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Ubuntu 6.10 (Edgy Eft)

This guide is maintained at the Linux Center of the University of Latvia.
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Introduction

Ubuntu 6.10 (Edgy Eft) was released on October 26, 2006 and is no longer supported. It is recommended to upgrade to the current version of Ubuntu.

Contents


Other versions

General Notes

  1. This is an Unofficial Ubuntu 6.10 (Edgy Eft) Starter Guide. It is not associated with Ubuntu and Canonical Ltd.
  2. This guide can be discussed at the official UbuntuGuide.org Forum at ubuntuforums.org. Stop by and join the discussion.
  3. If you see a bluish box, this means you have to execute the commands in Terminal mode (Applications -> Accesories -> Terminal) or use the content of that box as mentioned in some other instructions.
  4. To reduce typo mistakes, copy and paste the commands into Terminal mode (right click on the commands -> "Copy" or "Paste". You can also use Ctrl+C to copy and Shift+Insert to paste it)
  5. "sudo" means superuser do. "sudo" will prompt for "Password:". Please specify user password
  6. If you want more information about any command, simply look at the manual page for it using the "man" command. For example, "man sudo" will display the manual page for the "sudo" command.
  7. If you are tired of typing "aptitude" all the time, Read #How to aptitude the easy way (Synaptic)
  8. "aptitude" and "wget" requires Internet connection to install/update/download programs
  9. All references to "apt-get" have been replaced with "aptitude". You may still safely use "apt-get" if you wish. This may be discussed in the Ubuntu Forums
  10. To download file, right click on the link -> Select "Save Link As..." -> Make sure file name and extension are correct
  11. If you wish to help translating Ubuntu to your native language or to help Ubuntu otherwise visit https://launchpad.net/
  12. May the "humanity to others" spirit be with you always...


If you are using 64-bit version replace any "i386" with "amd64"

Getting Started

Where to view Ubuntu screenshots / screencast

Where to view Kubuntu screenshots / screencast

Where to view Xubuntu screenshots / screencast

Where to view Edubuntu screenshots / screencast

Where to view *buntu screenshots / screencast

Where to look for new programs

Where to look for style elements for your desktop

Are there other *buntu guides?

Installing Additional Software

How to add extra repositories

  • Create a backup of your current list of sources.
sudo cp -p /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
  • Open the list of sources in a text editor
Ubuntu users:
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
Kubuntu users:
sudo kate /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Replace everything with the following lines
To use your local mirror you can add "cc." before archive.ubuntu.com (cc = your country code)
e.g. deb http://lv.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy main restricted universe multiverse
## Add comments (##) in front of any line to remove it from being checked.   
## Use the following sources.list at your own risk.  

deb http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-proposed main restricted universe multiverse

## MAJOR BUG FIX UPDATES produced after the final release
deb http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-updates main restricted universe multiverse

## UBUNTU SECURITY UPDATES
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-security main restricted universe multiverse

## BACKPORTS REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## PLF REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
 deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ edgy free non-free
                                                                                                                                         
## CANONICAL COMMERCIAL REPOSITORY (Hosted on Canonical servers, not Ubuntu
## servers. RealPlayer10, Opera, DesktopSecure and more to come.) 
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu edgy-commercial main

## Listen
#deb http://theli.free.fr/packages/ edgy listen
  • Save the edited file
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get update
  • Modify the default Ubuntu sources.list only if you understand what you're doing. Mixing repos can cause breakage.

How to add extra repositories on DVDs

For users without broadband connection downloading packages from the net is a really big problem. You can download packages in DVDs and use them on every ubuntu installation without the need of downloading.

  • Download DVDs
for i386
Main Repository
Universe - Multiverse - Restricted DVD1
Universe - Multiverse - Restricted DVD2
Universe - Multiverse - Restricted DVD3
or for amd64
Main Repository
Universe - Multiverse - Restricted DVD1
Universe - Multiverse - Restricted DVD2
Universe - Multiverse - Restricted DVD3


  • System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager
  • To add DVDs in Repository lists
    1. Settings -> Repositories -> Third Party
    2. Insert first DVD in drive and click Add Cdrom
    3. Name the added DVD
    4. repeat for other DVDs also

"Automated" Methods

How to install EasyUbuntu
  • Read #General Notes
  • Easy Ubuntu is a small straight-forward utility that allows novice users to easily install a wide variety of content for Ubuntu such as media codecs, fonts, Macromedia Flash and Sun Java.

Open a terminal from Menu -> Accessories -> Terminal and run the following commands

wget http://easyubuntu.freecontrib.org/files/easyubuntu-3.023.tar.gz
tar -zxf easyubuntu-3.023.tar.gz
cd easyubuntu
cp packagelist-dapper.pot packagelist-edgy.pot
cp packagelist-dapper.xml packagelist-edgy.xml
sudo python easyubuntu.in
  • From the Easy Ubuntu window, check the appropriate boxes to download and install content to Ubuntu.
  • Note: Users of the previous EasyUbuntu 3.0 version may experience issues with installing Flash and Java.
  • If you would like automatic update, then follow these instructions:

depending on which version of Ubuntu you're using:

On Ubuntu:

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

On Kubuntu:

sudo kate /etc/apt/sources.list

On Xubuntu:

gksudo mousepad /etc/apt/sources.list

In your text editor which will open, add to the bottom of your /etc/apt/sources.list file:

deb http://easyubuntu.cafuego.net main easyubuntu

From now on, EasyUbuntu should be automatically updated.

How To Uninstall EasyUbuntu
sudo aptitude remove easyubuntu
  • Delete the easyubuntu directory
How to install Automatix2 on Ubuntu, Kubuntu, and Xubuntu
  • Read #General Notes
  • Automatix2 is Automatix written in python with a more user friendly interface and better overall design for automating the installation of the most commonly requested applications in Ubuntu/Kubuntu/Xubuntu linux.
  • Note: Before installing, please note that certain codecs it provides may be prohibited in certain countries. You are responsible for ensuring those laws are not broken.
  • Note: Please note that if you are using Xubuntu where it says "sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list" please replace with "gksudo mousepad /etc/apt/sources.list".
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list 
  • Add the following lines at the end of file
## Automatix repo
deb http://www.getautomatix.com/apt edgy main
  • NOTE: Kubuntu/Xubuntu users will need to uncomment (remove the # before the word "deb") all the additional sources as well as add the automatix repository.
  • Now save and close /etc/apt/sources.list and run the following commands from terminal (one by one, hitting enter after each step)
wget http://www.getautomatix.com/keys/automatix2.key
gpg --import automatix2.key
gpg --export --armor E23C5FC3 | sudo apt-key add -
gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv CC919A31E23C5FC3
gpg --export --armor CC919A31E23C5FC3 | sudo apt-key add -
  • Update APT
sudo aptitude update
  • Run the following commands to install Automatix2
sudo aptitude install automatix2

  • Automatix2 can be started from the the Menu
Menu -> System -> Automatix2
  • Automatix2 can be run from terminal by typing the folowing
automatix2
Another script to install additional programs

Note: Many of these programs are included in Automatix2.

wget http://www.iki.fi/kuparine/comp/ubuntu/install.sh
sh install.sh

More information about this installation method can be found at http://www.iki.fi/kuparine/comp/ubuntu/install.html

Ubuntu Updates

Apt, Software and Package Basics

Here is some basic information on how to use the Apt package management tools.

  • Installing packages
sudo aptitude install <packagename>

Examples:

sudo aptitude install mpd sbackup
  • Removing packages
sudo aptitude remove <packagename>

Examples:

sudo aptitude remove mpd sbackup
  • Searching for packages
sudo aptitude search <keywords>

Examples:

sudo aptitude search Music MP3
sudo aptitude search "Text Editor"
  • Updating Apt database (used after adding/removing Apt repositories)
sudo aptitude update
  • Upgrading packages
sudo aptitude upgrade
  • Upgrade entire distribution
sudo aptitude dist-upgrade
  • Install downloaded Ubuntu (Debian) package (.deb)
sudo dpkg -i package.deb
  • Remove Ubuntu (Debian) package
sudo dpkg -r package
  • Reconfigure/Repair installed package
sudo dpkg-reconfigure package

Examples:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure mpd
  • Handling ".tar.gz" (Tar/GZip) Archives

To extract:

tar xvzf package.tar.gz

To create:

tar cvfz package.tar.gz folder
  • Handling ".tar.bz" (Tar/BZip) Archives

To extract:

tar xvjf package.tar.bz

To create:

tar cvjf package.tar.bz folder
  • Extracting ".bz" Archives
bunzip2 file.bz
  • Extracting ".gz" Archives
gunzip file.gz
  • Building from Source

Make sure you have all the neccesary development tools (i.e. libraries, compilers, headers)

sudo aptitude install build-essential
sudo aptitude install linux-headers-`uname -r`

Extract your package (as detailed above)

tar xvzf package.tar.gz

Commence the build process

cd /path/to/extracted/package
./configure
make
make install

If build is successful, consider making an Ubuntu (Debian) package (.deb) for future use:

Install package tools:

sudo aptitude install checkinstall

Rebuild package using "checkinstall":

cd /path/to/extracted/package
./configure
make
checkinstall

Keep the resulting ".deb" file for future use. It can be installed using:

sudo dpkg -i package.deb

Note: These are basic instructions that may not always work. Some packages require additional dependencies and optional parameters to be specified in order to build them successfully.

How to manually update Ubuntu

sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude upgrade
sudo aptitude dist-upgrade

OR

Use Update Manager: System -> Administration -> Update Manager

Add-On Applications

Java & Non-Media Browser Plug-ins

How to install J2SE Runtime Environment (JRE) v6.0 with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

sudo aptitude install sun-java6-jre sun-java6-plugin sun-java6-bin
  • When asked, agree with DLJ license terms.

How to install JRE v6.0

sudo apt-get install fakeroot
Choose "Java Runtime Environment (JRE) 6" and click on "Download"
Accept License Agreement 
Download the "Linux self-extracting file"
  • Install the required tool :
sudo aptitude install java-common
  • Create the Ubuntu package :
fakeroot make-jpkg jre-6-linux-i586.bin
  • Install the resulting package :
sudo dpkg -i sun-j*.deb


  • Restart Mozilla Firefox
  • If these steps don't work, 'Add/Remove Programs' option from the Applications menu can be used for installing JRE 5.0 instead.

How to Upgrade to Java Development Kit (JDK) v6.0

  • Set downloaded *.bin file permissions to executable (chmod +x)
  • Run the bin file in a terminal
  • Notice the package type
    • jre1.6.0 - the java runtime environment
    • jdk1.6.0 - the java developers kit

Sun changes the name of the directory from time to time or content and you should notice which one you actually have.

  • Update the startup profiles

Define the environment variable in a suitable location, probably the end of one (or more of the following files)

    • /etc/profile or $HOME/.profile
    • /etc/bashrc or $HOME/.bashrc
export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/jre1.6.0/

...or...

export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/jdk1.6.0/
  • Move the extracted directory to /usr/lib/jvm
mv ./jre1.6.0 /usr/lib/jvm/

...or...

mv ./jdk1.6.0 /usr/lib/jvm/
  • Edit /etc/jvm and add /usr/lib/jvm/jre1.6.0 to the top of JVMs offered:
Ubuntu users:
sudo gedit /etc/jvm
Kubuntu users:
sudo kate /etc/jvm
  • Use the update-alternatives program (as sudo -s)
update-alternatives --config java

This will display the currently defined alternatives for java In all likelihood you will not see your new version. For further information on the java configuration...

update-alternatives --display java
  • Add the new alternative at a high priority (1.6.0 => 10600)
update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/java java ${JAVA_HOME}/jre/bin/java \
  10600 \
  --slave /usr/share/man/man1/java.1.gz java.1.gz  ${JAVA_HOME}/man/man1/java.1 \
  --slave /usr/bin/java_vm java_vm  ${JAVA_HOME}/jre/bin/java_vm

...or for the jdk additional slave elements may be provided...

update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/java java ${JAVA_HOME}/jre/bin/java \
  10600 \
  --slave /usr/share/man/man1/java.1.gz java.1.gz  ${JAVA_HOME}/man/man1/java.1 \
  --slave /usr/bin/java_vm java_vm  ${JAVA_HOME}/jre/bin/java_vm \
  --slave /usr/bin/javac javac  ${JAVA_HOME}/bin/javac
  • Select the new version.
update-alternatives --config java
  • Update other program groups as desired.
    • jar - ?
    • javadoc - ?
    • etc.
  • Note that this will not update your browser's plugins.

How to install Java Development Kit (JDK) v5.0

Note: Program included in Automatix2. If you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo aptitude install sun-java5-jdk
  • Accept the licence agreement that appears.
  • Set Sun's JVM as default Java version:
sudo update-java-alternatives -s java-1.5.0-sun
  • Edit /etc/jvm and move /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun to the top of JVMs offered:
Ubuntu users
sudo gedit /etc/jvm
Kubuntu users
sudo kate /etc/jvm
  • To fix the Ubuntu "libfontmanager" issue that can kill the entire JVM (e.g. JasperReports), remove these troublesome fonts:
mkdir ~/fonts_backup
sudo mv /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ttf-gujarati-fonts/aakar-medium.ttf ~/fonts_backup/
sudo mv /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ttf-gujarati-fonts/Rekha.ttf ~/fonts_backup/

Installing Blackdown Java (for AMD64 systems with 64-bit Firefox)

Note: If you wish to use 64-bit Firefox and not install 32-bit Firefox on an AMD64 system, you will want to use Blackdown Java. Currently, Sun Java does not provide a 64-bit browser plugin. This option is only recommended for those running 64-bit only systems because there is no Java 1.5 alternative.

sudo aptitude install j2re1.4 j2re1.4-mozilla-plugin

How to install Flash Player (Macromedia Flash) Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

Note: By default Ubuntu contains Flash version 7. If you have added all the repositories (backports) from this guide you will get version 9 beta 2. Note: Adobe has released Flash 9 for Linux which works with Firefox, Mozilla, and Seamonkey. At the time of this writing, you need to download the release directly from Adobe

Note: Program included in Automatix2. If you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo aptitude install flashplugin-nonfree

Note: AMD64 users are not currently able to use the Adobe Flash plugin described above and may attempt the following procedures if you want to play flash video in Firefox. Another workaround is to install Opera browser and add Flash Player 9 plugin in Opera.

Note: if you get an error message that the package is not found, try the Gnash (GNU Flash substitute)

sudo aptitude install mozilla-plugin-gnash

If for some reason the Gnash plugin does not work for you, you can try the older GPL flash plugin. This plugin is no longer being developed, but works for some content.

sudo aptitude install libflash-mozplugin
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox


Note: if firefox crashes when visiting a website with flash content, do the following:

  • Open the firefox file
Ubuntu users:
sudo gedit /usr/bin/firefox
Kubuntu users:
sudo kate /usr/bin/firefox
  • Add the following line as last but one line of the file:
export XLIB_SKIP_ARGB_VISUALS=1

Now firefox shouldn't crash anymore. (Launchpad bug report: [1])

  • Restart Mozilla Firefox


Note: if sound doesn't work in Flash Player (for example on YouTube), do the following:

  • Install alsa-oss
sudo aptitude install alsa-oss
  • Open the firefoxrc file
Ubuntu users
sudo gedit /etc/firefox/firefoxrc
Kubuntu users
sudo kate /etc/firefox/firefoxrc
  • Change:
FIREFOX_DSP=""

To:

FIREFOX_DSP="aoss"
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox. Now sound should work in Flash Player.

How to install PDF Reader (Adobe Reader) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

sudo aptitude install acroread mozilla-acroread acroread-plugins
  • Applications -> Office -> Adobe Reader
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox

Note: Adobe Reader 7.0 will not run if SCIM is running. You are running SCIM if you have installed another language to Ubuntu via System -> Administration -> Language Support. To circumvent, do the following

gksudo gedit /usr/bin/acroread

Change:

#!/bin/sh
#

to:

#!/bin/sh
#
GTK_IM_MODULE=xim

Save the file. Now Adobe Reader 7.0 should work.

See also:

How to install Google Toolbar for Firefox

In Firefox, click the following link: http://www.google.com/tools/firefox/toolbar and then click on the big Download Google Toolbar button.

Internet

How to install Firefox32 in AMD64

Taken from Ubuntu Forums This guide is only for installing a 32-bit edition of firefox in a 64-bit enviroment. Firefox is installed by default in Ubuntu Edgy

sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude install ia32-libs gsfonts alsa-oss linux32 gsfonts-x11
sudo aptitude install ia32-libs-gtk lib32asound2 lib32ncurses5 ia32-libs-sdl
wget http://home.comcast.net/~ubuntu64user/ia32-lib-firefox-amd64.deb
wget http://home.comcast.net/~next/firefox32-2.0-ubuntu-amd64.deb
sudo dpkg -i ia32-lib-firefox-amd64.deb
sudo dpkg -i firefox32-2.0-ubuntu-amd64.deb
sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/firefox32
  • Close any firefox windows you have open.
sudo killall firefox
  • Applications > Internet > Firefox32

Note: If you wish to use firefox32 for everything, you can link firefox32 to the firefox command with this:

sudo mv /usr/bin/firefox /usr/bin/firefox64
sudo ln -s /usr/local/bin/firefox32 /usr/bin/firefox
How to install Flash 9 for Firefox32
wget http://fpdownload.macromedia.com/get/flashplayer/current/install_flash_player_9_linux.tar.gz
sudo tar -xzvf install_flash_player_9_linux.tar.gz
cd /usr/lib32/firefox32/plugins
sudo mv ~/install_flash_player_9_linux/libflashplayer.so /usr/lib32/firefox32/plugins/
sudo mv ~/install_flash_player_9_linux/flashplayer.xpt /usr/lib32/firefox32/plugins/
How to install Java v5.0.11 for Firefox32

Note: Download the "Linux (self-extracting file)", not the 64-bit package.

cd ~/Desktop
chmod +x ./jre-1_5_0_11-linux-i586.bin
sudo ./jre-1_5_0_11-linux-i586.bin
  • Accept the EULA
sudo mkdir /usr/local/java32
sudo cp -r -p ./jre1.5.0_11/* /usr/local/java32 
cd /usr/lib32/firefox32/plugins/
sudo ln -s /usr/local/java32/plugin/i386/ns7/libjavaplugin_oji.so ./
sudo chown -R `whoami`:users ~/.java

How to install Mplayer32 with Plugin for Firefox32
mkdir -p ~/tmp/mplayer
cd ~/tmp/mplayer
sudo aptitude install ia32-libs gsfonts alsa-oss mplayer
sudo aptitude install ia32-libs-gtk lib32asound2 lib32ncurses5 ia32-libs-sdl
sudo wget -c http://ubuntu.mirrors.tds.net/ubuntu/pool/multiverse/m/mplayerplug-in/mozilla-mplayer_3.17-1ubuntu1_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -x mozilla-mplayer_3.17-1ubuntu1_i386.deb ~/tmp/mplayer
sudo cp ~/tmp/mplayer/etc/* /etc
sudo cp ~/tmp/mplayer/usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/* /usr/lib32/firefox32/plugins
sudo chmod a+x /usr/lib32/firefox32/plugins/*.so
mkdir ~/tmp/mplayer32
cd ~/tmp/mplayer32
wget -c http://folk.ntnu.no/grannas/debs/mplayer32_20070130-1_amd64.deb
sudo dpkg -i mplayer32_20070130-1_amd64.deb
sudo mv /usr/bin/mplayer /usr/bin/mplayer64
wget -c http://www.people.virginia.edu/~drf8f/MPlayer/releases/codecs/essential-20060501.tar.bz2
tar -jxvf essential-20060501.tar.bz2
sudo mkdir /usr/lib/win32
sudo cp essential-20060501/* /usr/lib/win32/

Note: Technically you can run FireFox32 with mplayer32 OR mplayer64. You may decide which solution is the best for you.

