chmod u+x /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh sudo chmod U + X / ЮЕсАр / хамбар / runRSSOwl.sh 

Now you always can start RSSOwl: Сега вие винаги можете да започнете да RSSOwl:

runRSSOwl.sh runRSSOwl.sh 

After having started the application "RSSOwl": След като се стартира приложението "RSSOwl":

Go to --> View and enable "View Newstext in Browser". Отидете до -> Преглед и даде възможност на "View Newstext в браузъра".

Then go to --> Tools --> Preferences... След това отидете до -> Инструменти -> Настройки ... --> General and enable in misc-section "Open any news automatically in browser". -> Общи и позволяват по-MISC-раздел "Отворено някакви новини автоматично в браузър".

Go to --> Tools --> Preferences... Отидете до -> Инструменти -> Настройки ... --> Browser and enter the path to the executable (my path was /usr/lib/firefox/firefox). Finally enable “use external browser” at the bottom. -> На браузъра и въведете пътя към изпълнимия (Моят път е бил / ЮЕсАр / lib / Firefox / Firefox). Накрая се даде възможност "да се използва външен браузър" в дъното. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Instant Messengers Instant пощальони [ edit ] [Редактиране] Pidgin Жаргон

Pidgin is an open source IM application. Жаргон е с отворен код за IM приложение. It is the default in the Ubuntu (Gnome) desktop. Тя е по подразбиране в Ubuntu (Gnome) Desktop. You can access multiple services with it. Можете да получите достъп до множество услуги с него.

sudo apt-get install pidgin sudo ап-да инсталирате жаргон 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Kopete Kopete

Kopete is the default Instant Messenger application for Kubuntu. Kopete е стандартната Instant Messenger заявление за Kubuntu. You can access multiple services with it. Можете да получите достъп до множество услуги с него. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install kopete sudo ап-да инсталирате kopete 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Kopete Styles Kopete Стайлс

Additional styles for Kopete are available from KDE-look. Допълнителни стилове за Kopete са достъпни от KDE-виж. Install from: Инсталирайте от:

       Kopete -> Settings -> Configure -> Chat Window -> Style -> Get New... Kopete -> Настройки -> Конфигуриране -> Чат Window -> Стил -> Направете нови ... 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] GoogleTalk on Kopete GoogleTalk за Kopete

Kopete can be configured to work with GoogleTalk Instant Messaging (but not VOIP) using the Jabber protocol. See these GoogleTalk instructions . Kopete може да бъде конфигуриран да работи с GoogleTalk Мигновени съобщения (но не и VOIP) с помощта на Jabber протокола. Вижте тези GoogleTalk инструкции. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Konversation (IRC client) Konversation (IRC клиент)

Konversation is the default Kubuntu Internet Relay Chat (IRC) client. Konversation е по подразбиране Kubuntu Relay Интернет чат (IRC) клиент. It functions similar to the venerable mIRC. Тя действа подобно на вековни MiRC. "A little less action and a little more Konversation." "Малко по-слабо действие и малко по-Konversation." -- Elves Install: - Елфите Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install konversation sudo ап-да инсталирате konversation 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] aMSN aMSN

aMSN is an MSN Messenger utility that functions like the original client. aMSN е MSN Messenger полезни функции, които харесват оригиналния клиент. It is not necessary if you use Pidgin . Тя не е необходима, ако използвате жаргон. Install it: Инсталирайте я:

sudo apt-get install amsn sudo ап-да инсталирате amsn 

To enable Drag-and-Drop capabilities to aMSN for easy file transfer see Ubuntu Geek . За да се даде възможност на плъзгане и пускане способности за aMSN за лесно прехвърляне на файлове видите Ubuntu Geek. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Emesene Emesene

Emesene is an MSN messenger client that uses a simplified interface similar to the original client. Emesene е MSN Messenger клиент, който използва опростен интерфейс, подобен на първоначалния клиент. It is not necessary if you use Pidgin . Тя не е необходима, ако използвате жаргон. Install it: Инсталирайте я:

sudo apt-get install emesene sudo ап-да инсталирате emesene 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Videoconferencing and VOIP Videoconferencing и VOIP

Videoconferencing and voice over Internet (VOIP) applications are merging into integrated applications. Videoconferencing и глас през интернет (VoIP) приложения се сливат в интегрирани приложения. Most of these applications now allow placing calls to non-Internet based telephones for a small fee. Повечето от тези приложения сега позволи пускането призовава да не са Интернет базирани телефони за малка такса. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Ekiga Ekiga

Formerly known as Gnomemeeting, Ekiga is a SIP compliant fully functional open source integrated VOIP and videoconferencing program. Някога известен като Gnomemeeting, Ekiga е SIP съответства напълно функционална отворен код интегрирани VOIP и videoconferencing програма.

sudo apt-get install ekiga sudo ап-да инсталирате ekiga 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Skype Skype

Skype is a proprietary integrated VOIP and video conferencing program similar to Ekiga. Skype е собственост интегрирани VOIP и видео конферентна програма, подобна на Ekiga.

sudo apt-get install skype sudo ап-да инсталирате Skype 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] How to install Skype on a 64-bit system Как да инсталирате Skype на 64-битова система

The current version of Skype is for 32-bit systems. Текущата версия на Skype е за 32-битови системи. To use on a 64-bit system: За използване на 64-битова система:

   * Install needed packages: Инсталиране на необходимите пакети: 
sudo apt-get install ia32-libs lib32asound2 libqt4-core libqt4-gui sudo ап-да инсталирате ia32-libs lib32asound2 libqt4-ядрото libqt4-GUI 
   * Download the current Skype .deb package from the Skype website: Изтегляне на текущата Skype. Дебютантка пакет от Skype уебсайт: 
wget -O skype-install.deb http://www.skype.com/go/getskype-linux-ubuntu wget-O Skype-install.deb http://www.skype.com/go/getskype-linux-ubuntu 
   * Install the Skype .deb package: Инсталирайте Skype. Дебютантка пакет: 
sudo dpkg -i --force-architecture skype-install.deb sudo dpkg-I - сила-архитектура Skype-install.deb 
   * Start Skype: Стартирайте Skype: 
   Applications menu -> Internet -> Skype Заявленията меню -> Интернет -> Skype 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Wengophone Wengophone

Wengophone is an integrated VOIP and videoconferencing client available on many platforms. Wengophone е интегрирана и videoconferencing VOIP клиент, достъпен от много платформи. Wengophone was initially an open-source GPL-licensed package ('Wengophone Classic'). Wengophone първоначално бе открит източник GPL-лицензирана пакет ( "Wengophone Класик"). Both the Classic version (available as a .deb file) and the current proprietary binary version are available from the website. Както Classic версия (на разположение под формата на. Дебютантка файл) и текущата версия на собственост двоичен са на разположение в интернет страницата. Wengophone Classic has been rebranded as QuteCom (but a new Linux version is not yet available there). Wengophone Classic е rebranded като QuteCom (но нова Linux версия все още не е достъпна там).

   * Install the Wengophone Classic version: Инсталирайте Wengophone Classic версия: 
sudo apt-get install wengophone sudo ап-да инсталирате wengophone 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Gizmo5 Gizmo5

Gizmo5 is an Internet soft-phone application that uses the SIP protocol. Gizmo5 е Интернет меките телефон приложение, което използва SIP протокол. It is similar to Skype and can be used for making cheap phone calls. Тя е подобна на Skype и могат да бъдат използвани за извършване на евтини телефонни разговори.

sudo apt-get install gizmo5 sudo ап-да инсталирате gizmo5 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Asterisk VOIP PBX system Звездичка VOIP PBX система

Asterisk is an enterprise-grade, free open source PBX and telephony system for VOIP. Звездичка е предприятие-клас, безплатни и с отворен код PBX телефонна система за VOIP.

sudo apt-get install asterisk sudo ап-да инсталирате звездичка 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Kiax Kiax

Kiax is an open source ("limited" GPL) IAX (Inter-Asterisk eXchange) application. Kiax е с отворен код ( "ограничена" GPL) IAX (Интер-звездичка обмен) заявление. It is used for making VoIP calls from an Asterisk PBX. Той се използва за VoIP обаждания от звездичка PBX.

sudo apt-get install kiax sudo ап-да инсталирате kiax 

Run from terminal with: Бягай от терминала с:

kiax kiax 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] FTP Clients FTP клиенти

You might wish to use a dedicated FTP client instead of the one in your browser. Може би искате да се използва специален FTP клиент, вместо от един в своя браузър. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Filezilla Filezilla

Filezilla is the ubiquitous free open-source FTP client and server for all platforms. Filezilla е повсеместен безплатен отворен код FTP клиент и сървър за всички платформи.

sudo apt-get install filezilla sudo ап-да инсталирате filezilla 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Filesharing / P2P Filesharing / P2P

Do not share copyrighted material or content that is otherwise illegal to share. Не споделяй с авторски права материали или друго съдържание, което е незаконно да споделите. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Transmission (BitTorrent Client) ТРАНСМИСИЯ (BitTorrent клиент)

Transmission is the GTK-based default BitTorrent client in Ubuntu (Gnome). Предаване е GTK базирана подразбиране BitTorrent клиент в Ubuntu (Gnome).

sudo apt-get install transmission sudo ап-да инсталирате предаване 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] KTorrent KTorrent

KTorrent is the default BitTorrent client in Kubuntu. KTorrent е стандартната BitTorrent клиент в Kubuntu. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install ktorrent sudo ап-да инсталирате ktorrent 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Azureus Azureus

Azureus is a Java-based BitTorrent client. Azureus е Java-базирани BitTorrent клиент.

sudo apt-get install azureus sudo ап-да инсталирате azureus 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] QTorrent QTorrent

QTorrent is a PyQT-based BitTorrent Client that is supposed to be very fast. QTorrent е PyQT базирани BitTorrent клиент, който е трябвало да бъде много бързо.

QTorrent QTorrent [ edit ] [Редактиране] Apollon (P2P Filesharing) Apollon (P2P Filesharing)

Apollon is an older BitTorrent client oriented towards KDE. Apollon е по-старо BitTorrent клиент, ориентирани към KDE. It uses plugins for compatibility with multiple networks. Тя използва приставки за съвместимост с различни мрежи.

sudo apt-get install apollon gift sudo ап-да инсталирате apollon подарък 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] MLDonkey (P2P eMule/eDonkey2000) MLDonkey (P2P eMule/eDonkey2000)

MLDonkey is a P2P file sharing program (and network) that is able to use different network protocols. MLDonkey е P2P програма за споделяне на файлове (и мрежа), която е в състояние да използват различни мрежовите протоколи. To install the MLDonkey core server, follow these instructions . За да инсталирате MLDonkey ядрото на сървъра, следвайте тези инструкции. [ edit ] [Редактиране] MLDonkey GUI frontends MLDonkey GUI входни блокове

   * Install the Gnome GUI frontend for MLDonkey: Инсталиране на GNOME GUI интерфейса за MLDonkey: 
sudo apt-get install mldonkey-gui sudo ап-да инсталирате mldonkey-GUI 
   * Another GUI is called Sancho . Друг GUI се нарича Sancho.
   * KMLDonkey is the KDE (Kubuntu) frontend for MLDonkey . KMLDonkey е KDE (Kubuntu) интерфейса за MLDonkey. 
sudo apt-get install kmldonkey sudo ап-да инсталирате kmldonkey 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Privacy Конфиденциалност [ edit ] [Редактиране] PGP (Message Encryption) PGP (Съобщение шифроване)

PGP (OpenPGP and GnuPGP ) is a tool to encrypt your messages (such as email) to be unlocked only by someone who has a key to unlock it. PGP (OpenPGP и GnuPGP) е инструмент за кодиране на вашите съобщения (като електронна поща), за да бъде отключена само от някой, който има ключ за да отключите него. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Seahorse Seahorse

Seahorse is the GUI for Gnome to manage the key pairs and other options of GnuPGP . Seahorse е GUI за Gnome да управляват ключовите двойки и други варианти на GnuPGP. It can also manage your SSH keys. Тя може също така да управлявате вашите SSH ключове. For more info see this tutorial . За повече информация вижте този настойнически. Run: Пусни:

   Applications -> Accessories --> Passwords and Encryption Keys Молбите -> Принадлежности -> Паролите и Шифроването Клавиши 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Tor (Network Privacy) Tor (Мрежа за поверителност)

Tor is a project to allow privacy while using the Internet and limit usage tracking. Тор е проект, който да позволи на личен живот при използването на Интернет и ограничаване ползването проследяване. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install tor privoxy sudo ап-да инсталирате Tor privoxy 

then see the installation guide . Тогава вижте Ръководство за инсталиране. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Tor GUIs Тор GUIs

There are two main GUIs for Tor. Съществуват две основни GUIs за Тор.

   * Vidalia is a cross-platform Qt-based GUI for Tor. Vidalia е кръст-платформа Qt-базирани GUI за Тор. See these instructions to install it. Виж тези инструкции за инсталиране.
   * TorK is the KDE interface, used in Kubuntu, but which can run in Ubuntu (Gnome) as well. TorK е KDE интерфейс, използван в Kubuntu, но които могат да работят в Ubuntu (Gnome), както добре. 
sudo apt-get install tork sudo ап-да инсталирате tork 

In addition, a Torbutton is available for Firefox, which toggles Tor usage. В допълнение, Torbutton е достъпна за Firefox, които toggles Tor ползване. Install as a Firefox add-on or: Инсталирайте като Firefox добавки или:

sudo apt-get install torbutton-extension sudo ап-да инсталирате torbutton-разширение 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Multimedia Applications Мултимедийни приложения

Multimedia applications include music and video playback, CD and DVD playback and recording, and Internet TV as well as "terrestrial" (ie broadcast, satellite, and cable) TV viewing on your computer. Here is a nice review of some of the applications that enables conversion and handling of these types of files. Мултимедийни приложения включват музикални и видео възпроизвеждане, CD и DVD възпроизвеждане и запис, TV и Интернет, както и "земни" (т.е. предаване, сателитни и кабелни) TV гледане на вашия компютър. Тук е хубаво преглед на някои от приложенията, които позволява преобразуване и обработка на тези типове файлове. [ edit ] [Редактиране] CDs and DVDs CD-та и DVD-та [ edit ] [Редактиране] DVD Playback Capability DVD възпроизвеждане Възможност

To play encrypted DVDs, the libdvdcss2 package is essential. За да играе криптирани DVD-та, на libdvdcss2 пакет е от съществено значение. libdvdcss2 is a simple library designed for accessing DVDs like a block device without having to bother about the decryption. libdvdcss2 е прост библиотека предназначена за достъп до DVD-та като блок устройство, без да се притеснявам за разшифроването. More information about this package can be found at VideoLAN . Повече информация относно този пакет могат да бъдат намерени на VideoLAN.