  • To use mplayer32 with firefox32
cd /usr/bin
sudo rm mplayer
sudo ln -s mplayer32 mplayer

  • To use mplayer64 with firefox32
cd /usr/bin
sudo rm mplayer
sudo ln -s mplayer64 mplayer

Note: When watching a embedded video for the first time, it may be neccesary to enable the video and audio out. Right-click anywhere in the embedded video and choose Configure.

How to install Opera web browser

sudo aptitude install libqt3-mt
wget http://ftp.wayne.edu/opera/linux/910/final/en/i386/shared/opera_9.10-20061214.6-shared-qt_en_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i opera_9.10-20061214.6-shared-qt_en_i386.deb
  • Applications -> Internet -> Opera
  • To get java working go to Tools->Preferences->Advanced->Content-> Check "Enable Java". Click the "Enable Java..." button enter "/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun/jre/lib/i386" (for sun java) in the new dialog and then click the "Validate Java Path" button.
sudo dpkg -i --force-all opera-static_9.10-20061214.1-qt_en_i386.deb

If you want to uninstall it for some reason, run

sudo aptitude remove opera
Install OpenMotif in Opera
sudo dpkg -i --force-all openmotif_2.1.30-5_i386.deb
How to install Flash Player in Opera
  • Since Opera is a 32-bit application and it also works in amd64 system. Installing Flash Player and other 32-bit plugins in Opera is a workaround for amd64 users who are not able to run those applications in other web browsers. Here is the way to install Flash Player for Opera.
  • Open Opera, click "Tools --> Advanced --> Plugins" to check the default plugin path. Assume it is "/usr/lib/opera/plugins/"
  • Download the latest flash plugin tarball install_flash_player_9_linux.tar.gz from http://www.adobe.com
tar -zxvf install_flash_player_9_linux.tar.gz
cd install_flash_player_9_linux
sudo cp libflashplayer.so /usr/lib/opera/plugins
sudo cp flashplayer.xpt /usr/lib/opera/plugins
  • If your Opera plugin path is something else, just replace the path in the above commands with your own path.
How to install Java J2SE (JRE) Runtime Environment for Opera
  • In addition to serving the purpose of running JRE for i386 users, the following method can also be used for amd64 users to run JRE from a web page.
tar -zxvf jre-1_5_0_11-linux-i586.bin
# Then you will see folder "jre1.5.0_11"
sudo cp jre1.5.0_11 /usr/lib
cd /usr/lib/opera/plugins
sudo ln -s /usr/lib/jre1.5.0_11/plugin/i386/ns7/libjavaplugin_oji.so .
  • Open Opera. Go to "Tool --> Preferences --> Advanced --> Contents". Select "Enable Java", and click button "Java Options" and select "/usr/lib/jre1.5.0_11/lib/i386" as the Java path. You can click button "Validate Java path" to validate it. Then click OK.
  • Restart Opera. Note that Opera opens a separate X window for Java applications. You can use the mouse to resize the window.


How to install Java J2SE (JRE) Runtime Environment for Opera (easy way)
  • Step1: Add the following repositories:
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper main restricted
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper universe
  • Step2: Update repositories and find package 'sun-java5-jre' and install it
  • Step3: Go to opera Tools/Preferences/Advanced/Content and check 'Enable java' checkbox. Then click on 'Java options' button and point to installed files. I use this: /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun-1.5.0.06/jre/lib/i386


That's it. Enjoy!

How to install Download Manager (Downloader for X)

sudo aptitude install d4x
  • Applications -> Internet -> Downloader for X
How to uninstall Download Manager (Downloader for X)
sudo aptitude remove d4x

How to install FTP Client (Filezilla 3.0.0 Beta)

sudo aptitude install filezilla

How to install FTP Client (gFTP)

sudo aptitude install gftp
  • Applications -> Internet -> gFTP
How to uninstall gFTP
sudo aptitude remove gftp

How to install IRC Client (XChat)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo aptitude install xchat xchat-systray 
  • Applications -> Internet -> XChat IRC
How to uninstall XChat
sudo aptitude remove xchat xchat-systray

How to install Email Client (Mozilla Thunderbird)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo aptitude install mozilla-thunderbird
  • Applications -> Internet -> Thunderbird Mail Client

How to install Newsreader (Pan)

sudo aptitude install pan
  • Applications -> Internet -> Pan Newsreader

How to install RSS/RDF/Atom Newsreader (RSSOwl)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/
gksudo gedit /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
export MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME=/usr/lib/mozilla-firefox
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:${MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME}:${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}
cd /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/
./run.sh
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RSSOwl.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=RSSOwl
Comment=RSSOwl
Exec=runRSSOwl.sh
Icon=/opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/rssowl.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Internet -> RSSOwl

How to install Internet Explorer + Flash 9 (IEs4Linux)

This will install a wine'd version of Internet Explorer 6 with Flash 9, as well as IE 5.5/5.01 if you really want them.

  • Note: This installed Flash 9 will NOT be available in browsers other than IE.
  • Note: Adobe has released Flash 9 for Linux(x86) which works with Firefox, Mozilla, and Seamonkey.
  • Install Cabextract. Open a terminal and run
sudo aptitude install cabextract
  • Open a terminal and run this:
wget http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads/ies4linux-latest.tar.gz
tar zxvf ies4linux-latest.tar.gz
cd ies4linux-*
./ies4linux

Do not run this as root (no sudo), as this can cause the script to malfunction and ruin your X configuration.

How to install Messenger (Skype)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. If you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

  • With Edgy the Skype is not included in the Ubuntu repositories anymore.
sudo aptitude install libqt3-mt
wget http://www.skype.com/go/getskype-linux-deb
sudo dpkg -i skype_debian-*.deb
(Install 32-bit Skype in AMD64)

Note: This method will install 32-bit libraries in /usr/lib32.

  • Download the 32-bit libraries and some needed packages:
sudo aptitude install ia32-libs ia32-libs-gtk lib32asound2 libqt3-mt
sudo aptitude install libstdc++5
  • Download i386 package of skype from www.skype.com.
wget -c http://www.skype.com/go/getskype-linux-deb 
  • Download libqt-mt.so.3 and put it in /usr/lib32

Note: If any of these links become invalid, you can search for the file needed at packages.ubuntu.com.

cd /tmp
wget -c http://bombazyn.mine.nu/Ubuntu/asound32-qtmt32.tar.bz2
cd /usr/lib32
sudo tar xjvf /tmp/asound32-qtmt32.tar.bz2
  • Download libaudio.so.2 and libaudio.so.2.4 and put it in /usr/lib32
mkdir /tmp/libaudio
cd /tmp/libaudio
wget -c http://lug.mtu.edu/ubuntu/pool/main/n/nas/libaudio2_1.8-2_i386.deb
ar -x libaudio2_1.8-2_i386.deb
tar zxf data.tar.gz
sudo cp usr/lib/libaudio.so.2.4 /usr/lib32/
sudo cp usr/lib/libaudio.so.2 /usr/lib32/
  • Download libstdc++.so.5 and put it in /usr/lib32
cd /tmp/
wget -c http://lug.mtu.edu/ubuntu/pool/main/g/gcc-3.3/libstdc++5_3.3.6-13ubuntu2_i386.deb
dpkg -x libstdc++5_3.3.6-13ubuntu2_i386.deb libstdc++5
sudo cp libstdc++5/usr/lib/libstdc++.so.5* /usr/lib32/ 
  • Install Skype.
cd ~/
sudo dpkg --force-architecture -i skype_debian-*.deb
  • To run Applications > Internet > Skype
(Alternative Method - Official Skype Repository)
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following lines to the end of file
## Official Skype Repository
deb http://download.skype.com/linux/repos/debian/ stable non-free
sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude install skype
  • To run Applications > Internet > Skype

Peer to Peer (P2P)

How to install File share utility (LinuxDC++)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/linuxdcpp.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf linuxdcpp.tar.gz -C /opt
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/linuxdcpp.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Encoding=UTF-8
Name=LinuxDC++
Exec=linuxdcpp
Terminal=false
Type=Application
StartupNotify=true
Icon=/opt/linuxdcpp/pixmaps/linuxdcpp.png
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Internet -> LinuxDC++
  • If you want to build the latest version from CVS use this guide

How to install P2P BitTorrent Client (Azureus)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

Note to Kubuntu users: Kubuntu comes with a BitTorrent client (KMenu->Internet->KTorrent) already installed.

sudo aptitude install azureus
  • Applications -> Internet -> Azureus
(Alternative Method)

The above method installs a version of Azureus compiled with gcj, the free alternative to Sun's Java.

wget http://kent.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/azureus/Azureus_2.5.0.4_linux.tar.bz2
sudo tar jxvf Azureus_2.5.0.4_linux.tar.bz2 -C /opt/
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/azureus.desktop
  • Add the following to the new file
[Desktop Entry] 
Name=Azureus
Comment=Java BitTorrent Client
Exec=/opt/azureus/azureus
Icon=/opt/azureus/Azureus.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Internet -> Azureus
How to uninstall Azureus
sudo aptitude remove azureus

How to install P2P BitTorrent Client (Bittornado)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

Note to Kubuntu users: Kubuntu comes with a BitTorrent client (KMenu->Internet->KTorrent) already installed.


sudo aptitude install bittornado bittornado-gui

After installing Bittorrent or Bittornado open a firewall for your local IP

sudo iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --destination-port 6881:6999 -j ACCEPT

Now if you specify those ports in your client and you will see better down and up speeds.

  • Applications -> Internet -> Bittornado Client
How to uninstall Bittornado
sudo aptitude remove bittornado bittornado-gui

How to install P2P eMule Client (aMule)

Note: Program included in Automatix2 and Easy Ubuntu. I you have already used one of them, this program may have been installed

sudo aptitude install amule
  • Applications -> Internet -> aMule
How to uninstall P2P eMule Client (aMule)
sudo aptitude remove amule

How to install P2P Gnutella Client (FrostWire)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

wget -c http://fuse.frostwire.com/frostwire/4.13.1/frostwire-4.13.1.5-1.i586.deb
sudo dpkg -i frostwire-4.13.1.5-1.i586.deb
  • Applications -> Internet -> FrostWire

An additional stage for users of Beryl (as of Beryl-0.1.4).

How to use utorrent

This assumes you have downloaded utorrent and installed wine.

   sudo gedit /usr/bin/utorrent

Paste the inside of that file

   #!/bin/sh
   cd ~/YOURPATH/utorrent
   if [ "$1" != "" ]; then
   var="`echo $1 | sed 's/\//\\\/g'`"
   var="Z:${var}"
   wine utorrent.exe "$var"
   else
   wine utorrent.exe
   fi

Replace "YOURPATH" with the location of uTorrent. Save and exit then type the following to make it executable.

   sudo chmod a+x /usr/bin/utorrent


How to install P2P Gnutella Client (LimeWire)

When you are prompted to install Dash, select “NO.”

sudo dpkg-reconfigure dash
wget http://www.limewire.com/LimeWireSoftLinux
sudo alien -d LimeWireLinux.rpm
sudo dpkg -i *.deb

Multimedia Players & Browser Plug-ins

Streaming in FireFox

This makes life much easier when streaming in FireFox. Install the Media Player Connectivity Plug-in for FireFox. This allows you to change the default media player for different types of media as well as launching it outside of FireFox.

How to install Multimedia Codecs

sudo aptitude install gstreamer0.10-ffmpeg gstreamer0.10-gl gstreamer0.10-plugins-base \
gstreamer0.10-plugins-good gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad-multiverse \
gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly-multiverse libxine-extracodecs w32codecs 

Important note: that w32codecs are copyright infrigement since they are basically exact copies of DLLs that are shipped by various Windows software to handle media formats.

Note to Kubuntu Users: Technically the only packages needed for Kaffeine to play extra codes are libxine-extracodecs and w32codecs. However the installation of all the above packages doesn't hurt anything, as these packages might be needed by other programs (e.g., Open Office Impress uses a gstreamer plugin to display video in presentations).

Stubby: All known codecs work except for wmv.

TTo: To enable WMV9 playback, you can try:

sudo aptitude install gstreamer0.10-pitfdll && rm -r ~/.gstreamer-0.10/


Tip: WMV9 codecs on amd64 can work only by using vlc (out of the box from the official repositories) or by installing the latest version of mplayer (Version 1.0rc1 at the moment of writing)

How to install DVD playback capability

ironss: gstreamer dvd plugin is available as part of plugins-bad (or ugly?) and does not work reliably. However, Totem works with the xine backend to play back DVDs. This will keep you going until gstreamer gets dvd playback. Note that you do not have to install xine-ui or mplayer as suggested in

sudo aptitude install libdvdread3 
sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/install-css.sh
sudo aptitude install totem-xine

Stubby: gstreamer dvd plugin not ported to Edgy yet. following instructions will not work properly

sudo aptitude install libdvdcss2

How to install MIDI sound server (Timidity++)

  • Read #General Notes
  • Read #How to add extra repositories
  • Timidity allows for the playback of MIDI by those who do not have MIDI hardware or MIDI processing built into their sound card (most users) via a software synthesizer.
  • First install Timidity
sudo aptitude install timidity
  • Set up Timidity to start on boot
sudo gedit /etc/default/timidity
  • Uncomment the following line (remove the "#" sign)
#TIM_ALSASEQ=true
  • Set the required modules to load as well
sudo gedit /etc/modules
  • Add the following modules to the end of the file
snd-seq-device
snd-seq-midi
snd-seq-oss
snd-seq-midi-event
snd-seq
  • Restart your computer

How to install Multimedia Playing Server (MPD)

Note: MPD is a audio playing server. It acts as a digital jukebox allowing playlist management over the network. The computer with MPD running on needs to be connected to an Amplifier (or similar) as it does not stream audio by default, it simply plays it. However, it can be configured to stream using Icecast and JACK.

Music Player Daemon (MPD)

  • Install MPD
sudo aptitude install mpd
  • Create link to your audio (MP3 etc) collection
sudo ln -s /path/to/your/music /var/lib/mpd/music/collection
  • Restart MPD
sudo /etc/init.d/mpd restart
  • Advanced Configuration
gksudo gedit /etc/mpd.conf
  • Install standard Gnome client

Alternative clients, including web-based versions are detailed on the MPD Wiki.

sudo aptitude install gmpc
  • Configure GMPC

Click Applications > Sound & Video > Gnome Music Player Client

Click on Options icon, set Host, Port and connection options. The default settings will connect to MPD running on "localhost". Set the "Autoconnect" option if required. The default MPD port is 6600, make sure you unblock this port on your firewall.

  • Using GMPC

Click on Playlist icon. Expand the "Browse Filesystem" tree, right-click on your audio collection and click "Update". This will cause the MPD server to reindex your audio files. No files are changed during this process.

When completed, navigate through your audio via the "Browse Filesystem" tree. Right-click on folders and tracks to add them to playlist, or manage existing playlist.

How to install Multimedia Player (xine-ui)

sudo aptitude install xine-ui libxine-extracodecs
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> xine

How to install Multimedia Player (MPlayer)

sudo aptitude install mplayer libxine-extracodecs
  • Note: Kubuntu users may also want to install the KDE user interface for MPlayer
sudo aptitude install kmplayer
  • An MPlayer plug-in for Firefox can also be installed:
sudo aptitude install mozilla-mplayer
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> MPlayer
Tip: For AMD64 Users

If you want to easily install the latest version of mplayer (Version 1.0rc1 at the moment of writing) that it is supporting the native playback of videos using the WMV9 codec add the following repository into your sources.list.

deb http://ubuntu.moshen.de/ edgy misc multimedia

As of this time the repository only contains the 64 bit build of mplayer and not the 32 bit build

How to install Multimedia Player (VLC)

sudo aptitude install vlc vlc-plugin-*
  • In order to stream video via vlc, you also need to install the following packages.
sudo aptitude install avahi-daemon
sudo aptitude install avahi-utils
  • A VLC plug-in for Firefox can also be installed
sudo aptitude install mozilla-plugin-vlc
  • Applications -> Sound and Video -> VLC Media Player

How to install Multimedia Player (XMMS)

sudo aptitude install xmms xmms-skins xmms-wma
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> XMMS

How to install Multimedia Player (Songbird)

First download this shell script from Psychocats.net Open up the terminal and type these commands in one at a time

cd Desktop
chmod +x installsongbird.sh
./installsongbird.sh
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Songbird

To remove if you want use this shell script and use the same instructions that you used to install songbird but substitute install with remove.

How to install Multimedia Player (amaroK)

sudo aptitude install amarok
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> amaroK


Note: If amaroK complains about the "dcopserver" program not running, follow this tip from http://www.ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=107269&highlight=dcopserver

sudo chown -R `whoami`:`whoami` ~/.*
How to uninstall amaroK
sudo aptitude remove amarok

How to install Music Manager and Player (Banshee)

sudo aptitude install banshee
How to uninstall Banshee
sudo aptitude remove banshee

How to install Multimedia Player (RealPlayer 10)

sudo aptitude install realplay
Note: 'realplay' installs RealPlayer 10 from PLF repository, which you should be enabled if you followed this guide. 'realplayer' installs RealPlayer 8 from multiverse.
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> RealPlayer 10

It will also install all the necessary plugins automagically for it to view embedded real videos in Firefox

  • To avoid issues of flickering or screen going blank when switching windows, goto
    • RealPlayer 10 -> Tools -> Preferences -> Hardware -> Uncheck XVideo
  • To avoid issues with sound
    • Make sure you have ALSA OSS driver.
sudo aptitude install alsa-oss

then edit the startup script (/usr/lib/realplay-10.0.8/realplay) and changed line 73 from

$REALPLAYBIN “$@”

to

aoss $REALPLAYBIN “$@”

Alternative Source

Then add execute permissions to the installer and execute it.

chmod +x RealPlayer10GOLD.bin
sudo ./RealPlayer10GOLD.bin

How to install Stream Directory Browser (streamtuner)

sudo aptitude install streamtuner streamripper
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> streamtuner
How to uninstall Stream Directory Browser (streamtuner)
sudo aptitude remove streamtuner streamripper

How to install Internet TV (DemocracyTV beta)

  • If your system has a 32bit processor (i386) open a Terminal and type
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer-data_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_i386.deb
sudo aptitude upgrade
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer-data_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
sudo aptitude install mozilla-browser mozilla-psm mozilla-dev
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_i386.deb


  • if your system has a 64bit processor (amd64)
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer-data_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_amd64.deb
sudo aptitude upgrade
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer-data_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
sudo aptitude install mozilla-browser mozilla-psm mozilla-dev
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_amd64.deb

  • in both cases you might also need to install dependencies of the player package if dpkg returns a dependency error.
sudo aptitude -f install
  • to get support for more formats you have to install libxine-extracodecs (check Restricted Formats for more info)
sudo aptitude install libxine-extracodecs

or use an alternate procedure: double click (or right click and select "Open with gdebi") on the deb files so they are opened with gdebi, first democracyplayer-data_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_all.deb and after that democracyplayer_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_i386.deb (if you have a 32bit processor) or democracyplayer_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_amd64.deb (if you have a 64bit processor)

  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Democracy TV


===== (Alternative Method - Democracy TV Repository) =====

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following lines to the end of file
## Democracy TV Repository
deb http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/repositories/ubuntu edgy/
sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude install democracyplayer
sudo aptitude install democracyplayer-data
sudo aptitude install libxine-extracodecs
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Democracy TV

How to install multimedia plug-ins for Firefox

  • Read #General Notes
  • Read #How to add extra repositories
  • Users only need to install one of the following plug-ins. Choose the plug-in that matches your preferred media player. If multiple plug-ins are installed, Firefox will use the most recently installed plug-in.
  • Note: While all of the following choices will work, users of Kubuntu are advised to use either the Kaffeine option and Ubuntu users are advised to use the Totem option, as those programs are the default media players for their respective distributions.
Totem plug-in (Ubuntu users)
sudo aptitude install totem-gstreamer-firefox-plugin
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox
Kaffeine plug-in (Kubuntu users)
sudo aptitude install kaffeine-mozilla
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox
MPlayer plug-in (Installs MPlayer media player as well)
sudo aptitude install mozilla-mplayer
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox
  • Applications -> Sound and Video -> MPlayer Movie Player
VLC plug-in (Installs VLC media player as well)
sudo aptitude install vlc vlc-plugin-* mozilla-plugin-vlc
  • In order to stream video via vlc, you also need to install the following packages.
sudo aptitude install avahi-daemon
sudo aptitude install avahi-utils
  • Applications -> Sound and Video -> VLC Media Player

Multimedia Editors & misc tools

How to install Music Organizer (Cowbell)

sudo aptitude install cowbell
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Cowbell Music Organizer
How to uninstall Cowbell
sudo aptitude remove cowbell

How to install ID3 Tag Editor (EasyTAG)

sudo aptitude install easytag
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> EasyTAG
How to uninstall ID3 Tag Editor (EasyTAG)
sudo aptitude remove easytag

How to install Video Editor (Kino)

sudo aptitude install kino
sudo aptitude install kinoplus
sudo aptitude install kino-timfx
sudo aptitude install kino-dvtitler
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Kino Video Editor
How to uninstall Video Editor (Kino)
sudo aptitude remove kino kinoplus kino-timfx kino-dvtitler

How to install Audio Editor (Audacity)

sudo aptitude install audacity

to add the mp3 encoder library:

sudo aptitude install liblame-dev
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Audacity
How to uninstall Audacity
sudo aptitude remove audacity

How to install Audio Editor (Ardour)

sudo aptitude install ardour-gtk
sudo aptitude install ardour-gtk-dbg
sudo aptitude install ardour-gtk-i686

How to install Music Composition Program (NoteEdit)

sudo aptitude install noteedit lilypond
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/noteedit.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=NoteEdit
Comment=A free music score editor
Exec=noteedit
Icon=/usr/share/app-install/icons/noteedit.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;
  • Save the file
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> NoteEdit

How to install FMOD Ex audio libraries

wget "http://www.fmod.org/files/fmodapi40605linux.tar.gz"
tar xvzf fmodapi40605linux.tar.gz
cd fmodapi40605linux
sudo make install # neads no compiling

Image Editors, Viewers,etc.

How to install Image Viewer (digiKam)

sudo aptitude install digikam digikamimageplugins kipi-plugins
  • Applications -> Graphics -> digikam

How to install Picasa image organizer

gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following lines at the end of file
# Google Picasa for Linux repository
deb http://dl.google.com/linux/deb/ stable non-free
  • Save the edited file & run the following command:
wget -q -O - http://dl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub | sudo apt-key add - 
sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude install picasa
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Picasa

How to install Vector Graphics Editor (Inkscape)

sudo aptitude install inkscape


Second installation method:

1. Download the official Inkscape Linux installer.
2. Choose a mirror and save it to your Desktop.
3. Right-click it, enable "Properties --> Permissions --> Owner:Execute" and close the dialogue box. (One-time procedure)
4. Double-click it and follow the instructions.
5. Install the support code system-wide, if you have the root password. (One-time procedure)

NOTE: You can and should install the program as a User, rather than Root. This is easily accomplished with the second method.

Development & Programming

How to install WYSIWYG Web Authoring System (Nvu)

sudo aptitude install nvu
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Programming -> Nvu

How to install Web Authoring System (BlueFish)

sudo aptitude install bluefish

  • Applications -> Programming -> Bluefish Editor

How to install Web Development Environment (quanta plus)

sudo aptitude install quanta
  • Applications -> Programming -> Quanta Plus

How to install Project Management Application (Planner)

sudo aptitude install planner
  • Applications -> Office -> Project Management

How to install jedit

wget -c http://optusnet.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/jedit/jedit_4.3pre8_all.deb
sudo dpkg -i jedit_4.3pre8_all.deb
  • Applications -> Programming -> Programmers text editor jedit

How to install Python Development Tools

Python Dev Tools

sudo aptitude install gcc libc6-dev python-dev python-setuptools python2.4-profiler

Install EZ Setup (tool for installing Python stuff)

wget http://peak.telecommunity.com/dist/ez_setup.py
sudo python ez_setup.py

Upgrade Setup Tools

sudo easy_install -U --script-dir /usr/local/bin setuptools

Install TurboGears Framework (optional)

sudo easy_install --script-dir /usr/local/bin TurboGears

How to install Integrated Development Environment (Anjuta)

sudo aptitude install anjuta
  • Applications -> Programming -> Anjuta IDE

How to install C# Integrated Development Environment (MonoDevelop)

sudo aptitude install mono mono-gmcs mono-gac mono-utils monodevelop

How to install Java Integrated Development Environment (Eclipse)

sudo aptitude install eclipse
  • By default Eclipse will use GNU's java instead of Sun's. This will make Eclipse run very slowly and crash from time to time. To solve this problem, we will use Sun's JVM.
  • Install Sun JRE:
sudo aptitude install sun-java5-jre sun-java5-plugin sun-java5-bin sun-java5-fonts
  • Make Sun's JVM default:
sudo update-alternatives --config java
  • Choose the line that says
/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun/jre/bin/java.
  • Edit the JVM Configuration file:
gksudo gedit /etc/jvm
# This file defines the default system JVM search order. Each
# JVM should list their JAVA_HOME compatible directory in this file.
# The default system JVM is the first one available from top to
# bottom.

/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun
/usr/lib/jvm/java-gcj
/usr/lib/jvm/ia32-java-1.5.0-sun
/usr


  • Next, we need to tell Eclipse to use this JVM as well. This can be done on systemlevel or userlevel.
  • System:
gksudo gedit /etc/eclipse/java_home
# This file determines the search order the Eclipse Platform uses to find a
# compatible JAVA_HOME. This setting may be overridden on a per-user basis by
# altering the JAVA_HOME setting in ~/.eclipse/eclipserc.

/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun
/usr/lib/jvm/java-gcj
/usr/lib/kaffe/pthreads
/usr/lib/j2se/1.5
/usr/lib/j2se/1.4
/usr/lib/j2sdk1.5-ibm
/usr/lib/j2sdk1.4-ibm
/usr/lib/j2sdk1.5-sun
/usr/lib/j2sdk1.4-sun
  • User:
gedit ~/.eclipse/eclipserc
JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun/


  • Applications -> Programming -> Eclipse

How to install OpenCobol

  • After installing the build-essential, Run these lines of code
sudo aptitude install open-cobol
sudo aptitude install libdb4.4-dev libncurses5-dev libncursesw5-dev
  • Make a file called test.cob and put in this sample code (indentation is required)
	IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.
		PROGRAM-ID. hello.
		PROCEDURE DIVISION.
		DISPLAY "Hello World!".
		STOP RUN.
  • Save this, and open up a terminal in the directory that this file is in, and run the following command
cobc test.cob
./test
  • The program will output

hello world!

How to install Basic Compilers (build-essential)

sudo aptitude install build-essential

Finance

How to install Accounting Application (GnuCash)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo aptitude install gnucash
  • Applications -> Office -> GnuCash

How to install Personal Accounting Software (Eqonomize!)

sudo aptitude install eqonomize
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/eqonomize.desktop
  • Add the following to the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Eqonomize!
Comment=Personal Accounting Software
Exec=eqonomize %i %m -caption "%c"
Terminal=false
Type=Application
MimeType=application/x-eqonomize
Categories=Application;Office;
X-DCOP-ServiceType=Unique
X-DCOP-ServiceName=eqonomize
X-KDE-StartupNotify=true
Comment=Personal finances manager / bookkeeping software
X-Ubuntu-Gettext-Domain=desktop_eqonomize
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Office -> Eqonomize!

CD & DVD burning & ripping

How to install DVD Ripper (dvd::rip)

sudo aptitude install dvdrip vcdimager cdrdao subtitleripper
sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/rar-2.80
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/dvdrip.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=dvd::rip 
Comment=dvd::rip
Exec=dvdrip
Icon=/usr/share/perl5/Video/DVDRip/icon.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> dvd::rip

How to install DVD Ripper (AcidRip)

sudo aptitude install acidrip

Note: AcidRip will not recognize dvd if dma is turned on. If so undo the process #How to speed up CD/DVD-ROM.

How to install CD Ripper (Goobox)

sudo aptitude install goobox
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=CD Player & Ripper
Comment=Play and extract CDs
Exec=goobox
Icon=goobox.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> CD Player & Ripper

How to install CD/DVD Burning Application (GnomeBaker)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo aptitude install gnomebaker
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> GnomeBaker

How to install CD/DVD Burning Application (K3b)

sudo aptitude install k3b libk3b2-mp3
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> K3b

How to Burn .img DVD Images

NOTE: You may or may not need the udftools package

Here is the command-line method to burning .img images to a dvd:

sudo aptitude install udftools
growisofs -Z /dev/dvd=full_path_to_mydvd.img

Network

How to install Dialup PPP Client (GNOME PPP)

sudo aptitude install gnome-ppp
  • Applications -> Internet -> GNOME PPP

How to install Broadband ADSL/PPPoE Client (RP-PPPoE)

wget -c http://www.roaringpenguin.com/files/download/rp-pppoe-3.8.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rp-pppoe-3.8.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rp-pppoe-3.8/
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RP-PPPoE.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=RP-PPPoE
Comment=RP-PPPoE
Exec=gksudo /opt/rp-pppoe-3.8/go-gui
Icon=pppoeconf.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Internet -> RP-PPPoE


How to install Postfix (Mail Transport Agent)

sudo aptitude install postfix
  • After installation, you would be asked the name of the sender, leave this as the name of your computer.
  • Refer to The Postfix Homepage for more info.

How to use Bluetooth to share files

sudo aptitude install bluez-utils gnome-bluetooth
  • Open Applications -> Accessories -> Bluetooth file sharing
  • You're now able to receive files from other Bluetooth-devices
  • To send a file: find a file to send, right click and choose "Send to", wait until the other device is detected, and click "send".

To see if your Bluetooth-device is supported check this site: http://www.holtmann.org/linux/bluetooth/features.html

System

How to install Boot-Up Manager (BUM)

sudo aptitude install bum
  • System -> Administration -> Boot-Up Manager

How to install Partition Editor

How to install a Gnome (Ubuntu) Partition Editor (GParted)
sudo aptitude install gparted
  • System -> Administration -> GNOME Partition Editor (GParted)
How to install a KDE (Kubuntu) Partition Editor (QTParted)
sudo aptitude install qtparted
  • KMenu -> System -> QTParted

How to install Extra Fonts

sudo aptitude install xfonts-intl-arabic
sudo aptitude install xfonts-intl-asian
sudo aptitude install xfonts-intl-chinese
sudo aptitude install xfonts-intl-chinese-big
sudo aptitude install xfonts-intl-european
sudo aptitude install xfonts-intl-japanese
sudo aptitude install xfonts-intl-japanese-big
sudo aptitude install xfonts-intl-phonetic
sudo aptitude install gsfonts-x11
sudo aptitude install msttcorefonts
sudo fc-cache -f -v
Tip: if Microsoft core fonts are too small you can improve the look by importing configuration file:
wget http://www.osresources.com/files/centos-windows-fonts/fontconfig.tbz
sudo tar xvjpf fontconfig.tbz -C /etc/fonts/
Note: Ubuntu Edgy comes with the DejaVu fonts (derived from Bitstream Vera) and provides adequate support for Latin, Greek and Cyrillic based languages.

How to Get Xmessaging for APCUPSD

Well, since wall messaging doesnt work in Debian based distros for
apcupsd (it doesn't send messaging to the desktop in kwrited), which
really helps so here is how to set it up to work with xmessaging instead.

First we need to change the /etc/apcupsd/apccontrol
make a copy and rename it original in case you ever want to go back and
replace the contents with the following:

#!/bin/sh
#
# Copyright (C) 1999-2002 Riccardo Facchetti <riccardo@master.oasi.gpa.it>
#
# for apcupsd release 3.12.4 (19 August 2006) - debian
#
# platforms/apccontrol. Generated from apccontrol.in by configure.
#
# Note, this is a generic file that can be used by most
# systems. If a particular system needs to have something
# special, start with this file, and put a copy in the
# platform subdirectory.
#

#
# These variables are needed for set up the autoconf other variables.
#
prefix=/usr
exec_prefix=${prefix}

APCPID=/var/run/apcupsd.pid
APCUPSD=/sbin/apcupsd
SHUTDOWN=/sbin/shutdown
SCRIPTSHELL=/bin/sh
SCRIPTDIR=/etc/apcupsd
WALL=wall

#
# Concatenate all output from this script to the events file
# Note, the following kills the script in a power fail situation
# where the disks are mounted read-only.
# exec >>/var/log/apcupsd.events 2>&1

#
# This piece is to substitute the default behaviour with your own script,
# perl, or C program.
# You can customize every single command creating an executable file (may be a
# script or a compiled program) and calling it the same as the $1 parameter
# passed by apcupsd to this script.
#
# After executing your script, apccontrol continues with the default action.
# If you do not want apccontrol to continue, exit your script with exit
# code 99. E.g. "exit 99".
#
# WARNING: the apccontrol file will be overwritten every time you update your
# apcupsd, doing `make install'. Your own customized scripts will _not_ be
# overwritten. If you wish to make changes to this file (discouraged), you
# should change apccontrol.sh.in and then rerun the configure process.
#
if [ -f ${SCRIPTDIR}/${1} -a -x ${SCRIPTDIR}/${1} ]
then
${SCRIPTDIR}/${1} ${2} ${3} ${4}
# exit code 99 means he does not want us to do default action
if [ $? = 99 ] ; then
exit 0
fi
fi

case "$1" in
killpower)
echo "Apccontrol doing: ${APCUPSD} --killpower on UPS ${2}"
sleep 10
${APCUPSD} --killpower
xmessage -center "Apccontrol has done: ${APCUPSD} --killpower on UPS ${2}" &
;;
commfailure)
xmessage -center "Warning communications lost with UPS ${2}" &
;;
commok)
xmessage -center "Communications restored with UPS ${2}" &
;;
#
# powerout, onbattery, offbattery, mainsback events occur
# in that order.
#
powerout)
xmessage -center "Warning power loss detected on UPS ${2}" &
;;
onbattery)
xmessage -center "Power failure on UPS ${2}. Running on batteries." &
;;
offbattery)
;;
mainsback)
xmessage -center "Power has returned on UPS ${2}..." &
if [ -f /etc/apcupsd/powerfail ] ; then
printf "Continuing with shutdown." | ${WALL}
fi
;;
failing)
xmessage -center "Battery power exhaused on UPS ${2}. Doing shutdown." &
;;
timeout)
xmessage -center "Battery time limit exceeded on UPS ${2}. Doing shutdown." &
;;
loadlimit)
xmessage -center "Remaining battery charge below limit on UPS ${2}. Doing shutdown." &
;;
runlimit)
xmessage -center "Remaining battery runtime below limit on UPS ${2}. Doing shutdown." &
;;
doreboot)
xmessage -center "UPS ${2} initiating Reboot Sequence" &
${SHUTDOWN} -r now "apcupsd UPS ${2} initiated reboot"
;;
doshutdown)
xmessage -center "UPS ${2} initiated Shutdown Sequence" &
${SHUTDOWN} -h now "apcupsd UPS ${2} initiated shutdown"
;;
annoyme)
xmessage -center "Power problems with UPS ${2}. Please logoff." &
;;
emergency)
xmessage -center "Emergency Shutdown. Possible battery failure on UPS ${2}." &
${SHUTDOWN} -h now "apcupsd emergency shutdown"
;;
changeme)
xmessage -center "Emergency! Batteries have failed on UPS ${2}. Change them NOW" &
;;
remotedown)
xmessage -center "Remote Shutdown. Beginning Shutdown Sequence." &
${SHUTDOWN} -h now "apcupsd remote shutdown"
;;
restartme)
echo -n "Restarting APCUPSD Power Management: "
THEPID=`cat ${APCPID}`
kill ${THEPID}
rm -f ${APCPID}
rm -f /etc/apcupsd/powerfail
rm -f /etc/nologin
sleep 5
`${APCUPSD}`
echo "apcupsd"
;;
startselftest)
;;
endselftest)
;;
mastertimeout)
xmessage -center "Warning connection from master lost." &
;;
masterconnect)
xmessage -center "Connection from master established." &
;;
battdetach)
;;
battattach)
;;
*) echo "Usage: ${0##*/} command"
echo " warning: this script is intended to be launched by"
echo " apcupsd and should never be launched by users."
exit 1
;;
esac
##############################################


Now, the next thing we need to do is setup apcupsd to restart when we login
or xmessaging wont work
Got to /home/(your user name)/.kde/Autostart and create a file called
apcupsd-restart.desktop and insert
the following text:


[Desktop Entry]
Version=1.0
Encoding=UTF-8
Name=
Comment=
Comment[en_US]=
Exec=sudo /etc/init.d/apcupsd restart
GenericName=
GenericName[en_US]=
Icon=
MimeType
Name[en_US]=
Path=
StartupNotify=false
Terminal=false
TerminalOptions=
Type=Application
X-DCOP-ServiceType=
X-KDE-SubstituteUID=false
X-KDE-Username=
X-KDE-autostart-after=kdesktop

#########################################

Or  if  you  use  Gnome  go  to  sessions  and  add
sudo /etc/init.d/restart to  your  startup  programs.