   * You can install libdvdcss2 as a 64-bit .deb package without installing the Medibuntu repositories: Можете да инсталирате libdvdcss2 като 64-битов. Дебютантка пакет, без инсталиране на Medibuntu хранилища: 
wget -c http://packages.medibuntu.org/pool/free/libd/libdvdcss/libdvdcss2_1.2.10-0.2medibuntu1_amd64.deb wget-C http://packages.medibuntu.org/pool/free/libd/libdvdcss/libdvdcss2_1.2.10-0.2medibuntu1_amd64.deb 
sudo dpkg -i libdvdcss2_1.2.10-0.2medibuntu1_amd64.deb sudo dpkg-I libdvdcss2_1.2.10-0.2medibuntu1_amd64.deb 
   or a 32-bit .deb package: или 32-битов. дебютантка пакет: 
wget -c http://packages.medibuntu.org/pool/free/libd/libdvdcss/libdvdcss2_1.2.10-0.2medibuntu1_i386.deb wget-C http://packages.medibuntu.org/pool/free/libd/libdvdcss/libdvdcss2_1.2.10-0.2medibuntu1_i386.deb 
sudo dpkg -i libdvdcss2_1.2.10-0.2medibuntu1_i386.deb sudo dpkg-I libdvdcss2_1.2.10-0.2medibuntu1_i386.deb 
   * You can also use guidelines provided at Medibuntu . Можете да използвате и насоките, предоставяни по Medibuntu. This will install the Medibuntu repositories on your system and then install the libdvdcss2 package: Това ще инсталира Medibuntu хранилища на вашата система и след това инсталирайте libdvdcss2 Опаковка: 
sudo wget http://www.medibuntu.org/sources.list.d/jaunty.list --output-document=/etc/apt/sources.list.d/medibuntu.list sudo wget http://www.medibuntu.org/sources.list.d/jaunty.list - изход-документ = т.н. / ап / sources.list.d / medibuntu.list 
sudo apt-get update sudo ап-да обновите 
sudo apt-get install medibuntu-keyring sudo ап-да инсталирате medibuntu-Keyring 
sudo apt-get update sudo ап-да обновите 
sudo apt-get install libdvdcss2 sudo ап-да инсталирате libdvdcss2 
       You can also install 32 bit or 64 bit Windows multimedia codecs (if you haven't already done so using ubuntu-restricted-extras ): Можете също така да инсталирате 32 битов или 64 битов Windows мултимедийни кодеци (ако вече не сте го направили, използвайки Ubuntu-ограничен статисти): 
sudo apt-get install w32codecs sudo ап-да инсталирате w32codecs 
   or или 
sudo apt-get install w64codecs sudo ап-да инсталирате w64codecs 
   * Instead of downloading directly from Medibuntu, you could also use the script included with the libdvdread3 package to download and install libdvdcss2: Вместо да изтеглите директно от Medibuntu, Вие също бихте могли да използвате скрипт, включени с libdvdread3 пакета, за да изтеглите и инсталирате libdvdcss2: 
sudo apt-get install libdvdread3 sudo ап-да инсталирате libdvdread3 
sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/install-css.sh sudo / usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/install-css.sh 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] K9copy DVD-Ripper K9copy DVD-Изкормвача

K9copy is the free open source DVD backup , copying, compression, and authoring utility that requires libdvdcss . K9copy е безплатен отворен код DVD резервно копие, копиране, компресия и authoring полезност, която изисква libdvdcss. For other info, see this brief k9copy guide . За друга информация, вижте това кратко ръководство k9copy. You can also easily create MPEG-4 videos with this utility. Можете също така лесно да създадете MPEG-4 видео с тази програма.

sudo apt-get install k9copy sudo ап-да инсталирате k9copy 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] dvd::rip DVD:: RIP

dvd::rip is a DVD backup /copy program, written in GTK-based perl, that uses the transcode video/audio processing and conversion tools. DVD:: RIP е резервната DVD / копира програмата, написана на GTK базирана Perl, която използва transcode видео / аудио обработка и конвертиране инструменти. See the website for installation and official documentation. Вижте уебсайта за инсталиране и официални документи. For other info, see this dvd::rip tutorial . За друга информация, вижте това DVD:: RIP настойнически. [ edit ] [Редактиране] DVD Fab DVD Ripper DVD Fab DVD Изкормвача

DVD Fab is the favoured DVD backup tool for today's DVD encryption methods. DVD Fab е любима DVD резервно средство за днешните DVD криптиране методи. It must be run in Wine (since it is a Windows application). Тя трябва да се управлява с вина (тъй като това е Windows приложение). It comes as a fully featured 30-day trial, but see these instructions for fine-tuning the trial period. Той идва, като напълно включени 30-дневен пробен, но виж тези инструкции за фино настройване на пробен период. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Handbrake Ръчна спирачка

Handbrake is a GPL-licenced open source tool for converting DVD to MPEG-4 (iPod format) that is an alternative to k9copy. Ръчна спирачка е GPL-лицензирани с отворен код инструмент за конвертиране на DVD към MPEG-4 (iPod формат), която е алтернатива на k9copy. A self-installing .deb file is available from the website for download. Самостоятелно инсталиране. Дебютантка файл е достъпен от уеб сайта за изтегляне. [ edit ] [Редактиране] FFMPEG video / audio conversion FFMPEG видео / аудио реализации

FFMPEG is the swiss-army knife of video and audio format conversion. FFMPEG е най-швейцарската армия нож на видео и аудио формат реализация. It succeeds when no other program can. Той успява, когато няма друга програма мога. It is free and open source. Тя е безплатна и с отворен код. If it not yet installed on your system as part of another package (it is used by many video/audio editors), then install it: Ако тя все още не са инсталирани на вашата система, като част от друг пакет (то се използва от много от видео / аудио редактори), а след това да го инсталирате:

sudo apt-get install ffmpeg sudo ап-да инсталирате ffmpeg 

To convert many different formats, read the FFMPEG documentation . За да конвертирате много различни формати, прочетете FFMPEG документация. Also see this tutorial . Вижте също инстркцията.

Example: To convert a saved Flash video (.flv) to an MPEG-2 format playable on a DVD, convert: Пример: За да конвертирате записан Flash видео (. Flv) на MPEG-2 формат за сцената на DVD, конвертирате:

ffmpeg -i samplevideo.flv  -target ntsc-dvd samplevideo.mpg ffmpeg-I samplevideo.flv-целева NTSC-DVD samplevideo.mpg 

Then use K3b (or Gnomebaker ) to write the mpg file to a New DVD Data Project. Тогава използвайте K3b (или Gnomebaker), за да напишете MPG файла към нова DVD Данни за проекта.

       * For PAL use -target pal-dvd. За използване PAL-целева PAL-DVD. For widescreen, use -target film-dvd. За широкоекранен, използвайте са обект на филм-DVD. For other conversion tips, see this forum . За други реализации съвети, вижте този форум. (Note: Most Flash video has very low resolution, with a screen size of 360x270, for example. You may see a slight diminishment in resolution if you wish to convert it to 720x480 (which is the NTSC standard size) or other screen size. You can keep the original screen size and resolution by omitting the -target parameter.) If your original file is 16:9 widescreen and you desire a 4:3 letterbox output for playing on an overscanned TV, you may need to pad the file so that the widescreen is not compressed (see this forum ): (Забележка: Най-Flash видео е много ниска резолюция, с размер на екрана 360x270, например. Можете да видите малки diminishment в резолюция, ако желаете да го трансформирате 720x480 (което е най-NTSC стандарта размер), или друг размер на екрана. Можете да запазите оригиналния размер на екрана и резолюция от които не са обект на параметър.) Ако вашите оригиналния файл е широкоекранен 16:9 и вие желаете 4:3 letterbox изхода за възпроизвеждане на overscanned ТВ, може да се наложи да тампон на файл, така широкоекранен, че не е компресиран (виж този форум): 
ffmpeg -i samplevideo.flv -target ntsc-dvd -s 648x364 -padleft 36 -padright 36 -padtop 58 -padbottom 58 samplevideo.mpg ffmpeg-I samplevideo.flv-целева NTSC-DVD-те 648x364-padleft 36-padright 36-padtop 58-padbottom 58 samplevideo.mpg 

You can also use the WinFF GUI and add the command (as above) as a "Preset," for subsequent use. Можете също така да използвате WinFF GUI и добавите команда (както по-горе) като "настройка," за последващо използване. For example: За пример:

   Video converter (WinFF) -> Edit -> Presets -> Видео конвертор (WinFF) -> Промени -> настройки ->
       Preset Name: Letterbox -> Preset Label: 16:9 Widescreen to 4:3 Letterbox Предварително Име: Letterbox -> Предварително Етикет: Широк екран 16:9 до 4:3 Letterbox 
       Preset command: -target ntsc-dvd -s 648x364 -padleft 36 -padright 36 -padtop 58 -padbottom 58 Предварително команда: целева-NTSC-DVD-те 648x364-padleft 36-padright 36-padtop 58-padbottom 58 
       Ouput file extension: mpg -> Category: DVD Ouput разширение: MPG -> Категория: DVD
           -> Add/Update -> Save -> Добавяне / Обновяване -> Save 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] FFMPEG GUI FFMPEG GUI

WinFF is a free, GPL-licensed open source GUI frontend for FFMPEG. WinFF е безплатна, GPL-лицензирана с отворен код GUI интерфейса за FFMPEG. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install winff sudo ап-да инсталирате winff 
   Run: Пусни: 
   Applications -> Multimedia -> Video converter (WinFF) Молбите -> Multimedia -> Видео конвертор (WinFF) 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Join video segments Присъедини се към видео сегменти

Individual video segments (MPEG-2, for example) can easily be joined: Отделните части на видео (MPEG-2, например) могат лесно да се присъединиха:

cat samplevideo1.mpg samplevideo2.mpg samplevideo3.mpg > samplevideo123.mpg котка samplevideo1.mpg samplevideo2.mpg samplevideo3.mpg> samplevideo123.mpg 
   You can then write the resulting MPEG-2 file to a DVD and play it in most DVD players. След това можете да напишете в резултат на MPEG-2 файл на DVD и да го прослушате в повечето DVD плейъри. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Save any streaming Flash video Запазете всеки стрийминг Flash видео

An easy way is to install the Video Download Helper plug-in for Firefox . Един лесен начин е да инсталирате Видео Изтегляне Helper Plug-in за Firefox.

Otherwise, most Flash videos download to the /tmp directory while you watch the video, creating a randomly-named video file there (such as Flashuh4G6s). В противен случай, най-Flash видео свалени до / TMP директория, докато гледате видео, създаване на произволно име видео файл там (като Flashuh4G6s). When you close the webpage, this file in the /tmp directory will be erased. Когато затворите уебстраница, този файл в / TMP директория ще бъде изтрита. After the entire video has downloaded, but before you close the webpage, copy that file (such as Flashuh4G6s) to your home directory (where it will not be erased). След цялото видео е изтеглена, но преди да го затворите уеб страница, копирайте този файл (като Flashuh4G6s) във вашия дом директория (където тя няма да се изтрие). Of course, for this to work, you must change your Flash (or Gnash) settings to allow an unlimited buffer. Разбира се, за тази работа, трябва да смените вашата Flash (или скърцам със зъби от яд) настройки, за да позволи на неограничен буфер. While watching your Flash video, right click to bring up the Flash -> Settings window. Докато гледам вашата Flash видео, кликнете правото да предявява на Flash -> Настройки на прозореца. Set the Buffer to "Unlimited." Задаване на буфера към "Неограничено."

Once you have copied the file, rename it appropriately with the .flv added to the filename. След като сте копирали файла, преименувайте го по подходящ начин с. Flv добавя към името на файла. You can then watch it using VLC or Mplayer. След това можете да го гледате с VLC или Mplayer.

Here is another method that involves making a symbolic link. Тук е друг метод, който включва една символична връзка. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Convert Flash video audio to mp3 Конвертирай Flash видео към аудио Mp3

Once you have downloaded flash video content (.flv) from the Internet (using the Video Download Helper plug-in for Firefox , for example), the audio component can be converted to an mp3 using this command (from the command line Terminal). След като сте изтеглили Flash видео съдържание (. Flv) от Интернет (чрез използване на видео Изтегляне Helper Plug-in за Firefox, например), аудио компоненти могат да бъдат конвертирани до Mp3 използвате тази команда (от командния ред Terminal). (This will work for any type of video file, not just Flash.) (Това ще работи за всеки вид на видео файл, а не само Flash.)

ffmpeg -i nameofvideoclip.flv  -ab 160k -ac 2 -ar 44100 -vn nameoffile.mp3 ffmpeg-I nameofvideoclip.flv-AB 160k-AC 2-AR 44100-VN nameoffile.mp3 

where -i indicates the input, -ab indicates the bit rate (in this example 160kb/sec), -vn means no video ouput, -ac 2 means 2 channels, -ar 44100 indicates the sampling frequency. има случаи, когато аз се посочва вход, нап-посочва битово ниво (в този пример 160kb/sec), не означава, VN-видео ouput, AC-2 означава 2 канала,-AR 44100 посочва проби честота. See FFMPEG docs for more info. Вижте FFMPEG Документи за повече инфо. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Gnomebaker (CD/DVD burner) Gnomebaker (CD / DVD горелка)

Gnomebaker is the default CD/DVD burning application for the Gnome desktop, installed by default in Ubuntu. Gnomebaker е по подразбиране, CD / DVD горене заявка за Gnome Desktop, инсталирани по подразбиране в Ubuntu. [ edit ] [Редактиране] K3b (CD/DVD burner) K3b (CD / DVD горелка)

K3b (KDE Burn Baby Burn) is the default KDE CD and DVD burning utility included in Kubuntu, but can run well in Gnome. K3b (KDE Изгори Baby Изгори) е по подразбиране, KDE CD и DVD горене комунални услуги, включени в Kubuntu, но може да работи добре в GNOME. (Due to licensing requirements, mp3 capabilities must be installed separately as the libk3b3-mp3 package). (Поради изискванията за лицензиране, MP3 способности трябва да се инсталират отделно като libk3b3-MP3 пакет). Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install k3b libk3b3-extracodecs sudo ап-да инсталирате k3b libk3b3-extracodecs 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Ripper X CD Ripper/Encoder Чудесен X CD Изкормвача / енкодер

Ripper X is a GTK-based (ie Gnome) open source utility to rip CD audio tracks to OGG, MP3, or FLAC formats. Чудесен X е GTK базирана (т.е. Gnome) с отворен код за комунални RIP CD аудио писти да OGG, MP3, или FLAC формат. It supports CDDB lookups. Тя поддържа CDDB lookups.

sudo apt-get install ripperx sudo ап-да инсталирате ripperx 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Asunder CD Ripper/Encoder Разлъчва CD Изкормвача / енкодер

Asunder is a GTK-based open source CD ripper/encoder which saves to Wav, MP3, OGG, FLAC, or WavPack. Разлъчва е GTK базирана отворен код CD Изкормвача / енкодер, който спестява до WAV, MP3, OGG, FLAC, WavPack, или. Self-installing .deb packages are available here . Самостоятелно инсталиране. Дебютантка пакетите са на разположение тук. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Audex CD Ripper/Encoder Audex CD Изкормвача / енкодер

Audex is a port to KDE4 of the KAudioCreator package used in KDE 3. Audex е пристанище за KDE4 на KAudioCreator пакет използвани в KDE 3. It can create output for LAME (MP3-compliant), OGG Vorbis (oggenc), FLAC and RIFF WAVE. Тя може да създава продукция за куцо (MP3-съвместим), OGG Vorbis (oggenc), FLAC и джазов рефрен вълна. It must be installed from source, currently (see the website). Тя трябва да бъде инсталиран от изходен код, който в момента (виж сайта). [ edit ] [Редактиране] Music Players Музика Участници [ edit ] [Редактиране] Rhythmbox Rhythmbox

Rhythmbox is the default music player in Ubuntu (Gnome), relying on the Gstreamer framework. Rhythmbox е стандартната музика играч в Ubuntu (Gnome), разчитайки на Gstreamer рамка. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Amarok Amarok

Amarok is the default music player in Kubuntu. Amarok е основен играч в музикалния Kubuntu. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install amarok sudo ап-да инсталирате amarok 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Amarok themes Amarok теми

Amarok themes can be downloaded from KDE Look and installed. Amarok теми може да бъде изтеглен от KDE Погледни и инсталиран.