#########################################
  
Save the file and right click, properties and change the file to make
it execautable.

Next step requires a change in your sudoers file, in order for you to 
execute service starts change 
the following in your /etc/sudoers file:

For Debian Based Files:
# /etc/sudoers
#
# This file MUST be edited with the 'visudo' command as root.
#
# See the man page for details on how to write a sudoers file.
#
 Defaults env_reset
# Host alias specification
# User alias specification
# Cmnd alias specification
# User privilege specification
root ALL=(ALL) ALL
billydv ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
 
For  Ubuntu  Based  Files:
# User privilege specification
root	ALL=(ALL) ALL
billydv	ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
# Members of the admin group may gain root privileges
%admin ALL=(ALL) ALL
%users	ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
Substitute billydv with your user name. If you are concerned about
security you can read the documentation for sudo and actually set
the sudo file to only allow you to restart apcupsd without a password
but for me it doesnt matter, I prefer the skipped password. After
Saving the File  open  a  terminal  as  your  regular  user  and  type:
sudo /etc/init.d/restart
If  you  are  able  to  restart  apcupsd  without  asking  for  a  
password,  you  can  continue,  if  not  try  adding  your  user
to  the  admin  group.
Reboot your computer and unplug the cord to you UPS to test, you should
then see xmessages on your desktop.

This will work with Ubuntu and Mepis or any other Debian or Ubuntu
based Distro.

Security

How to install Firewall (Firestarter)

sudo aptitude install firestarter
  • System -> Administration -> Firestarter

How to install Firewall (Guarddog)

sudo aptitude install guarddog
  • System -> Administration -> Guarddog

How to install a GUI desktop On-Access Anti-Virus Scanner for KDE (KlamAV)

Follow the Kubuntu KlamAV installation procedure described in the KlamAV FAQ. Read the instructions carefully - there is more to the installation than simply apt-get-ing the klamav package.
  • Applications -> System -> KlamAV Anti-Virus Manager

How to install network traffic analyzer (Ethereal)

Note: Ethereal has been abandoned by its developers in favor of Wireshark.
sudo aptitude install ethereal
  • Applications -> Internet -> Ethereal

How to install network traffic analyzer (Wireshark)

sudo aptitude install wireshark
  • Applications -> Internet -> Wireshark

How to install Vulnerability Scanner (Nessus)

sudo aptitude install nessus
sudo aptitude install nessusd
sudo nessus-adduser
sudo ln -fs /etc/init.d/nessusd /etc/rc2.d/S20nessusd
sudo /etc/init.d/nessusd start
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nessus.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nessus
Comment=Nessus
Exec=nessus
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/nessus.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;Settings;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Nessus

Archivers / Packages/ Compression

How to install 7z Archiver ( .7z)

sudo aptitude install p7zip-full

How to install RAR Archiver (rar)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. If you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo aptitude install rar unrar
  • Applications -> Accessories -> Archive Manager

How to install & use .rpm to .deb Converter (Alien)

sudo aptitude install alien
sudo alien -d package.rpm (-d for Debian package)

How to make Ubuntu/Debian packages (CheckInstall)

sudo aptitude install checkinstall
  • When compiling software from source, replace "make install" with "checkinstall"
./configure
make
checkinstall

A Debian package (.deb) will now be created in the current directory.

  • To install the created package
sudo dpkg -i package_name.deb
  • Consider copying your package to a personal Apt Repository

#Personal Apt Repository

Games

How to install game Tuxracer

sudo aptitude install planetpenguin-racer planetpenguin-racer-data planetpenguin-racer-extras
  • Applications -> Games -> planetpenguin-racer

How to install game Frozen-Bubble

sudo aptitude install frozen-bubble
  • Applications -> Games -> Frozen-Bubble

How to install game Scorched3D

sudo aptitude install scorched3d
  • Applications -> Games -> Scorched 3D

How to install real-time-strategy game (globulation 2 alpha21)

wget http://globulation2.org/releases/0.8.21/glob2_alpha21_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i glob2_alpha21_i386.deb

You might also need to install dependencies if dpkg returns a dependency error

sudo aptitude -f install

To play use this command:

glob2

How to install Nexuiz a 3d deathmatch game

  • Unpack the archive for example to /opt directory (ca. 200 MB needed)
sudo unzip nexuiz-<version>.zip -d /opt
wget http://www.kde-look.org/content/download.php?content=27478
tar -zxf 27478-nexuiz-fire.tar.gz
sudo mv Nexuizicon* /opt/Nexuiz/
rm 27478-nexuiz-fire.tar.gz
  • Create a Desktop Entry
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/nexuiz.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nexuiz
Comment=A 3D Deathmatch Game
Exec=/opt/Nexuiz/nexuiz-linux-sdl.sh
Icon=/opt/Nexuiz/Nexuizicon64x64.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Game;
  • If you experience problems you can exchange the Exec line with: Exec=/opt/Nexuiz/nexuiz-linux-glx.sh

How to install Cube (Online FPS) Game

How to install ActionCube (Online FPS) Game

Download some needed libraries:

sudo apt-get install build-essential libsdl1.2-dev libsdl-image1.2-dev libsdl-mixer1.2-dev

Note: Please check the ActionCube website for updates: http://action.cubers.net/download.html Download the game here by clicking on ActionCube v0.92 for Linux/Unix. Change to the directory where you downloaded the game.

tar xvf ActionCube_*.tar.bz2
cd ActionCube/source/src/
make install
cd ../../
./actioncube.sh

For AMD64 users follow above instructions:

sudo apt-get install linux32
sudo vi actioncube.sh

Modify the following line:

# MACHINE_NAME should be set to the name of your processor.
#MACHINE_NAME=i686
MACHINE_NAME=`uname -m`

To this:

# MACHINE_NAME should be set to the name of your processor.
#MACHINE_NAME=i686
MACHINE_NAME=`linux32 uname -m`

How to install Cube 2: Sauerbraten (Online FPS) Game

Download some needed libraries:

sudo apt-get install build-essential libsdl1.2-dev libsdl-image1.2-dev libsdl-mixer1.2-dev

Download the game:

wget -c http://downloads.sourceforge.net/sauerbraten/sauerbraten_2006_12_04_gui_edition_linux.tar.gz?modtime=1165214827&big_mirror=0
tar xvf sauerbraten_2006_12_04_gui_edition_linux.tar.gz
cd sauerbraten/src/
make install
cd ../
./sauerbraten_unix 

For AMD64 users follow above instructions:

sudo apt-get install linux32
gksudo gedit sauerbraten_unix

Modify the following line:

# MACHINE_NAME should be set to the name of your processor.
#MACHINE_NAME=i686
MACHINE_NAME=`uname -m`

To this:

# MACHINE_NAME should be set to the name of your processor.
#MACHINE_NAME=i686
MACHINE_NAME=`linux32 uname -m`

Super Nintendo Emulator (ZSNES) 1.510 for i386/AMD64

For support or questions please see this thread http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=432642

echo "deb http://packages.dfreer.org feisty main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
wget http://packages.dfreer.org/7572013D.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install zsnes32 #for amd64 users
sudo apt-get install zsnes   #for everyone else
  • Applications > Games > zsnes or zsnes32

Playstation 1 Emulator (pSX) 1.11 for i386/AMD64

For support or questions see http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=394097

echo "deb http://packages.dfreer.org feisty main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
wget http://packages.dfreer.org/7572013D.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install psx32 #for amd64 users
sudo apt-get install psx   #for everyone else
  • Applications > Games > pSX or pSX32

Educational Software

How to install KDE Edutainment applications

sudo aptitude install kdeedu
  • The following programs are installed in the KDE Edutainment package:
    • Languages
      • KHangman (Hangman Game)
      • Kiten (Japanese Study Tool)
      • KLatin (Latin Study Tool)
      • KLetters (Alphabet Study Tool)
      • Kanagram (Anagram Game)
      • Kverbos (Spanish Verb Study Tool)
      • KVocTran (Vocabulary Study Tool)
    • Mathematics
      • KBruch (Fractions Study Tool)
      • KPercentages (Percentages Study Tool)
      • Kig (Interactive Geometry)
      • KmPlot (Mathematical Function Plotter)
    • Science
      • KStars (Desktop Planetarium)
      • Kalzium (Periodic Table)
    • Teaching Tools
      • KEduca (Test and Exams)
      • KEduca-Editor (Test and Exams Editor)
    • Miscellaneous
      • KTurtle (Logo Programming Enviornment)
      • blinKen (Simon-like game)
      • KTouch (Touch-typing tutor)
      • KWordQuiz (Vocabulary Trainer)
  • Applications -> Education -> ...

How to install a space simulation package (Celestia)

Ubuntu users:
sudo aptitude install celestia-gnome
Kubuntu users:
sudo aptitude install celestia
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Celestia

How to install a desktop planetarium (Stellarium)

sudo aptitude install stellarium
  • Applications -> Other -> Stellarium

Yet to be Categorized

How to install 3D modeling tool (Blender 3d)

sudo aptitude install blender
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Blender 3D modeller

How to install Chinese Input Method (SCIM)

Please follow the official Ubuntu guide HERE

How to install Desktop Applets

How to install Gnome (Ubuntu) Desktop Applets (gDesklets)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo aptitude install gdesklets gdesklets-data
How to install KDE (Kubuntu) Desktop Applets (SuperKaramba)
sudo aptitude install superkaramba
  • KMenu -> Utilities -> Superkaramba

How to install Google Earth

wget -c http://dl.google.com/earth/GE4/GoogleEarthLinux.bin
sudo sh GoogleEarthLinux.bin
  • Leave /usr/local/google-earth as the installation path
  • After installation click Exit. If you instead chose to run the application, read the Note below.
sudo cp /opt/google-earth/googleearth.desktop /usr/share/applications/
  • Applications -> Internet -> Google Earth
  • Note: If you run Google Earth for the first time from the installer, it will require root privileges to run the next time. To fix that:
sudo chmod 777 -R ~/.googleearth

How to install Virtual Machine Manager (VMware Server)

  • Register an account here to get your free serial number. The number will be emailed.
sudo aptitude install linux-headers-`uname -r` build-essential xinetd
wget -c http://download3.vmware.com/software/vmserver/VMware-server-1.0.2-39867.tar.gz
tar xzf VMware-server-1.0.2-39867.tar.gz -C /tmp
cd /tmp/vmware-server-distrib
sudo ./vmware-install.pl
  • Accept all defaults and enter your serial.
  • Applications -> System Tools -> VMware Server Console
  • Please see this thread if you have problems: Ubuntu Forums

How to install Windows Applications in Linux (Wine)

Wine Is Not an Emulator. Wine is an Open Source implementation of the Windows API on top of X and Unix. Think of Wine as a compatibility layer for running Windows programs. Wine does not require Microsoft Windows, as it is a completely free alternative implementation of the Windows API consisting of 100% non-Microsoft code, however Wine can optionally use native Windows DLLs if they are available.

In other words, Wine will let you run Windows applications in Linux.

  • Open the sources.list file:
Ubuntu users:
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
Kubuntu users:
sudo kate /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following lines at the end of this file
# Repository for wine
deb http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt edgy main
deb-src http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt edgy main
  • Save the edited file
  • Acquire public key
gpg --keyserver hkp://subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 58403026387EE263
gpg --export --armor 58403026387EE263 | sudo apt-key add -
  • Update and install Wine package
sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude install wine

How to install a Quran researching tool (zekr)

Zekr is an open platform Quran study tool for simply browsing and researching on the Holy Quran. It is a Quran-based project, planned to be a universal, open source, and cross-platform application to perform most of the usual refers to Quran. The main idea is to build an as generic as possible platform to accept different Islamic resources.

Currently Zekr has English, Persian, French, German, Arabic, Indonesian, Russian, Dutch, Kurdish, Malay, Turkish and Urdu built-in language packs. In addition, it includes English, Persian, and Russian Quran translations.

  • Make sure that Sun JRE is the default JRE (zekr also works with the new version of gij).
  • Run the following command in the terminal:
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add The following line at the end of the file:
deb http://siahe.com/zekr/apt edgy main
  • Add the GPG key
wget -q http://siahe.com/zekr/apt/zekr.debian.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  • Run the following commands in the terminal:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install zekr
sudo apt-get install ttf-me-quran ttf-scheherazade
  • If you are upgrading from a previous installed version of zekr, to use the new font configuration of zekr run the following command in the terminal:
mv ~/.zekr ~/.zekr-backup

How to install a Drop Down Terminal like in First Person Shooters

How to install a Gnome (Ubuntu) Drop Down Terminal (tilda)
sudo aptitude install tilda
  • The default keybinding is F1. To change the default keybinding, either enter tilda -C at the terminal, or right click on the tilda terminal then click Preferences. While in preferences, you can change other things such as transparency, font, size, and window size.
How to install a KDE (Kubuntu) Drop Down Terminal (YaKuake)
sudo aptitude install yakuake
  • Restart the X Windows system.
  • KMenu -> System -> Yakuake

How to install a password manager (Revelation)

sudo aptitude install revelation
  • Applications -> Accessories -> Revelation Password Manager
How to uninstall Revelation
sudo aptitude remove revelation

How to Automatically cycle Flickr images as your Ubuntu desktop wallpaper

Check here for Ubuntu Wallpapers You want to make your ubuntu desktop more Colourful and Beautiful this is for you


How to install WinPopup (LinPopUp)

sudo aptitude install linpopup
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/linpopup.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=LinPopUp
Comment=LinPopUp
Exec=linpopup
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/linpopup.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Utility;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Accessories -> LinPopUp

How to install Desktop Publishing Application (Scribus)

sudo aptitude install scribus
  • Applications -> Office -> Scribus

How to install Diagram Editor (Dia)

sudo aptitude install dia-gnome
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Dia

How to install Compiled HTML Help (CHM) Viewer (xCHM)

sudo aptitude install xchm
  • Applications -> Graphics -> xCHM

Other Desktop Environments

How to install KDE

sudo aptitude install kubuntu-desktop
Note: This installation will require ~400MB of disk space
  • System -> Quit -> Log Out
  • To log in to KDE click on Sessions and choose KDE

How to install XFCE

sudo aptitude install xubuntu-desktop
  • System -> Quit -> Log Out
  • To log in to XFCE click on Sessions and choose XFCE

How to install XFCE 4.4

sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude install xubuntu-desktop
  • Also recomended to install thunar-volman, the tool for automatic mount of removable devices
sudo aptitude install thunar-volman

How to install XFCE 4.4 RC2

  • to install Xfce 4.4 RC2 on a fresh install:
sudo aptitude install build-essential gcc pkg-config libglib2.0-0 libglib2.0-dev libgtk2.0-0 libgtk2.0-dev \
     libxml2-dev libvte-dev libvte9 libxpm-dev libxpm4 libasound2-dev alsa-base alsa-utils libxml2 \
     libxml-parser-perl libpng12-0 libpng12-dev libice-dev libsm-dev xorg-dev
chmod +x xfce4-4.4RC2-installer.run 
sudo ./xfce4-4.4RC2-installer.run
  • finally to enable Xfce, logout and login choosing xfce session
  • for xubuntu users that upgraded to the latest Xfce. If you are missing the nifty little mouse running in the ubuntu logo at the startup splash, just do a simple copy:
sudo cp /usr/lib/xfce4/splash/engines/libxubuntu.so /usr/local/lib/xfce4/splash/engines/

How to install FluxBox

Here's some Screenshots. Fluxbox is a popular minimalist Window Manager.

sudo aptitude install fluxbox
Make it start when you login through GDM
echo "exec startfluxbox" > ~/.xinitrc
Make it make the pretty sound on login
sudo aptitude install sox
gedit ~/.fluxbox/startup
  • Find this line:
exec /usr/local/bin/fluxbox
  • Put this above it somewhere:
play /usr/share/sounds/login.wav > /dev/null 2>&1 &
  • Listen happily.