   * Download the theme (ending in .tar.bz2) to your home directory (or chosen directory). Изтегли темата (завършвайки инча tar.bz2) към вашия дом директория (или избраната директория).
   * Amarok -> Settings -> Appearance -> Install New Style Amarok -> Настройки -> Външен вид -> Инсталиране на нов стил
   * Select the downloaded file. Изберете изтегления файл. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Audacious Безочлив

Audacious is a compact, fast music player that is a fork of XMMS. Безочлив е компактен, бърз музикален плеър, който е вилица на XMMS. It resembles WinAmp and can use WinAmp and XMMS skins. Той напомня WinAmp и да използвате WinAmp и XMMS кожи. It supports many plugins and is ideal for streaming content. Тя поддържа много приставки и е идеален за стрийминг съдържание. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install audacious sudo ап-да инсталирате безочлив 
   Note: "PulseAudio output plugin" is the default in Audacious and does not seem to work. Забележка: "PulseAudio изход приставката" е по подразбиране в смел и не е на работа. Switch to "ALSA output plugin" under Audacious -> Preferences -> Audio -> Current output plugin. Преминаване към "ALSA изход приставката" по дързък -> Настройки -> Аудио -> Текущи изход плъгин. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Banshee Music Player Banshee Музикален плейър

Banshee is a Gstreamer, Mono and Gtk-based music player for Linux and Mac OS X. It supports multiple mp3 players (including the iPod).There are plugins for podcasts, internet radio, and more. Banshee е Gstreamer, моно и GTK базирана музикален плеър за Linux и Mac OS X. Тя поддържа няколко MP3 плеъри (вкл. iPod). Има плъгини за подкасти, интернет радио и други.

sudo apt-get install banshee sudo ап-да инсталирате Banshee 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Exaile Music Manager and Player Exaile Музика Мениджър и Player

Exaile is a GTK-based music player that supports many formats, incorporates a Shoutcast directory, a plugin for iPod, Last.FM support, tabbed playlists, and other features. Install: Exaile е GTK базирана музикален плеър, който поддържа множество формати, включва Shoutcast директория, A плъгин за iPod, Last.FM подкрепа, tabbed плейлисти, както и други характеристики. Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install exaile sudo ап-да инсталирате exaile 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Songbird Music Player Пойна птичка Музикален плейър

Songbird is an open source music player from Mozilla with an appearance meant to resemble iTunes. Пойна птичка е с отворен код за музикалния плеър от Mozilla с появата означаваше да наподобяват iTunes. It is in current development and does not yet have full support for mp3 players (such as the iPod). Тя е в текущата развитие и все още няма пълна подкрепа за MP3 плейъри (като iPod). It incorporates a Shoutcast internet radio interface. Тя включва Shoutcast интернет радио интерфейс. The current beta version can be downloaded from the website. Сегашната бета версия може да бъде изтеглен от интернет страницата. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Video and Music Players Видео и музика Участници

Most current video multimedia players play many video formats, including the Flash video .flv format. Най-актуалната видео мултимедийни плейъри играят множество видео формати, включително Flash видео. Flv формат. [ edit ] [Редактиране] MPlayer Multimedia Player MPlayer Мултимедия Player

Mplayer is a video player with a wide range of formats supported (including RealMedia and Windows-codecs) and a wide variety of outputs. Mplayer е видео плейър с широк набор от формати се поддържат (включително RealMedia и Windows-кодеци) и широка гама от продукти.

sudo apt-get install mplayer sudo ап-да инсталирате mplayer 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] SMPlayer SMPlayer

SMPlayer is an enhanced frontend for MPlayer. SMPlayer е засилено на интерфейса за MPlayer.

sudo apt-get install smplayer sudo ап-да инсталирате smplayer 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Dump a video stream to disc Стоварвам видео потока към диска

You can dump a video stream to disc using Mplayer: Можете да дъмп видео потока към диска с Mplayer:

mplayer -dumpstream streamurl mplayer-dumpstream streamurl 

If you don't know the exact URL of the stream you wish to save, you can discover it from the webpage it is embedded in by using the Firefox add-on UnPlug . Ако не знаете точния URL на реката, която искате да запазите, вие може да бъде изтеглен от уеб страницата е вграден във Firefox с помощта на добавяне на по-изключете. Do not save streams that are illegal to download. Да не се спаси потоци, които са незаконни за изтегляне. [ edit ] [Редактиране] VLC Multimedia Player Мултимедия VLC Player

VLC is a cross-platform multimedia player that supports many formats without need for additional codecs. VLC е по-мултимедийна платформа плеър, който поддържа множество формати, без необходимостта от допълнителни кодеци. It can not only receive video streams (also see here to convert it to mp4), but can act as a server for video streams, as well. Тя може не само получават видео потоци (вж. също така можете да го трансформирате mp4), но може да действа като сървър за видео потоци, както е добре. It is one of the only players that can view and backup almost any DVD format, no matter which copy protection is used. Той е един от само играчите, които може да видите и резервна почти всеки DVD формат, без значение, който се използва за защита на авторските права. See these tips for using VLC to backup/rip encrypted DVDs. Вижте тези съвети за използване на VLC на резервната / разпарям криптирани DVD.

sudo apt-get install vlc sudo ап-да инсталирате VLC 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Playing VCD on VLC Възпроизвеждане на VCD на VLC

How to play VCDs: Open file, In the Open Disc dialogue, click at Disc tab and chosing VCD at disc type gives me this: Как да играя VCDs: Отвори файл на открито Диск диалог, щракнете на етикета на диска и chosing VCD на диска тип ми дава това:

vcdx:///dev/hdd :audio-track=0 vcdx: / / / Dev / HDD: аудио-писта = 0 

in the advanced options /dev/hdd is my CD-ROM drive, obviously. в напреднала опции / Dev / HDD ми е CD-ROM устройството, очевидно. Remove x and change that to: Премахване на Х и промяна, която да:

vcd:///dev/hdd :audio-track=0 VCD: / / / Dev / HDD: аудио-писта = 0 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Xine-UI Multimedia Player Xine-UI Мултимедия Player

Xine UI is a multimedia player based, of course, on the xine platform. Xine UI е мултимедиен плеър на базата, разбира се, на xine платформа. It can also play streamed video from the Internet and supports most formats, including some uncommon ones. Той може също да играе в поточно видео от Интернет и подкрепя повечето формати, включително някои нечести такива.

 sudo apt-get install xine-ui Sudo ап-да инсталирате xine-UI 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Kaffeine Video Player Kaffeine Видео плейър

Kaffeine is the default video player in Kubuntu. Kaffeine е по подразбиране, видео плейър в Kubuntu. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install kaffeine sudo ап-да инсталирате kaffeine 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] RealPlayer 11 Multimedia Player RealPlayer 11 Мултимедия Player

The Linux Realplayer is actually based on the open-source Helix player . В Linux RealPlayer е действително на базата на отворен код хеликс плеър. Helix itself can be installed as a package easily (read Helix plug-in ) and used instead of Realplayer. Хеликс себе си може да се инсталира като пакет лесно (прочети хеликс Plug-In) и се използва вместо RealPlayer. These instructions are to install the proprietary version of RealPlayer only. Тези инструкции трябва да инсталирате версия на патентовани само RealPlayer.

Download Real Player official linux player Изтегляне на недвижими Player официалните Linux плеър

Open a terminal and cd to the directory you have downloaded realplayer's .bin file. Отворете терминал и CD в директорията сте изтеглили RealPlayer години. Бен файл. Then issue the following commands След издаването на следните команди

chmod +x RealPlayer11GOLD.bin chmod + X RealPlayer11GOLD.bin 
sudo ./RealPlayer11GOLD.bin sudo ./RealPlayer11GOLD.bin 

When it asks for installation path enter /usr/local/RealPlayer Когато го пита за инсталация пътека влиза / ЮЕсАр / местни / RealPlayer

For all other questions just choose default by pressing enter. За всички други въпроси, просто изберете по подразбиране, като натиснете ENTER.

If you have installed mozilla-mplayer package you will need to delete the mplayer firefox plugin for real player videos. Ако имате инсталирани Mozilla-mplayer пакета ще трябва да изтриете mplayer Firefox плъгин за истински играч видеоклипове. Other wise all real player files will open with mplayer. Други мъдър всички реални плейър файл ще се отвори с mplayer. For that please do this За това моля направете това

cd /usr/lib/firefox/plugins CD / ЮЕсАр / lib / Firefox / приставки 
sudo rm mplayerplug-in-rm.* sudo RM mplayerplug-In-RM .* 

Please remember to restart firefox and when ever you click on a real player video choose the option open with and use /usr/bin/realplay Моля, не забравяйте да рестартирате Firefox и винаги, когато щракнете върху реален играч видео изберете опцията отворена и употреба / ЮЕсАр / хамбар / realplay [ edit ] [Редактиране] Internet TV Интернет телевизия [ edit ] [Редактиране] Miro Player Миро Player

Miro Player (formerly Democracy TV Player) is an open-source Internet TV and video player that allows you to watch Internet TV and videos. Миро Player (преди демокрацията TV Player) е с отворен код Интернет телевизия и видео плейър, който ви позволява да гледате Интернет телевизия и видео. Unlike other video players, it contains a structured guide that includes more than 2500 channels, has built-in BitTorrent, and has features that can automatically save videos, such as from YouTube. За разлика от други видео плейъри, тя съдържа структурирани ръководство, което включва над 2500 канала, е вграден в BitTorrent и има функции, които може автоматично записване на видеоклипове, като например от YouTube.

sudo apt-get install miro sudo ап-да инсталирате Miro 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Myth TV Мит TV

See MythTV Вижте MythTV [ edit ] [Редактиране] Sopcast Internet TV Sopcast Интернет телевизия

Sopcast is an interface to play live P2P video streams through the VLC media player . Sopcast е интерфейс, за да играят живи P2P видео потоци чрез VLC Media Player. Install VLC first. Инсталирайте VLC първи. This is a Chinese program and most content is hosted in China and may not be legal in your area. Това е китайска програма и най-съдържание се хоства в Китай и не може да бъде правен във вашия район. Please consult local regulations. Моля, консултирайте се местни нормативни актове.

Download: Download:

wget http://sopcast-player.googlecode.com/files/sopcast-player_0.2.1-1_i386.deb wget http://sopcast-player.googlecode.com/files/sopcast-player_0.2.1-1_i386.deb 

(replace the i386 with amd64 if you have a 64-bit system). (замени i386 с AMD64, ако имате 64-битова система).

Install: Инсталиране:

sudo dpkg -i sopcast-player_0.2.1-1_i386.deb sudo dpkg-I sopcast-player_0.2.1-1_i386.deb 

Run: Пусни:

   Applications->Internet->SopCast Player Молбите-> Интернет-> SopCast Player 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Zattoo Zattoo

Zattoo is a free Internet TV player that allows you to watch terrestrial television from various countries in Europe. Zattoo е безплатна интернет телевизия плеър, който ви позволява да гледате наземна телевизия от различни страни в Европа. See the Zattoo Download page for further instructions on installation. Вижте Zattoo Изтегляне страница за по-нататъшни инструкции за инсталация. For screenshots and an alternate installation guide, see this UbuntuGeek guide . За картинките и заместник инсталация ръководство, виж това UbuntuGeek ръководство.

   * Install dependencies first: Инсталирайте зависимости първа: 
sudo apt-get install libgtkglext1 adobe-flashplugin sudo ап-да инсталирате Adobe libgtkglext1-flashplugin 
   * Download the latest .deb package from Zattoo Download page. Изтегляне на последните. Дебютантка пакет от Zattoo Изтегляне страница. 
 wget http://zattoo.com/release/download.php Wget http://zattoo.com/release/download.php 
   * Install the downloaded .deb package: Инсталирайте изтеглили. Дебютантка пакет: 
sudo dpkg -i *.deb sudo dpkg-I *. дебютантка 
   * Run Zattoo: Пусни Zattoo: 
       K -> Application -> Multimedia -> Zattoo Player K -> Заявление -> Multimedia -> Zattoo Player 
       Note: you have to register for a free account when the player starts. Забележка: Трябва да се регистрирате за безплатен акаунт, когато играч започва. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Media Centers and PVR (Personal Video Recorder) Медийни центрове и PVR (Персонален Видео Рекордер)

There are a number of open-source Media Centers for Linux, some of which include personal video recorder functions. Съществуват известен брой отворен код Media Центрове за Linux, някои от които съдържат лични видео рекордер функции. For a full list of open-source media centers, see this guide . За пълния списък с отворен код медийни центрове, виж това ръководство. [ edit ] [Редактиране] MythTV MythTV

MythTV is a media center with PVR (personal video recorder) for retrieving, recording, and playing broadcast and Internet TV and other multimedia content. MythTV е медиен център с PVR (личен видео рекордер) за изтегляне, записване и предаване свири и Интернет телевизия и друго мултимедийно съдържание. It has many options and plugins for expansion. Тя разполага с много опции и плъгини за разширяване. To be useful, you will need a compatible TV tuner card . За да бъде полезна, ще ви е необходим съвместими TV тунер карта. For setup tips, see this guide . За настройка на съвети, виж това ръководство. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install mythtv sudo ап-да инсталирате mythtv 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Mythbuntu Mythbuntu

Mythbuntu is an integrated Ubuntu (Xubuntu) desktop optimised for MythTV usage. Mythbuntu е интегрирана Ubuntu (Xubuntu) Desktop MythTV оптимизирана за използване. In can be used instead of adding MythTV to a Ubuntu desktop. В може да бъде използван вместо да добавяте MythTV на Ubuntu Desktop. [ edit ] [Редактиране] XBMC XBMC

XBMC is a free, mature, open-source cross-platform media center. XBMC е безплатна, зрели, с отворен код кръст-платформа Media Center. It does not have a PVR capability nor as many functions as MythTV, but has a very nice interface. Той не разполага с PVR способности, нито като много функции като MythTV, но има един много хубав интерфейс.

   * Add these third party repositories : Добавяне на тези трети лица хранилища: 
deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/team-xbmc-intrepid/ubuntu intrepid main дебютантка http://ppa.launchpad.net/team-xbmc-intrepid/ubuntu безстрашен основните 
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/team-xbmc-intrepid/ubuntu intrepid main дебютантка-SRC http://ppa.launchpad.net/team-xbmc-intrepid/ubuntu безстрашен основните 
   * Install: Инсталиране: 
sudo apt-get update sudo ап-да обновите 
sudo apt-get install xbmc sudo ап-да инсталирате xbmc 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Boxee Boxee

Boxee is an XBMC-like open source package to allow streaming video over the Internet, including from YouTube and other sites. Boxee е XBMC-подобен пакет с отворен код за да се позволи стрийминг на видео през интернет, включително и от YouTube и други сайтове. It is a fork of XBMC, and is still in alpha development and testing stage. Това е разклонението на XBMC, и все още е в алфа етап разработка и тестване. It is currently available for 32-bit systems only, and recommended for Hardy. Той в момента е наличен за 32-битови системи, само, и се препоръчва за Харди. A current version is anticipated soon. А сегашната версия се очаква скоро. (Note: Boxee does not run Netflix on Linux, despite their ads). (Забележка: Boxee не тичам Netflix на Linux, въпреки техните реклами). See these download instructions . Вижте тези изтеглите указания. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Elisa Elisa

Elisa is a cross-platform media center that uses the Gstreamer multimedia framework. Elisa е по-платформата Media Center, която използва Gstreamer мултимедийни рамка. Commercial plugins are available from Fluendo. Търговски приставки са достъпни от Fluendo. It supports PVR and Music Jukebox . Той подкрепя PVR и Музика джубокса. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install elisa sudo ап-да инсталирате Elisa 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] LinuxMCE LinuxMCE