Eye Candy

How to install Xgl/Compiz (NVIDIA)

  • Preparation
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find this section
Section "Module"
	Load	"i2c"
	Load	"bitmap"
	...
	Load	"type1"
	Load	"vbe"
EndSection
  • Comment out dri and GLcore (if present)

Trouble

#	Load	"dri"
#	Load	"GLcore"
  • Make sure the glx module is loaded
	Load	"glx"
  • Find this section (your values may vary)
Section "Device"
	Identifier	"NVIDIA Corporation NV40 [GeForce FX6200]"
	Driver		"nvidia"
EndSection
  • Insert the following lines, leaving the Identifier and Driver as it is
Section "Device"
	...		
	...
	Option		"RenderAccel"		"true"
	Option		"AllowGLXWithComposite" "true"
EndSection
  • Find this section
Section "Screen"
	Identifier	"Default Screen"
	Device		"NVIDIA Corporation NV40 [GeForce FX6200]"
	Monitor		"Generic Monitor"
	DefaultDepth	16
  • Make sure DefaultDepth is set to 24, if it isn't already
	DefaultDepth	24
  • Save the edited file
  • Install Xgl + Compiz
sudo cp /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom-backup
sudo gedit /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom
  • Scroll to the bottom of the file and replace "servers" section with the following lines, then save the file.
[servers]# Override display 1 to use Xgl
0=Xgl 

[server-Xgl] 
name=Xgl server 
command=/usr/bin/Xgl :0 -fullscreen -ac -accel glx:pbuffer -accel xv:fbo 
flexible=true
  • Edit your sources.list (sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list) and add the following line to the bottom:
deb http://gandalfn.club.fr/ubuntu edgy dev
  • Save the file. You must also download the gpg key by running the following command:
gpg --keyserver hkp://wwwkeys.eu.pgp.net --recv-keys 0x483170E9 ; gpg --export -a 0x483170E9 | sudo apt-key add -
  • After doing the above you must update apt-get:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • Now install necessary packages + depencies:
sudo apt-get install compiz compiz-extra compiz-plugins compiz-extra-plugins gnome-compiz-manager gnome-compiz-manager-extra xserver-xgl
  • To start Compiz you can type the following into a terminal:
compiz-tray-icon
  • You should then see a Compiz icon on your gnome panel. Right click on it and select "GL Desktop".You may also want to add this command to your session start-up programs list.
  • Troubleshooting
    • If Xgl/Compiz doesn't seem to work, or you get errors, simply restart your machine. (Recommended)

How to install Xgl/Beryl (ATI)

(From Beryl Forums) (Also From Ubuntu Forums)

First make sure you have 3d acceleration available in a normal gnome session. There are lots of howtos for this , Google if you need any help with that. So if glxinfo shows direct rendering: yes , then you are good to go. If not xgl and Beryl wont work!

  • Update your system
sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude dist-upgrade
  • Prepare and update repositories
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add to /etc/apt/sources.list
##BERYL REPOSITORIES
deb http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org edgy main
deb-src http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org edgy main
##BERYL SVN REPOSITORIES
deb http://download.tuxfamily.org/3v1deb edgy beryl-svn
deb-src http://download.tuxfamily.org/3v1deb edgy beryl-svn
  • Download and import the gpg key for beryl & beryl svn project repositories
wget http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/root@lupine.me.uk.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
wget http://download.tuxfamily.org/3v1deb/DD800CD9.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  • Update your sources
sudo aptitude update
  • Install needed packages
sudo apt-get install xserver-xgl libgl1-mesa xserver-xorg libglitz-glx1 beryl \
beryl-core beryl-manager beryl-plugins beryl-plugins-data beryl-settings emerald \
emerald-themes
  • Make a startup script for xgl
sudo gedit /usr/bin/startxgl
  • Add to /usr/bin/startxgl
#!/bin/sh
Xgl :1 -fullscreen -ac -accel xv:pbuffer -accel glx:pbuffer &
DISPLAY=:1
exec dbus-launch --exit-with-session gnome-session
  • Make the script executable
sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/startxgl
  • Make a xgl session for the login manager
sudo gedit /usr/share/xsessions/xgl.desktop
  • Add to /usr/share/xsessions/xgl.desktop
[Desktop Entry]
Encoding=UTF-8
Name=Xgl
Comment=Start an Xgl Session
Exec=/usr/bin/startxgl
Icon=
Type=Application
  • System > Preferences > Sessions > Startup Programs > Add
beryl-manager
  • Reboot
  • In the login manager you can now choose a session named Xgl
  • Answer to following question that you want to use Xgl for this session only (if something went wrong you are logged in next time using standard session)
  • If everything works fine , you can set it as the default session , remember you can always login a normal gnome session if you want.
  • If you own an x series radeon and have problems with lockups, read this post:

http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=150854

Note for all cards: glxinfo will show that direct rendering is not working , dont worry thats normal when you are running xgl.

How to install Beryl/AIGLX (Nvidia)

(From Ubuntu Forums)


  • Ensure all packages up to date
Install your *ubuntu-desktop metapackage specific to your DE, e.g. sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • Add repositories
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following line at the end of this file (x86 and amd64):
deb http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/ edgy main
  • Add key
wget http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/root@lupine.me.uk.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  • Save the edited file then update package lists
sudo apt-get update
  • Install Beryl
sudo apt-get install beryl emerald-themes
  • Back up xorg.conf
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Add this to xorg.conf "Screen" section
# Enable 32-bit ARGB GLX Visuals
    Option "AddARGBGLXVisuals" "True"

# If you are using an older version of compiz that
# does not support rendering into the Composite
# Overlay Window, you will need to disable clipping
# of GLX rendering to the X Root window with this
# option, or you will get a blank screen after
# starting compiz:
    Option "DisableGLXRootClipping" "True"
  • Add this to xorg.conf "Device" section
Option          "TripleBuffer" "true"
  • Restart X with ctrl+alt+backspace
  • Start Beryl (if it doesn't start on its own)
beryl-manager
  • Start Emerald (if it doesn't start on its own)
emerald --replace
  • Have Beryl and Emerald load on login
    • System -> Preferences -> Sessions
    • Startup Programs -> Add
beryl-manager

and

emerald --replace
    • If, on reboot, program menus aren't displaying in the correct layer (you can't see them when you select them because they are displaying behind the window) then right click on the 'Beryl Manager' icon in the panel (the red gem icon) and select 'Reload Window Manager'. The problem should be solved the next time you reboot.
  • Some users have found that the latest beryl packages are not working properly, and beryl fails to load. This can be fixed by:

Open synaptic package manager, search for beryl, press ctrl+e and select version 0.1.99.2 You have to do this for beryl, beryl-core, beryl-manager, beryl-plugins, beryl-plugins-data, beryl-settings, beryl-settings-binding, libberyldecoration0 and libberylsettings0

Source: http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=353809

How to install Beryl/AIGLX (Intel i915)

Follow the how-to on beryl project wiki.

If that does not work, check if you have direct rendering enabled (type into the terminal):

glxinfo | grep direct

The output should be:

direct rendering: Yes

If the output says No, check you have direct rendering manager loaded:

lsmod|grep 915

The output should be:

i915   21632  3
drm    74644  4 i915
tsdev   9152  0

If it shows only tsdev line, you can try to configure xorg.conf to driver i810, restart, CTRL-ALT-F1 to terminal session and configure xorg.conf back to use i915. That helped me.

How to install compiz-freedesktop without XGL / AIGLX utilising the latest Nvidia BETA drivers

  • Ensure that all packages are up to date
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • Add repositories
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following line at the end of this file for the edgy stable repos
## compiz-freedesktop stable
deb http://gandalfn.club.fr/ubuntu edgy stable
  • Or add the following line at the end of this file for the edgy dev repos
## compiz-freedesktop dev
deb http://gandalfn.club.fr/ubuntu edgy stable dev

Note for compiz-freedesktop git repos: these packages are considered experimental and unstable by nature

  • Or add the following line at the end of this file for the edgy git repos
## compiz-freedesktop git
deb http://gandalfn.club.fr/ubuntu edgy stable dev git
  • Add the GPG key
gpg --keyserver hkp://wwwkeys.eu.pgp.net --recv-keys 0x483170E9 ; \
gpg --export -a 0x483170E9 | sudo apt-key add -
  • Save the edited file then update package lists
sudo apt-get update
  • Install compiz-freedesktop
sudo apt-­get install compiz-­freedesktop compiz­-freedesktop-­gnome gnome-­compiz-­manager
  • Back up xorg.conf
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find this section
Section "Screen"
    Identifier     "Default Screen"
    Device         "NVIDIA Corporation NVIDIA Default Card"
    Monitor        "Generic Monitor"
    DefaultDepth    16
  • Make sure DefaultDepth is set to 24, if it isn't already
    DefaultDepth    24
  • Enable 32-bit ARGB GLX Visuals
    Option "AddARGBGLXVisuals" "True"
  • Save the edited file
  • Restart X with Ctrl+Alt+Backspace
  • Logon
  • Press Alt-F2 to open the Run Application window and enter the following in the text box:
compiz­-tray-­icon
  • Click Run to execute
  • Locate the compiz-tray-icon in your system tray, typically in the top right-hand corner of your screen, right-click mouse button and select the GL Desktop option
  • To customize preferences, locate the compiz-tray-icon in your system tray, typically in the top right-hand corner of your screen, right-click mouse button and select the Preferences option

How to install alternate boot splash screen

  • This installs a minimalistic splash screen that appears when the computer is booting up and shutting down. It is devoid of any text messages.
sudo aptitude install usplash
wget -c http://www.users.on.net/~stubby/usplash-minimalistic_0.1.deb
sudo dpkg -i usplash-minimalistic_0.1.deb
sudo update-alternatives --config usplash-artwork.so
  • Select the minimalistic alternative (/usr/local/lib/usplash/minimalastic.so) by entering the corresponding number. If you ever want to revert back to the original splash, select the default (/usr/lib/usplash/usplash-default.so)
  • Restart your computer to see the effects

Commercial Applications

How to install Windows 9X/ME/2000/XP (Win4Lin)

How to install Windows Applications (VMWare Workstation)

http://www.vmware.com
  • Convert vmwareworkstation_5.5.3-34868_i386.rpm to vmwareworkstation_5.5.3-34868_i386.deb using Alien and install it.
  • After installing application go to installet destination and run *.config file to configure settings
  • Run it

How to install Windows Applications (CrossOver Office)

How to install Windows Games (Cedega)

User Administration

How to set/change/enable root user password

sudo passwd root

How to disable root user account

sudo passwd -l root

How to allow root user to login into GNOME

Security Tab -> Security -> Allow local system administrator login (Checked)

How to switch to root user in Console mode

sudo -s -H
Password: <specify user password>

How to add/edit/delete system users

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Users and Groups
  • Users and Groups
Users Tab -> Add User.../Properties/Delete
or
sudo useradd jim
sudo userdel jim
  • For more info read
man usermod

How to add/edit/delete system groups

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Users and Groups
  • Users and Groups
Groups Tab -> Add Group.../Properties/Delete

How to automatic login into GNOME (not secure)

Security Tab -> Enable Automatic Login (Checked)
Now choose a user from the drop-down menu.

How to allow more sudoers

EDITOR=gedit sudo visudo
  • Append the following line at the end of file
system_username	ALL=(ALL) ALL
  • Save the edited file

OR since everyone in the admin group can use sudo:

sudo adduser a_username admin

This appends the admin group to the user's supplementary group list. They will now have sudo access.

How to use "sudo" without prompt for password (not secure)

EDITOR=gedit sudo visudo
  • Add the following line at the end of the file:
username	ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
  • Save the edited file

How to explicitly destroy the "sudo" session

sudo -K

How to change files/folders permissions

Right click on files/folders -> Properties
Permissions Tab -> Read/Write/Execute (Checked the permissions for Owner/Group/Others)

How to change files/folders ownership

sudo chown system_username /location_of_files_or_folders

If you want to change ownership of all containing files and folders recursively, use the -R option like this:

sudo chown -R system_username /location_of_files_or_folders

How to change files/folders group ownership

sudo chgrp system_groupname /location_of_files_or_folders

If you want to change group ownership of all containing files and folders recursively, use the -R option like this:

sudo chgrp -R system_username /location_of_files_or_folders

Hardware

Mice

Activate side-mouse-buttons in FireFox

Just add two lines to xorg.conf will activate side-mouse-buttons in FireFox. This should work with most 5-button mouse. Here is a list of mice that worked with this instruction.

  • Logitech MX310
  • Logitech MX510
  • Logitech MX518
  • Logitech MX700
  • Intellimouse Explorer (first edition)
  • Razer Copperhead
  • Microsoft Habu (with imwheel)


Backup X.org configuration file

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak

Modify the X.org configuration file

gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Find the Input Device section for your mouse and add two lines as shown below. You may also increase the number of buttons if your mouse has more than 7, just fix the rest of the section based upon the number of buttons (remember back/forward, wheel click & tilt left/right all count as buttons)

Change:

Section "InputDevice"
	Identifier "Configured Mouse"
	Driver "mouse"
	Option "CorePointer"
	...
	Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
	...
	Option "Emulate3Buttons"       "true"
EndSection

to:

Section "InputDevice"
    Identifier     "Configured Mouse"
    Driver         "mouse"
    Option         "CorePointer"
    Option         "Device" "/dev/input/mice" 
    Option         "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
    Option         "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"
    Option         "Emulate3Buttons" "true"
    Option         "Buttons" "7" 
    Option         "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 6 7"
EndSection

If you want the wheel scroll button to scroll in firefox rather than the side buttons make "ZAxisMapping" "6 7" and "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 4 5".

At this point you can reboot your computer or restart X (Ctrl-Alt-BackSpace) to see if your forward/back buttons work in FireFox. They still won't work in Nautilus yet until you install the imwheel dameon.

Install & Configure IMWheel

  • Install IMWheel
sudo apt-get install imwheel
  • Modify IMWheel configuration file
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/imwheel/imwheelrc
  • Insert the following at the bottom of this existing file
".*"
None, Up, Alt_L|Left
None, Down, Alt_L|Right 

"(null)"
None, Up, Alt_L|Left
None, Down, Alt_L|Right


  • Create IMWheel start-up script
sudo mkdir /home/login
gksudo gedit /home/login/mouse
  • Insert the following into this new file
#!/bin/sh
exec xmodmap -e "pointer = 1 2 3 6 7 4 5" &
exec imwheel -k -b "67" &
exec $REALSTARTUP
  • Grant execution for everyone to this new script
sudo chmod +x /home/login/mouse
  • Configure this script to be executed at start-up
    1. Select 'System' > 'Preferences' > 'Sessions'
    2. Click the StartUp tab
    3. Click Add, then input: /home/login/mouse
    4. Click OK, then Close
  • Reboot your computer or your Gnome environment and then test your back/forward mouse buttons in Nautilus

How to configure Apple Mighty Mouse

Apple Mighty Mouse works out of the box, this how to should cover setting up of horizontal scrolling using ball and sidebuttons.

This is placeholder only. Please, provide working howto.

Graphics Card

How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)

sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx nvidia-kernel-common
sudo nvidia-xconfig
  • Should the above not enable the new driver, you can enable it manually by opening the X config file:
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
 
  • and replacing "nv" with "nvidia"
  • Enable XvMC by creating the nVidia XvMC configuration file
sudo gedit /etc/X11/XvMCConfig
  • Insert the following line into the new configuration file, to tell the players the name of the nVidia XvMC shared library:
libXvMCNVIDIA_dynamic.so.1
  • To use XvMC to accelerate video playback, use the following flags. See [[2]] for more details.
xine -V xxmc filename.ts
mplayer -vo xvmc -vc ffmpeg12mc filename.ts

How to install Beta Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)

  • Thanks to Alberto Milone
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add ONE of the following lines based on your architecture
deb http://www.albertomilone.com/drivers/edgy/latest/32bit binary/
deb http://www.albertomilone.com/drivers/edgy/latest/64bit binary/
deb http://www.albertomilone.com/drivers/edgy/newlegacy/32bit binary/
deb http://www.albertomilone.com/drivers/edgy/newlegacy/64bit binary/
  • Save the edited file
  • Add the GPG key
wget http://albertomilone.com/drivers/tseliot.asc
gpg --import tseliot.asc
gpg --export --armor albertomilone@alice.it | sudo apt-key add -
  • Update and install
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx
sudo apt-get upgrade
  • The upgrade should update your linux-restricted-modules & linux-restricted-modules-common packages.
sudo nvidia-xconfig
  • Add a menu option for nVidia Settings
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/NVIDIA-Settings.desktop
  • Insert these lines in the new file and save
[Desktop Entry]
Name=NVIDIA Settings
Comment=NVIDIA Settings
Exec=nvidia-settings
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;
  • Restart the computer and your new drivers should be installed.
  • Test the install with these 2 programs
glxinfo
glxgears

How to setup pivot (screen rotation) with default X.org NVIDIA drivers

  • Some LCD monitors are equipped with the pivot feature, to take advantage of it the display has to be rotated 90 degrees. The default nVidia drivers shipped with X.org ("nv") support software screen rotation. Note that it's unaccelerated and can be slow, read #How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA) if you decide to install the proprietary driver.
  • To rotate the screen find the "Device" section for the "nv" driver in the /etc/X11/xorg.conf file:
Section "Device"                                                                
       Identifier      "NVIDIA Corporation NV34 [GeForce FX 5200]"
       Driver          "nv"
  • Add the following options to this section:
       Option "Rotate" "CW"

Where the "Rotate" option has two possible values (depending on the orientation of the monitor):

  1. CW - rotate the display clockwise (right).
  2. CCW - rotate the display counterclockwise (right).

How to setup pivot (screen rotation) with proprietary NVIDIA drivers

  • Some LCD monitors are equipped with the pivot feature, to take advantage of it the display has to be rotated 90 degrees. The proprietary nVidia drivers support hardware rotation with the Xrandr extension.
  • To enable rotation support find the "Device" section for the "nvidia" driver in the /etc/X11/xorg.conf file:
Section "Device"                                                                
       Identifier      "NVIDIA Corporation NV34 [GeForce FX 5200]"
       Driver          "nvidia"
  • Add the following option to this section:
       Option          "RandRRotation" "on"
  • Then the display can be rotated (direction depends on the orientation of the monitor) by:
  1. Setting the "Rotation" property to either "Left" or "Right" in the "System > Preferences > Screen Resolution" dialog.
  2. Issuing either "xrandr -o left" or "xrandr -o right" command.