See LinuxMCE . Вижте LinuxMCE. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Multimedia Servers Мултимедия Сървъри [ edit ] [Редактиране] MPD Multimedia Playing Server MPD Мултимедия Възпроизвеждане Server

MPD is a music server meant for LAN usage. MPD е музикален сървър, предназначен за използване на локална мрежа. It can be controlled from remote clients. Тя може да бъде контролирано от отдалечени клиенти. It can also stream internet streams. Тя може също поток интернет потоци. [ edit ] [Редактиране] TiMidity++ MIDI Sound Server Плахост + + MIDI Звук Server

TiMidity is a MIDI software synthesizer required by several games and other MIDI-dependent applications. Плахост е софтуер, MIDI синтезатор, изисквани от няколко игри и други MIDI-зависими приложения.

sudo apt-get install timidity sudo ап-да инсталирате плахост 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Multimedia Encoders Мултимедия енкодери [ edit ] [Редактиране] SOX (encodes/decodes audio) SOx (кодира / decodes аудио)

SoX is a somewhat confusing command-line utility to convert audio formats. Сокс е малко объркващо за командния ред програма за конвертиране на аудио формати. See this usage guide . Виж това ръководство за ползване. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install sox sudo ап-да инсталирате SOx 

Run: Пусни:

sox SOx 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Internet Radio Интернет радио [ edit ] [Редактиране] Last FM Последно FM

LastFM is a service for sharing music recommendations and individual radio streams. LastFM е услуга за споделяне на музика препоръки и индивидуални радио потоци. It is included as an option in Amarok, or can be installed separately: То е включено като опция в Amarok, или могат да се инсталират отделно:

sudo apt-get install lastfm sudo ап-да инсталирате lastfm 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Shoutcast Internet Radio Shoutcast интернет радио

Shoutcast is the first and last free mp3 streaming service. Shoutcast е първата и последна свободна Mp3 стрийминг услуга. Hundreds of radio streams can be played through Amarok, Audacious, or other multimedia player. Стотици радио потоци могат да бъдат възпроизвеждани чрез Amarok, смел, или друг мултимедиен плейър. Simply associate the .pls streams with your favourite player. Просто сътрудник на. PLS потоци с вашия любим плейър. [ edit ] [Редактиране] StreamTuner Stream Directory Browser StreamTuner Stream Directory браузъра

StreamTuner lists streams available on the Internet through a GTK-based interface. StreamTuner списъци потоци достъпни в Интернет чрез GTK базирана интерфейс. It lists Shoutcast and Live365 streams, among others. Той изброява Shoutcast и Live365 потоци, наред с другите. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install streamtuner sudo ап-да инсталирате streamtuner 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] BBC program recording BBC програма за записване

   * get_iplayer allows BBC streams (through their iplayer service) for UK users, as well as Hulu streams for US users, to be recorded to mp4, wav and mp3 files (depending on content). get_iplayer позволява BBC потоци (чрез своите iplayer услуга) за Обединеното кралство на потребителите, както и Hulu потоци за американските потребители, които да бъдат записани на MP4, WAV и MP3 файлове (в зависимост от съдържанието). See the website for usage. Вижте уебсайта за ползване.
   * iPlayer can be run in Wine using these instructions . iPlayer може да се управлява с вина използвайки тези инструкции. 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Home Automation / Home Theater / Home Security Начало автоматика / Театър Начало / Начало Сигурност [ edit ] [Редактиране] Complete Systems Комплектни системи [ edit ] [Редактиране] Linux MCE (Media Center Edition) Linux MCE (Media Center Edition)

LinuxMCE is an integrated home theater/home security/home automation/telephone PBX/intercom system for your home. LinuxMCE е интегриран Home Theater / начало за сигурност / начало автоматизация / телефонни централи / домофонна система за вашия дом. It incorporates MythTV , Pluto home automation, Motion security surveillance, Asterisk PBX, VDR video disk recorder, and other home automation/security/theater packages in an integrated platform. Тя включва MythTV, Плутон дома автоматизация, Предложение за сигурност надзор, звездичка PBX, VDR видео диск рекордер и други вътрешни автоматизация / сигурност / театър пакети в интегрирана платформа. It is available in 32 and 64 bit versions. Тя е достъпна в 32 и 64 битови версии. LinuxMCE can run either as a standalone Home Theater PC or can co-ordinate a fully networked home, using the networking capabilities that are intrinsically part of the Kubuntu Linux OS. LinuxMCE може да използва както като самостоятелна Начало Театър PC или да се координират напълно мрежа вкъщи, като се използва в мрежа способности, които са неразривно част на Kubuntu Linux OS. For more info see the LinuxMCE website . За повече информация вижте сайта LinuxMCE.

The most recent stable version runs on Kubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy). Най-нова стабилна версия работи на Kubuntu 7,10 (развихрен). An alpha version for Kubuntu 8.10 (Intrepid) has been released, and the full version is anticipated soon. Една алфа версията за Kubuntu 8.10 (безстрашен) е била освободена, както и пълната версия се очаква скоро. LinuxMCE can be installed at the same time as the Kubuntu OS (on a new PC with an nVidia graphics card), with a single DVD installation. LinuxMCE може да бъде инсталиран в същото време като Kubuntu OS (на нов персонален компютър с NVidia графична карта), с едно DVD инсталация. Alternatively, Kubuntu can be installed first and LinuxMCE then installed from a 2 CD installation. Алтернативно, Kubuntu може да се инсталира първо и след това LinuxMCE инсталирани от 2 CD инсталация. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Home Security Начало Сигурност [ edit ] [Редактиране] Zoneminder surveillance system Zoneminder система за наблюдение

Zoneminder manages surveillance cameras and stores images on the hard disk. Zoneminder управлява камери за наблюдение и съхранява образи на твърдия диск. Images can be viewed using a (LAMP) server remotely. Зображения могат да се виждат с помощта на (LAMP) сървър дистанционно. X10 devices can be triggered using built-in perl scripts. X10 устройства могат да бъдат задействани с вграден в Perl скриптове. For more info see the Zoneminder website . За повече информация вижте Zoneminder уебсайта.

Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install zoneminder ffmpeg sudo ап-да инсталирате zoneminder ffmpeg 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Myth Zoneminder Мит Zoneminder

MythZoneminder allows you to view your security cameras through Myth TV, essentially. MythZoneminder ви позволява да видите вашите сигурността камери чрез Мит TV, по същество. It is a plugin that interfaces the two packages Zoneminder (which must be working on your system) and Myth TV (which must also be working.) See the installation instructions . Това е плъгин, че взаимодействието на двете опаковки Zoneminder (които трябва да се работи по системата ви) и Мит TV (която също трябва да се работи.) Вижте инструкции за инсталиране.

It can be found in Synaptic as the mythzoneminder package. Тя може да се намери в Synaptic като mythzoneminder пакет.

sudo apt-get install mythzoneminder sudo ап-да инсталирате mythzoneminder 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Productivity Applications Производителността Приложения [ edit ] [Редактиране] Office Suites Офис Suites [ edit ] [Редактиране] Open Office Отвори ведомство

Open Office is installed by default in Ubuntu, with Writer (Word equivalent), Presentation (PowerPoint equivalent), Calc spreadsheet (Excel equivalent), and Base relational database (Access equivalent). Отвори Службата се инсталира по подразбиране в Ubuntu, с Писател (Word еквивалент), Презентация (PowerPoint еквивалент), Calc за електронни таблици (Excel еквивалент), а в базата релационни бази данни (достъп еквивалент). [ edit ] [Редактиране] Open Word 2007 Documents in Open Office Отворете Word 2007 Документи в открити офис

The latest edition of OpenOffice opens .docx (ie Word 2007) documents by default. Последната версия на OpenOffice отваря. Docx (например Word 2007) документи по подразбиране. [ edit ] [Редактиране] KOffice KOffice

The KOffice suite is part of the KDE project and is mean to provide the capabilities of the OpenOffice suite without the licensing restrictions of OpenOffice. В KOffice апартамент е част от KDE проекта и се означава да предоставят възможности на OpenOffice апартамент без лицензионни ограничения на OpenOffice. It can be used in any version of Ubuntu. Тя може да бъде използвана във всеки версия на Ubuntu. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install koffice sudo ап-да инсталирате koffice 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] AbiWord AbiWord

AbiWord is a fast, collaboration-enabled word processor. AbiWord е бързо, сътрудничество активирани дума процесор. For the most current version see the AbiWord web site . За най-актуалната версия видите на AbiWord уеб сайт. To install from the repositories: За да инсталирате от хранилища:

sudo apt-get install abiword sudo ап-да инсталирате abiword 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Personal Information Managers Лична информация Управители [ edit ] [Редактиране] Kontact Personal Information Manager Kontact Лична информация мениджър

Kontact is the default PIM included with Kubuntu. Kontact е включена по подразбиране PIM с Kubuntu. Kontact includes email, an address book, a calendar, reminders, pop-up notes, a link to the Akregator News/RSS reader, time-tracking, and more. Kontact включва електронна поща, адрес книга, календар, напомняния, поп-горе бележки, връзка към Akregator Новини / RSS четец, време проследяване и други. Its many functions resemble MS-Outlook. Неговите функции много наподобяват MS-Outlook. Through connectors it interfaces with many groupware servers (such as Kolab and eGroupware). Чрез нея съединители интерфейси с много groupware сървъри (като Kolab и eGroupware). Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install kontact sudo ап-да инсталирате kontact 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Mozilla Sunbird (Calendar) Mozilla Sunbird (Календар)

Sunbird is a group calendaring project that interfaces with Thunderbird and Firefox. Sunbird е група календари проект, който интерфейси с Thunderbird и Firefox.

sudo apt-get install sunbird sudo ап-да инсталирате sunbird 
   * A related package known as SeaMonkey Calendar can also be installed. Една свързана с пакет, известен като SeaMonkey Календар също може да се инсталира. 
sudo apt-get install mozilla-calendar sudo ап-да инсталирате Mozilla-календар 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] BasKet Note Pads Кошница Забележка подложки

BasKet Note Pads is a personal note-taking application that resides on your computer and can be used for creating "to-do" lists. Кошница Забележка подложки е лична бележка вземане приложение, което пребивава на вашия компютър и могат да бъдат използвани за създаване на "за вършене" списъци. It is great for centralising your thoughts in one place. Това е чудесно за centralising вашите мисли на едно място. Install it: Инсталирайте я:

sudo apt-get install basket sudo ап-да инсталирате кошница 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Planner (Project planning & management) Планиране (проектиране & управление)

Planner is an MS-Project -like planning and management tool. Планиране е MS-Project-подобен инструмент за планиране и управление.

sudo apt-get install planner sudo ап-да инсталирате плановик 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Time Tracker Време Тракер

You can keep track how long you use an application with TimeTracker. Можете да следите колко дълго да използвате приложението с TimeTracker. Keep records for billing or simply limit your Internet usage. Да се съхранява записи за сметки или просто да ограничите използване на Интернет. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Financial Software Финансов софтуер [ edit ] [Редактиране] GnuCash (Personal Finance Management) GnuCash (Лични финанси Management)

GnuCash is a free, open source GPL-licensed personal finance manager that uses double entry accounting like professional accountants. GnuCash е безплатна, с отворен код GPL-лицензирана личен финансов мениджър, който използва двойни влизане счетоводство като професионални счетоводители. It is GTK-based (Gnome 2). Тя е GTK базирана (Gnome 2). The current version can be installed from source files (see the website for installation instructions), or the package version can be installed: Сегашната версия може да бъде инсталиран от изходен код файлове (вижте уебсайта за инструкции за инсталиране), или версия на пакета може да се инсталира:

   Applications -> Add/Remove Programs -> Office -> GnuCash Finance Management Молбите -> Add / Remove Programs -> Office -> GnuCash Управление на финансите 

or from the command-line terminal: или от командния ред терминала:

sudo apt-get install gnucash sudo ап-да инсталирате gnucash 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] KMyMoney (Personal Finance Management) KMyMoney (Лични финанси Management)

KMyMoney is a personal finance manager that uses double entry accounting, the method professional accountants use. KMyMoney е личен финансов мениджър, който използва двойни влизане счетоводство, методът професионалните счетоводители употреба. It is similar to MS-MyMoney and Intuit QuickBooks. Тя е подобна на MS-MyMoney и Intuit QuickBooks. It is designed for the KDE desktop. Тя е предназначена за KDE Desktop. Install: Инсталиране:

   Applications -> Add/Remove Programs -> Office -> KMyMoney Молбите -> Add / Remove Programs -> Office -> KMyMoney 

or from the command-line terminal: или от командния ред терминала:

sudo apt-get install kmymoney2 sudo ап-да инсталирате kmymoney2 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] Moneydance (Personal Finance Management) Moneydance (Лични финанси Management)

Moneydance is a commercial cross-platform Java-based personal finance manager similar to KMyMoney that sells for $40 per license. Moneydance е търговска кръст-платформа Java-базирани личен финансов мениджър подобен на KMyMoney, че продава за 40 щатски долара за лиценз. [ edit ] [Редактиране] SQL-Ledger (Enterprise Finance Management) SQL-Ledger (Предприятие за управление на финансите)

SQL-Ledger ERP is a free, open-source, platform independent double-accounting-method system and enterprise resource planner (inventory, work and purchase orders, taxes, etc.) that uses the MySQL database. SQL-Ledger ERP е безплатна, с отворен код, платформа за независима двойно счетоводство-метод, система и предприятието ресурс плановик (опис, работа и покупка поръчки, данъци и т.н.), която използва MySQL база данни. It uses a web browser for an interface and be accessed remotely. Тя използва уеб браузър за интерфейса и да бъдат достъпни от разстояние. It is extremely comprehensive and is available in many languages. Той е изключително изчерпателен и се предлага в много езици. Install: Инсталиране:

sudo apt-get install sql-ledger sudo ап-да инсталирате SQL-книга 

[ edit ] [Редактиране] WebERP (Enterprise Finance Management) WebERP (Предприятие за управление на финансите)

WebERP is a free, open-source enterprise resource planner and accounting suite similar to SQL-Ledger that uses a web browser as an interface. WebERP е безплатна, с отворен код предприятието ресурс плановик и счетоводни собствена подобна на SQL-Ledger, което използва уеб браузър като интерфейс. It runs on the LAMP server . Той работи върху LAMP сървър. It is somewhat difficult to implement and use, but conforms to strict accounting guidelines. То е малко трудно да се прилагат и използват, но отговаря на строгите счетоводни насоки. Set up your LAMP server first, then install using the web site instructions. Настройте вашата LAMP сървър, на първо място, след което инсталирайте използвайки уеб сайт инструкции. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Phreebooks (Enterprise Finance Management) Phreebooks (Предприятие за управление на финансите)

Phreebooks is a free open-source enterprise resource planner and accounting suite similar to WebERP. Phreebooks е безплатен отворен код предприятието ресурс плановик и счетоводни собствена подобна WebERP. It also runs on a LAMP server . Той също работи по LAMP сървър. It is in active development in 2008. Тя е в активното развитие през 2008 година. A demo is available at the website. А демо можете да намерите на интернет страницата. [ edit ] [Редактиране] Quasar (Enterprise Finance Management) Квазер (Предприятие за управление на финансите)

Quasar is a proprietary Linux-based accounting suite similar to Quickbooks. Квазер е имуществена Linux-базирани счетоводни собствена подобна на QuickBooks. For a single user without point-of-sale or networking needs, it is free. За един потребител, без точката на продажба или мрежови нужди, тя е безплатна. For other users it costs CA$500 per seat. За останалите потребители струва CA $ 500 на седалката. An installer for KDE-based systems is here . Един монтажникът за KDE-базирани системи е тук.

Personal tools
Sponsor