How to disable NVIDIA graphics logo on GNOME startup

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find this section
 ...
Section "Device"
	Identifier	"NVIDIA Corporation NV11 [GeForce2 MX/MX 400]"
	Driver		"nvidia"
	BusID		"PCI:1:0:0"
...
  • Add the following line below it
   Option		"NoLogo"

How to install Graphics Driver (ATI)

How to Correct the Graphics Resolution (Intel)

  • Intel 915g, 945g, etc. graphics chipsets only have a limited set of resolutions initially installed, despite the correct driver being detected.
  • Install the resolution altering tool:
sudo apt-get install 915resolution
  • Run the following to see the availible modes:
915resolution -l
  • Choose a resolution you don't need and replace, for example the following changes 1920x1440 to 1920x1200
915resolution 5c 1920 1200
  • This should add the option for that resolution to the "System>Preferences>Screen Resolution" tool.
  • If it works correctly then you can make the change permanent:
sudo gedit /etc/rc.local
  • Simply add the command you typed in above before:
exit 0

How to show nvidia GPU temperature (nvidia-settings)

At a terminal, type

nvidia-settings

How to detect CPU temperature, fan speeds and voltages (lm-sensors)

sudo apt-get install lm-sensors

Create file called mkdev.sh, and paste in the following

#!/bin/bash

# Here you can set several defaults.

# The number of devices to create (max: 256)
NUMBER=32

# The owner and group of the devices
OUSER=root
OGROUP=root
# The mode of the devices
MODE=600

# This script doesn't need to be run if devfs is used
if [ -r /proc/mounts ] ; then
if grep -q "/dev devfs" /proc/mounts ; then
echo "You do not need to run this script as your system uses devfs."
exit;
fi
fi

i=0;

while [ $i -lt $NUMBER ] ; do
echo /dev/i2c-$i
mknod -m $MODE /dev/i2c-$i c 89 $i || exit
chown "$OUSER:$OGROUP" /dev/i2c-$i || exit
i=$[$i + 1]
done
#end of file

Make this file executable, then run it

sudo chmod +x mkdev.sh
sudo ./mkdev.sh

Now detect sensors, and answer "y" to all questions.

sudo sensors-detect

To load the manual modules, type

sudo /etc/init.d/module-init-tools

Load the modules into kernel with

sudo sensors -s

And check the output

sudo sensors

How to control fan speed (lm-sensors)

Install and config lm-sensors first, see section above. Then run pwmconfig to test your fans.

sudo pwmconfig

If you can control fan speeds, great. Now creat a file called /etc/init.d/fancontrol, and paste in the following

#!/bin/sh
#
# Fancontrol start script.
#

set -e

# Defaults
DAEMON=/usr/sbin/fancontrol
PIDFILE=/var/run/fancontrol-pid
PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin

test -f $DAEMON || exit 0

. /lib/lsb/init-functions


case "$1" in
       start)
               log_begin_msg "Starting fancontrol daemon..."
               start-stop-daemon --start -o -q -m -b -p $PIDFILE -x $DAEMON
               log_end_msg $?
               ;;
       stop)
               log_begin_msg "Stopping fancontrol daemon..."
               start-stop-daemon --stop -o -q -p $PIDFILE
               log_end_msg $?
               ;;
       force-reload|restart)
               sh $0 stop
               sh $0 start
               ;;
       *)
               log_success_msg "Usage: /etc/init.d/fancontrol {start|stop|restart|force-reload}"
               log_success_msg "  start - starts system-wide fancontrol service"
               log_success_msg "  stop  - stops system-wide fancontrol service"
               log_success_msg "  restart, force-reload - starts a new system-wide fancontrol service"
               exit 1
               ;;
esac

exit 0

Make it excutable

sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/fancontrol

Test it

/etc/init.d/fancontrol start

and

/etc/init.d/fancontrol stop

If it works fine, autoload it when you reboot. Insert the following line into /etc/rc.local, before "exit 0"

/etc/init.d/fancontrol start

How to monitor CPU, GPU temperatures, fan speeds and voltages (GKrellM)

  • Install hddtemp first to monitor hard drive temperatures
sudo apt-get install hddtemp

GKrellM is a hardware monitor that can display CPU and GPU temperatures, fan speeds, voltages, CPU load, network load, disk activity, disk temperature, memory usage, and swap usage. The installation is very easy, and configuration is just a few mouse-clicks. You can set alerts to warn you if the CPU is too hot or there is a fan failure. The hddtemp utility works with GKrellM to allow it to sense the disk temperature, as keeping your disks cool (e.g. less than around 40C) will allow them to last longer than if they run continually at higher temperatures (e.g. above 50C).

sudo apt-get install gkrellm

To run the program

Click Applications -> System Tools -> GKrellM

To configure the settings,

Right click on GKrellM -> Configuration

I was struggling with lm_sensors before, but it doesn't detect all of the sensors on my computer. Later I found "GKrellM". It displays the GPU temperature on my nVidia 6600 GT out of the box. GKrellM also has plugins that show weather info, set reminders, etc.

Add an audio alert (optional Step): Here is how to play an audio message when the CPU is too hot or a fan fails. First you need to find or record your own audio alert files. (I use Audacity to record my own.) Then go to:

Configuration -> Builtins folder (Left side)-> Sensors -> Temperatures folder (Right side)-> CPU -> Alerts Button

Paste ONE of the following lines into a Terminal window first to test the sound. If you have two sound cards, you can use "-ao oss:/dev/dsp1" option to route the sound to the second sound card. Modify the file path and name so it points to the correct file. If you can hear the sound, then copy that line to a command line text field on the GKrellM's Alerts window.

mplayer /home/myfolder/alert_messages/heat_alert.mp3
mplayer -ao oss:/dev/dsp1 /home/myfolder/alert_messages/heat_alert.mp3

CPU

How to enable your CPU's Power Saving/Frequency Scaling features

Enter your BIOS at boot and make sure both ACPI and Cool'n'Quiet (AMD) or SpeedStep (Intel) are enabled. Some BIOSes may not have option at all. If that is the case it is probably enabled by default. Other BIOSes may have the option but it is listed as another name altogether. If that is the case check your BIOS manual for more info.

  • Step 2: Remove Userspace Scaling Software

powernowd

sudo apt-get remove powernowd

cpudyn

sudo apt-get remove cpudyn
  • Step 3: Install CPU Module

Identify your cpu type by runnig the command

cat /proc/cpuinfo

You can also Check the following links AMD CPU Chart - [[3]] Intel CPU Chart - [[4]]

AMD Sempron/Athlon/MP ( K7 )

Socket Types: A, Slot A

sudo modprobe powernow-k7

AMD Duron/Sempron/Athlon/Opteron 64 ( K8 )

Socket Types: 754, 939, 940, S1 ( 638 ), AM2 ( 940 ), F ( 1207 )

sudo modprobe powernow-k8

Intel Core Duo

sudo modprobe speedstep-centrino

Intel Pentium M

sudo modprobe speedstep-centrino

Intel Pentium 4

sudo modprobe p4_clockmod

Others (Unknown)

I'm not entirely sure which cpus are supported using this module. If your cpu doesn't work with one of the above methods try this one.

sudo modprobe acpi-cpufreq
  • Step 4: Scaling Modules
sudo modprobe cpufreq_conservative
sudo modprobe cpufreq_ondemand
sudo modprobe cpufreq_powersave
sudo modprobe cpufreq_stats
sudo modprobe cpufreq_userspace
  • Step 5: Testing/Configuration

Show Available Governors

cat /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_available_governors

You should see output similar to

powersave conservative ondemand performance
  • Step 6: Load Modules at Boot

Add the following lines to the end of /etc/modules

cpufreq_conservative
cpufreq_ondemand
cpufreq_powersave
cpufreq_stats
cpufreq_userspace

Also add the module you selected in Step 3

  • Step 7: Install cpufrequtils

This is a simple, effective tool for using the modules from the command line.

sudo apt-get install cpufrequtils

Test that it's working.

cpufreq-info
  • Step 8: Select a governor

The different governors control how the CPU speed is scaled. Your choices are:

ondemand

CPU frequency is scaled based on load.

conservative

The CPUfreq governor "conservative", much like the "ondemand" governor, sets the CPU depending on the current usage. It differs in behaviour in that it gracefully increases and decreases the CPU speed rather than jumping to max speed the moment there is any load on the CPU. This behaviour more suitable in a battery powered environment.

performance

CPU only runs at max frequency regardless of load.

powersave

CPU only runs at min frequency regardless of load.

See [[5]] for more details.

I typically use ondemand. You get a very slight performance hit and save a lot of power (and produce a lot less heat when idle).

Try it out:

cpufreq-set -g ondemand

On systems with more than one CPU you need to repeat the last command for every other CPU you have with specifying the parameter -c (CPU). To set the governor for the second CPU write:

cpufreq-set -c 1 -g ondemand

To see how many CPUs you have type:

ls /sys/devices/system/cpu/ 
  • Step 9: Configure cpufrequtils to automatically set this governor on boot

Edit the file /etc/default/cpufrequtils. Change the line:

ENABLE="false"

to

ENABLE="true"

Set the GOVERNOR value to the governor name you chose in Step 8.

Sources: [[6]] [[7]]

Modems / Network

How to identify Modem chipset

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/scanModem.gz
gunzip -c scanModem.gz > scanModem
chmod +x scanModem
sudo cp scanModem /usr/bin/
  • To identify Modem chipset
sudo scanModem
gedit Modem/ModemData.txt

How to install Windows Wireless Drivers (Ndiswrapper)

  • Find out if you have acx module loaded. Because acx module interferes with windows driver, we need to remove it if it is found.
lsmod | grep acx
  • Remove the acx module if found. It could also be acx_pci or similar. Please Note: New kernel updates will auto load the acx module again. So repeat the following two commands every time the kernel is updated.
sudo rmmod acx
sudo nano /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist
  • Add a new list at the end of the file like this:
# drivers wireless ACX
blacklist acx
  • Install ndiswrapper and drivers (due to a bug in Edgy, you need to specify ndiswrapper-utils-1.8)
sudo apt-get install ndiswrapper-utils-1.8
sudo ndiswrapper -i /location_of_your_wireless_driver/your_driver.inf
sudo ndiswrapper -l
sudo modprobe ndiswrapper
  • Set ndiswrapper to load on startup
sudo ndiswrapper -m
gksudo gedit /etc/modules
  • Add the following module to the list
ndiswrapper
  • Now you can configure your wireless card with ifconfig and iwconfig.
e.g. Supposing wlan0 is your wireless device.
sudo iwconfig wlan0 essid "AP" key ababababababababab mode Managed
iwconfig
  • You sould now be able to see the MAC address of the access point and signal rate.

Ndiswrapper for Broadcom 43xx wireless chipset

  • The Broadcom 43xx (bcm43xx) wireless chipset is one of the most common chipsets, so special scripts have been written for it.
  • Only follow this if you have a bcm43xx device. To check in the Terminal type:
lspci | grep Broadcom\ Corporation

If it displays a line similar to this,

0000:02:02.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4306 802.11b/g Wireless LAN Controller (rev 03)

you have a Broadcom wireless chipset. Please proceed with the instructions.

  • Put the Ubuntu CD that you installed Ubuntu with in the CD drive.
  • Download this to the desktop (the Firefox default, so if you haven't changed it, that's where it went/will go).
  • In a terminal type
cd ~/Desktop (or wherever you downloaded the file)
tar -xf bcm4318*.tar.gz
sudo ./ndiswrapper_setup

Your wireless chipset should now work. Try rebooting if you have problems. Please see this thread if you have problems: http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=197102&highlight=install+ndiswrapper

How to enable WPA with Ndiswrapper driver

  • First, make sure the Ndiswrapper driver works by itself without encryption.
  • Create a file called /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf, and paste in the following. Modify the ssid and psk values.
ctrl_interface=/var/run/wpa_supplicant
 network={
   ssid="YourWiFiSSID"
   psk="YourWiFiPassword"
   key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
   proto=WPA
   pairwise=TKIP
 }
  • Test it. Make sure your router is broadcasting its SSID.
sudo wpa_supplicant -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -dd
  • If your WPA works. Load it automatically when you reboot.
gksudo gedit /etc/network/interfaces
  • Change your wlan0 section to the following.

If you are using static IP:

auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet static
address 192.168.1.20
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 192.168.1.1
pre-up wpa_supplicant -Bw -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
post-down killall -q wpa_supplicant

or this, if you are using dhcp.

auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet dhcp
pre-up wpa_supplicant -Bw -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
post-down killall -q wpa_supplicant


  • Reboot

How to install Modem Driver (SmartLink)

uname -r (must be 2.6.10-5-386)
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/sl-modem-modules-2.6.10-5-386_2.9.9a-1ubuntu2+2.6.10-34_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i sl-modem-modules-*.deb
sudo apt-get install sl-modem-daemon

Palm

How to configure PalmOS Devices

gksudo gedit /etc/udev/rules.d/10-custom.rules
  • Insert the following line into the new file
BUS="usb", SYSFS{product}="Palm Handheld*", KERNEL="ttyUSB*", NAME{ignore_remove}="pilot", MODE="666"
  • Save the edited file
  • Add the pilot-applet to the Taskbar by Right-Clicking on an empty spot
  • Follow the instructions on screen

Hard Drive

How to list partition tables

sudo fdisk -l
  • You can also use System -> Administration -> Disks

How to list filesystem disk space usage

df -Th
  • You can also use System -> Administration -> Disks

How to list mounted devices

mount

How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting

sudo mount -a

USB

How to list USB devices

lsusb

Workaround for random device disconnections

Random disconnection is a kernel bug that is not fixed yet. Some users report randomly disconnecting USB devices, especially external hard drives. One solution is to start the system with the option "irqpoll" in grub, but this doesn't work for everybody, and is believed to make the whole system slower. The other solution is to disable USB 2.0. This will result in way slower read/write, but the connection remains stable.

To disable USB 2.0, type this in the terminal:

sudo modprobe -r ehci_hcd

Test if the copy/write process is stable, and if you want to disable USB 2.0 upon boot, type:

sudo sh -c 'echo blacklist ehci_hcd > /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-ehci'
sudo update-initramfs -u -k `uname -r`

Optical Drives

How to speed up CD/DVD-ROM

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo hdparm -d1 /dev/cdrom
sudo cp /etc/hdparm.conf /etc/hdparm.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/hdparm.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
/dev/cdrom {
    dma = on
}
  • Save the edited file

How to mount/unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually, and show all hidden and associated files/folders

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
  • To mount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo mount /media/cdrom0/ -o unhide
  • To unmount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/

How to forcefully unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/ -l


Monitors / Displays

How to enable Large Widescreen Support

  • 24/23" widescreen monitors sometimes have issues running 1920x1200.
  • Examples include: Dell 2405, HP 2335 or an Apple Cinema Display.
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Add the following line to the appropriate "Monitor" section
Modeline	"1920x1200" 154 1920 1968 2000 2080 1200 1203 1209 1235
  • For example the HP2335 should now look like:
Section "Monitor"
	Identifier	"hp L2335"
	Option		"DPMS"
	Modeline	"1920x1200" 154 1920 1968 2000 2080 1200 1203 1209 1235
EndSection

How to enable CRT output (external monitor/projector) for notebooks (Intel)

Note: Valid for Intel® graphics controller-based products only

sudo apt-get install i810switch

Turn on CRT output

i810switch crt on

Turn off CRT output

i810switch crt off

Sound

How to setup the surround speakers (5.1 and others) with ALSA

  • Edit the ~/.asoundrc file, create it if it doesn't exist:
gedit ~/.asoundrc
  • Enter the following section:
pcm.!default {
    type plug
    slave.pcm "surround51"
    slave.channels 6
    route_policy duplicate
}
  • This will allow to play the surround output and duplicate the stereo output to all 6 channels (not only front ones).


How to change default soundcard

  • View available soundcards
sudo asoundconf list
  • You should get something like this
Names of available sound cards:
  Live
  V8237
  • Switch soundcard with 'example' being the name of the preferred soundcard
sudo asoundconf set-default-card example

Misc

How to list PCI devices

lspci


How to install a Wacom tablet

For a detailed guide with screenshots about how to configure the "Extended input devices" in your graphic applications, please follow the official Dapper guide at https://wiki.ubuntu.com//Wacom

With the version of the Linux Wacom driver (0.7.2) in Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake, if you unplug you tablet, it won't function when you plug it back in and you will have to restart X. For this reason, it is best to leave the tablet plugged in. This limitation will be removed when the 0.7.4 version of the driver is included in Ubuntu.

  • 1. Using Synaptic package manager, check if the packages xserver-xorg-input-wacom and wacom-tools are already installed - if not, install them. If you prefer using the command line, you can also execute :
     sudo apt-get install xserver-xorg-input-wacom wacom-tools
  • 2. Save a copy of your /etc/X11/xorg.conf :
      sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.backup
  • then edit it with the command line :
      gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • and change all /dev/wacom occurences into /dev/input/wacom (created by wacom-tools udev scripts), then save the file.
  • You should be ready to go after you have restarted X. Remember to configure the "Extended input devices" in your graphic applications (Gimp, Inkscape), however you can already check if it's working by moving your stylus on the tablet : the mouse cursor should go through the whole screen.

CD/DVD Burning

How to blank CD-RW/DVD-RW

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast

How to burn files/folders into CD/DVD

nautilus burn:///
  • File Browser: CD/DVD Creator
  • Drag files/folders into window
File Menu -> Write to Disc... -> Write

How to burn Image (ISO) files into CD/DVD

Right click on Image (ISO) file -> Write to Disc... -> Write

How to duplicate CD/DVD

How to create Image (ISO) files from CD/DVD

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=file.iso bs=1024

How to create Image (ISO) files from folders

mkisofs -r -o file.iso /location_of_folder/

How to generate MD5 checksum files

md5sum file.iso > file.iso.md5

How to check MD5 checksum of files

e.g. Assumed that file.iso and file.iso.md5 are in the same folder
md5sum -c file.iso.md5

How to mount/unmount Image (ISO) files without burning

sudo mkdir /media/iso
sudo modprobe loop
sudo mount file.iso /media/iso/ -t iso9660 -o loop
  • To unmount Image (ISO) file
sudo umount /media/iso/

How to set/change the burn speed for CD/DVD Burner

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> default_speed (set/change the burn speed)

How to enable burnproof for CD/DVD Burner

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> burnproof (Checked)

How to enable overburn for CD/DVD Burner

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> overburn (Checked)

Networking

How to configure Google Talk

How to activate/deactivate network connections

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Activate/Deactivate

How to configure network connections

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Properties
Connection -> Enable this connection (Checked)
Connection Settings -> Configuration: Select "DHCP/Static IP address"
DNS Tab -> DNS Servers -> Add/Delete

How to configure dialup connections

sudo pppconfig
  • To connect dialup
sudo pon provider_name
  • To disconnect dialup
sudo poff

How to configure broadband connections

sudo pppoeconf

How to change computer name

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
General Tab -> Host Settings -> Hostname: Specify the computer name 
  • Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer
  • Non Graphical bash shell solution.
  • at shell prompt edit the hostname file
 sudo nano /etc/hostname 
  • change the computer name listed in this file. Then run the following command to update your computer.
 sudo /etc/init.d/hostname.sh

How to change computer descriptions

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
  server string = %h server (Samba, Ubuntu)
...
  • Replace with the following line
  server string = new_computer_descriptions
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to change computer Domain/Workgroup

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
  workgroup = MSHOME
...
  • Replace with the following line
  workgroup = new_domain_or_workgroup
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to assign Hostname to local machine with dynamic IP using free DynDNS service

sudo apt-get install ipcheck
gksudo gedit /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
 #!/bin/sh

 USERNAME=myusername
 PASSWORD=mypassword
 HOSTNAME=myhostname.dyndns.org

 cd /root/
 if [ -f /root/ipcheck.dat ]; then
  ipcheck -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
 else
  ipcheck --makedat -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
 fi
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update
sudo sh /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update

How to share folders the easy way

Right click on folder -> Share folder
Shared folder -> Share with: Select "SMB"
Share properties -> Name: Specify the share name

How to browse network computers

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
If computers or network folders could not be found, try access them directly
Read #How to access network folders without mounting
  • Places -> Network Servers

How to access network folders without mounting

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Shared folder's name: linux
  • Press 'Alt+F2' (Run Application...) and enter:
smb://192.168.0.1/linux

How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  • To mount network folder
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword
  • To unmount network folder
sudo umount /media/sharename/

How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  • To mount network folder
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword,dmask=777,fmask=777
  • To unmount network folder
sudo umount /media/sharename/

How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
gksudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
username=myusername
password=mypassword 
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
//192.168.0.1/linux    /media/sharename smbfs  credentials=/root/.smbcredentials    0    0

How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
gksudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
username=myusername
password=mypassword
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
//192.168.0.1/linux    /media/sharename smbfs  credentials=/root/.smbcredentials,dmask=777,fmask=777  0    0

How to get ipw2200 and wpa to work

How to get ipw3945 and wep/wpa to work

See the daemon source and the Intel ipw3945 project page.

OR

  • Install the daemon using apt (recommended for new users):
sudo apt-get install linux-restricted-modules-generic
reboot your system and you should have wireless internet/network.

How to Configure and start PPTP tunnels (VPN)

OR
  • Install manually
wget -c http://linux.edu.lv/uploads/content/pptp.tar.gz
tar zxvf pptp.tar.gz
cd ./pptp/
sudo sh ./pptp/install
cd ..
  • To configure PPTP Client
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/pptpconfig.desktop
  • Replace content of this file with the following lines
[Desktop Entry]
Name=PPTP Client
Comment=Configure and start PPTP tunnels (VPN)
Categories=Application;Network
Encoding=UTF-8
Exec=gksudo pptpconfig
Icon=gnome-remote-desktop.png
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=false
Type=Application
  • The above lines change the default file in three ways: the application is placed in the Application/Internet category, gksudo will make the application run as superuser and we put a nice icon that appears in the menu.
  • Start the client with Applications -> Internet -> PPTP Client


EDIT You can use a different Method if you use NetworkManager

  • Configure VPN with Network Manager
sudo apt-get install network-manager-pptp

You have to restart after install.

To setup a VPN Click the NetworkManager Icon in the tray VPN Connections->Configure VPN Use the defaults and be sure to check the box: Refuse EAP under the Authentication tab. To get my connection to work I also had to check Require MPPE Encryption under Compression & Encryption

How to Configure Ubuntu/Kubuntu with WPA using Network-Manager

Ubuntu Dapper in typical cases can configure WPA to work out of the box with minimal hassle. You'll need to install network-manager.


For Ubuntu:

sudo apt-get install network-manager-gnome

For Kubuntu (will install knetworkmanager):

sudo apt-get install network-manager-kde

Logout/Reboot.

Ubuntu users should now see the NetworkManager Applet in the Gnome notification area. Kubuntu users will probably have to run knetworkmanager before they see NetworkManager in the systray.

If instead, you get a "The NetworkManager applet could not find some required resources. It cannot continue." message, then:

sudo gtk-update-icon-cache -f /usr/share/icons/hicolor

Once Network-Manager is installed, click on the NM icon in the notification area (default is at the top right of Ubuntu/Gnome). Choose your network, then enter your passphrase. Type a password for the keyring, and you're set.

If you don't see your network, click "Create New Wireless Network...", type your essid/networkname, then choose "WPA Personal" for wireless security.

  • Note: If you installed Kubuntu then installed ubuntu-desktop & network-manager-gnome, you may not be able to use network-manager in Gnome, if at all. In this case, you may have to use WPA Supplicant and do some manual editing of conf files to get WPA up and running.
  • Note: When you first log into Gnome/KDE, the keyring application will ask for a password. Future revisions of Network-Manager should resolve this.

How to setup a GPG key with Seahorse and Evolution

apt-get install seahorse
  • Applications > Accessories > Passwords and Encryption Keys
  • Key > Create New Key
  • Select "PGP Key", then fill out information. Ensure that you use your real email address.
  • Wait for key to finish generating.
  • You may now right-click on the key entry to export, sync or publish your key.
  • Evolution should now hopefully see the key transparently.

Remote Access

Remote Login via XDMCP

What is XDMCP?

GNOME windows can support several different users simultaniously. Unlike vncviewer that just duplicates the current screen on a remote system, XDMCP allows several different users to login and run different GNOME sessions at the same time. So if you have a fast computer runing Ubuntu, several users can use their slow machines to login and run heavy applications only available on the fast machine.

How to turn on the XDMCP feature

To turn on the XDMCP feature on the fast computer, click the menu

System -> Administration -> Login Window 

In the Login Window Preferences dialog window, select

Remote Tab -> Style: Same as Local ->  Close the dialog window -> Restart the PC
How to login from another PC running Ubuntu
1. Reboot the slow PC and stop at the login screen
2. Click Options at the lower left corner of the login screen
3. Select "Remote Login via XDMCP"
4. On the dialog window, type in the host name or ip of the fast computer you want to login to


Remote Desktop Sharing/Duplication via VNC

How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Warning! Remote Desktop will only work if there's a GNOME login session
Leaving computer with an unattended GNOME login session is not secure
Use (System -> Lock Screen) and switch off the monitor when computer is left unattended
  • System -> Preferences -> Remote Desktop
  • Remote Desktop Preferences
Sharing ->
Allow other users to view your desktop (Checked)
Allow other users to control your desktop (Checked)
Security ->
Ask you for confirmation (Un-Checked)
Require the user to enter this password: (Checked)
Password: Specify the password
How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop
e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
vncviewer -fullscreen 192.168.0.1:0
  • To quit vncviewer
Press 'F8' -> Quit viewer
How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop via Windows machine
e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
  • If you have a router remember to open the appropiate port. The default one is 5900
This process is called port forwarding port forwarding
  • Download DotNetVNC: Here or RealVNC Here
this is a free DotNet version that require the DotNet framework available from microsoft here
The RealVNC website was created and maintained by the original developers of VNC during their time at AT&T. RealVNC comes in Free, Personal, and Enterprise editions - the latter two costing money.
  • Open the VNC client you have chosen, and insert the connection string formatted like this <LINUX BOX IP><:DESKTOP NUMBER>|<::PORT>
In example use: 192.168.1.2:0 or 192.168.1.2::5900 to connect to desktop 0, to connect to desktop 1 use 192.168.1.2:1 or 192.168.1.2::5901 and so on
How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop via OSX
e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
  • If you have a router remember to open the appropiate port the default one is 5900
This process is called port forwarding port forwarding
  • Download ChickenOfTheVNC: Here
  • Open ChickenOfTheVNC, and insert the host (IP address of remote machine), the display number (0 is default and is port 5900) and the password.
In example use: Host: 192.168.0.1, Display 0, Password: password

Windows

How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (NTFS) manually, and allow all users to read only


e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
  • To mount Windows partition
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t ntfs -o nls=utf8,umask=0222
  • To unmount Windows partition
sudo umount /media/windows/

How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (FAT) manually, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
  • To mount Windows partition
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t vfat -o iocharset=utf8,umask=000
  • To unmount Windows partition
sudo umount /media/windows/

How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow all users to read only

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp -a /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo echo -e "/dev/hda1\t/media/windows\tntfs\tnls=utf8,umask=0222\t0 0" >>/etc/fstab

How to mount Windows partitions (FAT) on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp -a /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo echo -e "/dev/hda1\t/media/windows vfat\tiocharset=utf8,umask=000\t0 0" >>/etc/fstab

How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow users read and write access

sudo apt-get install ntfs-3g
  • Create the local mount folder and edit the fstab file to mount the disks to this folder.
e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp -a /etc/fstab /etc/fstab.bak
sudo echo -e "/dev/hda1\t/media/windows\tntfs-3g\tdefaults,locale=en_US.utf8\t0 0" >>/etc/fstab
  • You can adjust your locale. Execute 'locale -a' in a terminal to know which one are supported by your system.
  • Save the edited file.
  • If you reboot now, the disk will be writable to every user. If you want the changes to take effect immediately without rebooting, execute the following command, ignoring the errors about "/" and others not being unmounted.
sudo umount -a && sudo mount -a

Security

What are the basic things I need to know about securing my Ubuntu

  • Read #General Notes
  • Ensure hard drive is first in BIOS boot-up sequence
    • To prevent trespassers from using Linux Installation CD which allows them to gain root user access
    • To prevent trespassers from using Linux Live CD (e.g. UBUNTU/KNOPPIX/MEPIS) which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive
    • To prevent trespassers from installing another Operating System
  • Ensure a password is set for BIOS
    • To prevent trespassers from changing the BIOS boot-up sequence
  • Ensure computer is located at a secured place
    • To prevent trespassers from removing computer's hard drive which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive from a different computer
    • To prevent trespassers from removing computer's on-board battery which resets the BIOS password
  • Ensure passwords used on the system cannot be easily guessed
    • To prevent trespassers from cracking password file using brute force attacks (e.g. John the Ripper)
    • Create password with minimum length of 8 characters
    • Create password with mixture of characters/numbers, and upper/lower case
    • Not create a password with just a single or just a typical union of main languages (english, german, french, spanish...) dictionary words
  • Ensure interactive editing control for GRUB menu is disabled
  • Ensure history listing is disabled in Console mode
  • Ensure Ctrl+Alt+Del is disabled in Console mode
  • Ensure interactive option is set for remove, copy and move of files/folders in Console mode
  • For day to day usage, login as a normal user
  • Disable root user account, use "sudo" instead
    • To reduce the amount of time spent with root privileges, and thus the risk of inadvertently executing a command as root
    • "sudo" provides a more useful audit trail (/var/log/auth.log)
    • Read #How to disable root user account
  • Install a Firewall
  • Perform vulnerability test

How to disable all interactive editing control for GRUB menu

  • Run This:
grub-md5-crypt 
Password: 
Retype password: 
$1$tumnZ1$xB/shuXs7MlawZXkLiBDV/
  • Backup your current configuration file
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this section
...
## password ['--md5'] passwd
# If used in the first section of a menu file, disable all interactive editing
# control (menu entry editor and command-line) and entries protected by the
# command 'lock'
# e.g. password topsecret
#   password --md5 $1$tumnZ1$xB/shuXs7MlawZXkLiBDV/
# password topsecret
...
  • Add the following line below it
password --md5 $1$tumnZ1$xB/shuXs7MlawZXkLiBDV/ (encrypted password above)
  • Find the section(s) that look like this (note the 'recovery mode' and the word 'single'):
...
title		Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
root		(hd0,1)
kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro single
initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.10-5-386
savedefault
boot
...
  • Add lock between the title and root lines:
...
title		Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
lock
root		(hd0,1)
...
  • Save the edited file

This will make it so your grub console will require a password to edit the lines, and the recovery modes won't work unless the password is typed. To access the other grub options at the menu, follow the instructions at the bottom of the screen. It will be something like pressing p and typing your password.

How to disable history listing in Console mode

rm -f .bash_history
gedit ~/.bash_profile
  • Add the following:
export HISTFILESIZE=4
unset HISTFILE=5

# Change this to a reasonable number of lines to save, I like to save only 100.
export HISTSIZE=1

# Ignores duplicate lines next to each other
export HISTCONTROL=ignoredups

This will disable Bash history for the user, retaining keystroke history and recall to use while limiting recall history to 100 lines. This will also not record duplicate lines next to each other.

How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Del from restarting computer in Console mode

sudo cp /etc/inittab /etc/inittab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/inittab
  • Find this line
...
ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
...
  • Replace with the following line
#ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
  • Save the edited file
sudo telinit q

How to enable prompt before removal/overwritten of files/folders in Console mode

sudo cp /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/bash.bashrc_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/bash.bashrc
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
alias rm='rm -i'
alias cp='cp -i'
alias mv='mv -i'
  • Save the edited file

How to setup a LoJack system for your laptop


What: Quote from Wikipedia: "LoJack is an aftermarket vehicle tracking system that allows cars to be tracked by police after being stolen. The manufacturer claims a 90% recovery rate. The name "LoJack" is a play on the word "hijack," meaning the theft of a vehicle through force."

Why: If your laptop is ever stolen and connected to the Internet. You will be able to find out from what IP it connects to the Internet from and contact the authorities.

How:

  • Get a free dynamic IP account from one of the many providers. Here we will use DynDNS.
sudo apt-get install ddclient 
  • Edit the configuration file /etc/ddclient.conf using you fevorite text editor (emacs, gedit, kedit or even vi)
sudo emacs /etc/ddclient.conf
  • Make it look like this:
# Configuration file for ddclient generated by debconf
#
# /etc/ddclient.conf
pid=/var/run/ddclient.pid
protocol=dyndns2
use=web
server=members.dyndns.org
login=YourNameHere
password='YourPasswordHere'
YourHostNameHere.gotmyip.com
NOTE:
* Make sure that you use the web IP detection method.
* Specify your own user id instead of the place holder YourNameHere.
* Specify your own password instead of the place holder YourPasswordHere, make sure to surround it with single quotes.
* The last line should specify the hostname you registered with the dynamic IP service.
  • You can now start the ddclient daemon, or wait until your next reboot.
sudo /etc/init.d/ddclient start
  • The hostname you registered with your dynamic IP service should be updated. You can test it with the ping command:
ping YourHostNameHere.gotmyip.com
Even if your laptop has a firewall that prevents pings the hostname should resolve to the IP of the network gateway that your laptop is connected to.
Now all that is left is for someone to steal your laptop.....

References:

Boot Menu

How to gain root user access without login

  • Read #General Notes
  • Easiest method (will not work if GRUB menu password is set)
    • Boot-up computer
    • If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
    • Select
Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)

How to modify kernel boot-up arguments, to gain root user access

  • Read #General Notes
  • Boot-up computer
  • If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
  • If GRUB password is set, press 'p' to unlock the GRUB menu
  • Select
Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386
  • Press 'e' to edit the commands before booting
  • Select
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash
  • Press 'e' to edit the selected command in the boot sequence
  • Add "rw init=/bin/bash" to the end of the arguments
grub edit> kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash rw init=/bin/bash
  • Press 'b' to boot

How to use Ubuntu Installation CD, to gain root user access

  • Read #General Notes
  • Boot-up computer into Ubuntu Installation CD
  • At "boot:" prompt, add "rescue" to the argument
boot: rescue
  • Follow the instructions on screen

How to change root user/main user password if forgotten

# passwd root
  • To change main user password
# passwd system_main_username

How to change GRUB menu password if forgotten

grub
grub> md5crypt
Password: ****** (ubuntu)
Encrypted: $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password)
grub> quit
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
...
  • Replace with the following line
password --md5 $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password above)
  • Save the edited file

How to restore GRUB menu after Windows installation

Super Grub Disk
Grub

If you have booted your linux distro with Super Grub Disk, or a live CD and want to restore your grub, follow the below instructions:

  • As root (or with sudo), type grub
  • When at the grub prompt, type find /boot/grub/stage2
  • This will return something like (hd0,2)
  • To setup the boot partition boot type root (hd0,2). This is the harddrive and the partition your linux is installed on...
  • And then to configure grub type setup (hd0)
  • Now you're done, so exit with quit

How to identify the name of the boot drive (hd0, hd1, hd2, etc)

Press "c" on boot menu. If you don't see a boot menu, press ESC key first when booting to show the boot menu.

Type:

root (hd0,0)

Most likely you will get "(hd0,0) ext2fs", which should be your current Linux drive. Now change hd0 to hd1 to see what is there.

root (hd1,0)

If you get "(hd1,0) filesystem type unknown, partition type 0x7", then hd1 is a Windows drive.

Now change hd1 to hd2, keep going until you reach hd7.

How to add Windows entry into GRUB menu

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
title		Microsoft Windows
rootnoverify	(hd0,0)
savedefault
makeactive
chainloader	+1
  • Save the edited file

How to boot into Windows installed on a seperate SATA drive

This configuration applies to people who have Linux installed on a IDE drive, and Windows installed on a seperate SATA. The IDE drive boots first, so we need to add an entry to the boot menu on the Linux disk. Here we assume the name of your Windows drive is hd1. If you are not sure, click the link above to find out.

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Append the following lines at the end of file.
title           Windows XP on SATA drive
map (hd0) (hd1)
map (hd1) (hd0)
chainloader (hd1,0)+1
  • Save the edited file

How to read Linux partitions (ext2, ext3) in Windows machine

OR

Read Ubuntu:Edgy/GeneralNotes

How to enable lame for FFMPEG (needed to encode FLV with sound)

KINO FLVs silent? You need to recompile FFMPEG with LAME enabled. FFMPEG can be installed via apt-get as a package, but is not able encode MP3, which is the audio stream in FLV video (like Google & YouTube).

  • Read #How to add extra repositories
  • Ensure Ubuntu Universe repository is not preceded by # in /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Download and install lame liblame-dev and gcc packages (mp3 encoder + GNU compiler collection)
sudo apt-get build-dep ffmpeg
sudo apt-get install liblame-dev libfaad2-dev libfaac-dev libxvidcore4-dev liba52-0.7.4 \
liba52-0.7.4-dev libx264-dev checkinstall build-essential gcc
  • Download and extract FFMPEG source to current working directory
sudo apt-get source ffmpeg
  • Compile FFMPEG from source
cd ffmpeg-*
sudo ./configure --enable-gpl --enable-pp --enable-vorbis --enable-libogg \
--enable-a52 --enable-dts --enable-dc1394 --enable-libgsm --disable-debug \
--enable-mp3lame --enable-faad --enable-faac --enable-xvid --enable-pthreads \
--enable-x264

maybe try instead = 
sudo ./configure --enable-gpl --enable-pp --enable-libvorbis --enable-libogg \
--enable-liba52 --enable-libdts --enable-dc1394 --enable-libgsm --disable-debug \ 
--enable-libmp3lame --enable-libfaad --enable-libfaac --enable-xvid --enable-pthreads \
--enable-x264


sudo make
sudo checkinstall [accept defaults, set version to 3:0.cvs20060823-3.1ubuntu2]

If an application you are using employs FFMPEG to encode FLV, it should now work properly. You can also call FFMPEG directly from the command line. The extension/suffix of the outfile tells FFMPEG which audio or video format to encode to.

ffmpeg [-i infile] [outfile]

How to enable smooth fonts

gedit ~/.fonts.conf
  • Paste in this text:
<?xml version=”1.0” ?>
<!DOCTYPE fontconfig SYSTEM “fonts.dtd”>
<fontconfig>
<match target=”font”>
<edit name=”autohint” mode=”assign”>
<bool>true</bool>
</edit>
</match>
</fontconfig>
  • You’ll have to log out and back in to see the difference.

How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer

  • Save and close all opened applications
Press 'Ctrl + Alt + Backspace'

or
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart
or
If these tips did not help read #System requests (What to do if your system is unresponsive)

How to turn on Num Lock on GNOME startup

sudo aptitude install numlockx
sudo cp /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default
  • Find this line
...
exit 0
  • Add the following lines above it
if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then
 /usr/bin/numlockx on
fi

How to remap the Caps Lock key as another Control key

gksudo gedit /etc/console-tools/remap

In the Console

  • Change
#s/keycode  58 = Caps_Lock/keycode  58 = Control/;

to

s/keycode  58 = Caps_Lock/keycode  58 = Control/;
  • Save your work
sudo /etc/init.d/console-screen.sh
  • Try using it

In X Windows

gedit ~/.Xmodmap
  • Add this:
keycode 66 = Control_L
clear Lock
add Control = Control_L

  • Now, apply the changes.
xmodmap ~/.Xmodmap
  • To apply them on startup
    • If ~/.xinitrc does not exist,
cp /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc ~/.xinitrc
  • In all cases
gedit ~/.xinitrc
  • Make the first line this:
xmodmap ~/.Xmodmap
  • Restart X (Ctrl - Alt - Backspace)
  • Log In, a dialog should pop up, add .Xmodmap to the left side with the add button, and Save.

How to run programs on startup when login into GNOME

  • System -> Preferences -> Sessions
  • Sessions
Startup Programs Tab -> Add/Edit/Delete

How to speed-up your Ubuntu box

How to switch to Console mode in GNOME

  • To switch to Console mode
Press 'Ctrl + Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  • To switch between consoles in Console mode
Press 'Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  • To switch back to GNOME mode
Press 'Alt + F7'

How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Backspace from restarting X in GNOME and KDE 3.5.x

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
Section "ServerFlags"
	Option		"DontZap"		"yes"
EndSection

How to enable Ctrl+Alt+Del to open System Monitor in GNOME

gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/global_keybindings/run_command_9 "<Control><Alt>Delete"
gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/keybinding_commands/command_9 "gnome-system-monitor"

How to refresh GNOME desktop

killall nautilus

How to refresh GNOME panel

killall gnome-panel


How to enable autosave in Gedit and disable creation of some_file~ files

  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> gedit-2 -> preferences -> editor -> save -> create_backup_copy (Unchecked)
/ -> apps -> gedit-2 -> preferences -> editor -> save -> auto_save (Checked)

How to show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus

  • Places -> Home Folder
  • To temporary show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus
Press 'Ctrl + H'
  • To permanently show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus
Edit Menu -> Preferences
Views Tab -> Default View -> Show hidden and backup files (Checked)

How to browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus

  • To install File Browser (Root)
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nautilus-root.desktop
    • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=File Browser (Root)
Comment=Browse the filesystem with the file manager
Exec=gksudo "nautilus --browser %U"
Icon=file-manager
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;
  • To browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus
    • Applications -> System Tools -> File Browser (Root)

How to install a "View in Terminal" Menu for Nautilus

sudo aptitude install nautilus-open-terminal
  • Nautilus -> Right-click on folder or background -> Open in Terminal

How to change default file type "Open with" program

Right click on file -> Properties
Open With Tab -> Add
Select "Open with" program
Select "Open with" program (Checked)

How to change preferred email client to Mozilla Thunderbird

Mail Reader Tab -> Default Mail Reader -> Command: mozilla-thunderbird %s

How to open files as root user via right click

gedit $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
for uri in $NAUTILUS_SCRIPT_SELECTED_URIS; do
	gksudo "gnome-open $uri" &
done
  • Save the edited file
chmod +x $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root

Right click on file -> Scripts -> Open as root

How to disable beep sound in Terminal mode

Not for Dapper---- firingstone

  • Applications -> Accessories -> Terminal
  • Terminal
Edit Menu -> Current Profile...
General Tab -> General -> Terminal bell (Un-Checked)

How to handle mms protocol in Mozilla Firefox


  • Open your firefox.
  • Type as url: about:config

Now just right click somewhere into the main window. A little box with options to choose will appear. Choose "new", then "string". Then copy the following line into the appearing text field:

network.protocol-handler.app.mms

Into the next text field copy this:

/usr/bin/X11/vlc

Now you do the same thing again, but this time you do not choose "string" but "boolean", and the line to copy is:

network.protocol-handler.external.mms

Then set

true

How to handle rtsp (realmedia) protocol in Mozilla Firefox


  • Open your firefox.
  • Type as url: about:config

Now just right click somewhere into the main window. A little box with options to choose will appear. Choose "new", then "string". Then copy the following line into the appearing text field:

network.protocol-handler.app.rtsp

Into the next text field copy this:

/usr/bin/X11/realplay

Now you do the same thing again, but this time you do not choose "string" but "boolean", and the line to copy is:

network.protocol-handler.external.rtsp

Then set

true

How to load Web site faster in Mozilla Firefox

  • Applications -> Internet -> Firefox Web Browser
  • Mozilla Firefox
Address Bar -> about:config
Filter: ->
network.dns.disableIPv6 -> true
network.http.pipelining -> true
network.http.pipelining.maxrequests -> 8
network.http.proxy.pipelining -> true
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox

How to disable beep sound for link find function in Mozilla Firefox

  • Applications -> Internet -> Firefox Web Browser
  • Mozilla Firefox
Address Bar -> about:config
Filter: -> accessibility.typeaheadfind.enablesound -> false
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox

How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic)

  • Step By Step Synaptic Package Manager Tutorials with Screenshots
  • System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager
  • To enable the extra Universe and Multiverse repositories
    1. Settings -> Repositories
    2. In the Installation Media tab, click Add. There are three separate repositories; Dapper Drake, Security Updates and Updates. Select each repository and check Officially supported, Restricted copyright, Community maintained (Universe) and Non-free (Multiverse). Ensure you click OK between each repository to save your changes
    3. You should now see those three repositories under Channels. Make sure Officially supported, Restricted copyright, Community maintained (Universe) and Non-free (Multiverse) appears under each repository
  • To add backports and PLF (new versions of many applications. Unsupported. May contain illegal packages. Use at own risk.)
    1. Settings -> Repositories
    2. Click on Add and then Custom
    3. Paste the following four lines into the box and click Add Repository, one line at a time:
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy free
deb http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy non-free
deb-src http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy free
deb-src http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy non-free
  • Install the public key for medibuntu using the command below. Having done so you will avoid the NO_PUBKEY 2EBC26B60C5A2783 error when reloading package information.
wget -q http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  • To refresh the list of known packages (equivalent to apt-get update)
Edit Menu -> Reload Package Information
  • To install all possible upgrades (equivalent to aptitude upgrade)
Edit Menu -> Mark All Upgrades... -> Default Upgrade
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
  • To search for a package (equivalent to aptitude search package_name)
Edit Menu -> Search... Specify the package name
  • To install the selected package (equivalent to aptitude install package_name)
Select "package_name"
Package Menu -> Mark for Installation
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
  • To remove installed package (equivalent to aptitude remove package_name)
Select "package_name"
Package Menu -> Mark for Removal
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes

What packages do the extra repositories provide

  • The PLF repository provides
    1. DVD playback support (libdvdcss2)
    2. Skype
    3. Sun Java SDK (Software Development Kit) and JRE (Java Runtime Environment)
    4. Opera Web browser
    5. RealPlayer 10
    6. Win32 binary multimedia codecs

How to install/uninstall .deb files

  • To install .deb file
sudo dpkg -i package_file.deb
  • To uninstall .deb file
sudo dpkg -r package_name

How to find out which version of a package I have installed

dpkg -l packagename

How to convert .rpm files to .deb files

sudo alien -d package_file.rpm

How to compile .deb files from source

  • Read #How to add extra repositories
  • There are various programs available to help automate the process of create .deb files from source. For more information, see the links at the end of this section. A basic well tested method is described here.
  • Install the necessary software to build the source (build-essential may be all that is necessary, though there may be other dependencies) and checkinstall (which creates deb files).
sudo aptitude install checkinstall build-essential
  • In the directory where you have extracted the source, after you have run ./configure and make you can create a .deb file and install it with either of the following commands. The second -D option creates a .deb file in the directory that you can share with others or install without needing the source.
sudo checkinstall

or

sudo checkinstall -D

How to rename all files in directory at once

  • To install "mvb" file name renamer
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/mvb_1.6.tgz
sudo tar zxvf mvb_1.6.tgz -C /usr/share/
sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/mvb_1.6/
sudo ln -fs /usr/share/mvb_1.6/mvb /usr/bin/mvb

  • To rename all files in directory at once
mvb NEW_NAME

How to manipulate all image files in directory at once

sudo aptitude install imagemagick
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/bbips.0.3.2.sh
sudo cp bbips.0.3.2.sh /usr/bin/bbips
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/bbips
  • To manipulate all image files in directory at once
bbips

How to set System-wide Environment Variables

sudo cp -p /etc/profile /etc/profile_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/profile
  • Append the System-wide Environment Variables at the end of file
  • Save the edited file

How to save "man" outputs into files

man command | col -b > file.txt

How to hide GRUB menu on boot-up

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

  • Find this line
...
#hiddenmenu
...
  • Replace with the following line
hiddenmenu
  • Save the edited file

How to change the timeout seconds for GRUB menu on boot-up

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
timeout     3
...
  • Replace with the following line
timeout     X_seconds
  • Save the edited file

How to change default Operating System boot-up for GRUB menu

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
default     0
...
  • Replace with the following line
default     X_sequence
  • Save the edited file

How to display Splash Image for GRUB menu on boot-up

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/ubuntu.xpm.gz
chmod 644 ubuntu.xpm.gz
sudo cp ubuntu.xpm.gz /boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo update-grub

How to convert Wallpaper to Splash Image for GRUB menu

e.g. Assumed that wallpaper.png is the Wallpaper to be converted to Splash Image
splash.xpm.gz is the Splash Image for GRUB menu
ImageMagick is installed
convert -resize 640x480 -colors 14 wallpaper.png splash.xpm && gzip splash.xpm
chmod 644 splash.xpm.gz
sudo cp splash.xpm.gz /boot/grub
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo update-grub

How to display only one kernel on GRUB menu

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup-`date +%F`
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
# howmany=all
...
  • Replace with the following line
# howmany=1

Where 1 means to keep the last kernel, 2 to keep the last 2 kernels, etc. Do not delete the # symbol. The menu will be updated once a new kernel will be updated by the system, not before.

  • Save the edited file

How to force GDM to system beep when login screen ready

  • This is useful on computers where headphones are usually plugged in, allowing them to utilize the speakers for this attention-getting task.
echo foo >> ~/foo.wav
  • System -> Administration -> Login Window -> Accessibility

Now make sure the "Login Screen Ready" check mark is checked. Click on the folder icon and navigate to your home folder and select "foo.wav".

rm foo.wav

The drop down menu should now say "(None)"

How to temporary skip boot-up services

Press 'Ctrl + C'

Clean up Ubuntu GNU/Linux System

How to permanently disable/enable boot-up services

How to clean /tmp/ folder contents on shutdown

sudo cp /etc/init.d/sysklogd /etc/init.d/sysklogd_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/init.d/sysklogd
  • Find this section
...
 stop)
  log_begin_msg "Stopping system log daemon..."
  start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --exec $binpath --pidfile $pidfile
  log_end_msg $?
...
  • Add the following line below it
  rm -fr /tmp/* /tmp/.??*
  • Save the edited file

How to scroll up and down to view previous outputs in Console mode

  • To scroll up to view previously outputs
Press 'Shift + Page Up'
  • To scroll down to view previously outputs
Press 'Shift + Page Down'

How to find out which version of Ubuntu I am using

cat /etc/issue

How to set up (automatic) background/wallpaper-changer application for GNOME

  • To install the script into a different location than your home directory, replace "~" with your path
cd ~
wget http://members.chello.at/horst.jens/files/wallpaperchanger.py
chmod +x wallpaperchanger.py
~/wallpaperchanger.py
gedit ~/.wallpaperchanger/wallpaperchangerconfig.py
  • Edit all the lines not beginning with an "#" according to your needs. Save the file and close gedit.
  • To create an menu entry for wallpaperchanger:
Click the menuitems: Applications -> Accessoires -> Alacarte Menu Editor -> File -> New Entry:
Name: wallpaperchanger
command: ~/wallpaperchanger.py

  • To change desktop background every time you reboot your computer:
Click the menuitems: System -> Preferences -> Session -> Startup Programs -> Add:
~/wallpaperchanger.py

How to set up automatic background change (KDE)

  • Go to K-menu -> System Settings -> Desktop -> Background
  • Choose Slide Show
  • Press Setup...
  • Press Add... to add pictures you wish to see as desktop background
  • Set 'Change picture after' to desired picture rotation interval.
  • Press 'OK'

How to add keyboard layouts for other languages

  • Go to System -> Preferences -> Keyboard
  • Choose Layouts
  • Press Add... to add the secondary keyboard layout. It is simpler to have two layouts; the maximum is currently four for Xorg.
  • Choose Layout Options
  • Expand option Group Shift/Lock behaviour
  • Choose the key combination that enables you to switch between keyboard layouts. The default is by pressing both Alt keys at the same time. A common alternative is to use Alt+Shift.
  • Press Close.

See #How to add the Keyboard (Layout) Indicator applet to add the Keyboard Indicator applet.

How to add keyboard layouts toggle for other languages (Xfce)

  • use *.lst files on /etc/X11/xkb/rules to select 2nd_laguage_code
setxkbmap -option grp:switch,grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll us,2nd_laguage_code
  • you can add it to a startup file, which will be set to be executed on startup, with the following lines (remember to 'chmod +x' the file):
#!/bin/tcsh
setxkbmap -option grp:switch,grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll us,il

How to add the Keyboard (Layout) Indicator applet

  • Right-click on empty space on the top panel so that you see the pop-up menu.
  • Click Add to Panel...
  • Choose Keyboard Indicator (it is under the Utilities section, at the end)

The Keyboard Indicator applet appears on the panel. The default language should be USA for U.S. English. You can either right-click on this applet for more options or see above on how to configure.

How to type extended characters

  • Add the keyboard layout US English International (with dead keys)
  • Make US English International (with dead keys) the default keyboard layout.

The key marked ['"] is now a dead key. When you press it, nothing happens. However if you press another letter key immediately afterwards, the letter appears with an accent.

  • ' + a = á
  • ' + e = é
  • and so on for i-í, o-ó, y-ý, c-ć, z-ź, n-ń, l-ĺ, u-ú, r-ŕ
  • " + a = ä
  • " + e = ë
  • and so on for y-ÿ, u-ü, i-ï, o-ö

Similarly, ` and a letter generates à, è, ù, ì, ò. Similarly, ~ and a letter generates ã, ũ, ĩ, õ, ñ.

To type ' and ", press RightAlt+' and RightAlt+" respectively. To type ' and ", you may also press '+<space> and "+<space> respectively.

There are more characters available by keeping RightAlt pressed and typing a character. Therefore,

  • RightAlt+q = ä
  • RightAlt+w = å
  • RightAlt+e = é
  • RightAlt+r = ®
  • RightAlt+t = þ
  • RightAlt+y = ü
  • RightAlt+u = ú
  • RightAlt+i = í
  • RightAlt+o = ó
  • RightAlt+p = ö
  • RightAlt+[ and ] for « and » respectively.
  • RightAlt+a = á
  • RightAlt+s = ß
  • RightAlt+d = ð
  • RightAlt+l = ø
  • RightAlt+; = ¶
  • RightAlt+: = °
  • RightAlt+z = æ
  • RightAlt+c = ©
  • RightAlt+n = ñ
  • RightAlt+m = µ
  • RightAlt+, = ç
  • RightAlt+/ = ¿
  • RightAlt+1 = ¡
  • RightAlt+2 = ²
  • RightAlt+3 = ³
  • RightAlt+4 = ¤
  • RightAlt+5 = €
  • RightAlt+6 = ¼
  • RightAlt+7 = ½
  • RightAlt+8 = ¾
  • RightAlt+9 = ‘
  • RightAlt+0 = ’
  • RightAlt+- = ¥
  • RightAlt+= = ×
  • RightAlt+! = ¹
  • RightAlt+@, then o = ő (and Ő).
  • RightAlt+#, then a = ā (and Ā). Similarly for ēĒ, ūŪ, īĪ, ōŌ.
  • RightAlt+$ = £
  • RightAlt+% =
  • RightAlt+^ =
  • RightAlt+& =
  • RightAlt+*, then a = ą (and Ą). Similarly for ęĘ, įĮ.
  • RightAlt+(, then a = ă (and Ă)
  • RightAlt+(, then g = ğ (and Ğ)
  • RightAlt+), then a = å (and Å)
  • RightAlt+_ =
  • RightAlt++ = ÷

How to set the Compose key to type special characters

  • Click System, Preferences, Keyboard.
  • Under Layout Options, expand on Compose key position.
  • Choose Right-Win key is compose, click Close.

Now you can type extended characters using the RightWin key (next to AltGr), according to this keyboard settings file. Specifically, the lines that start with GDK_Multi_key are those that we can use here. The Compose key is actually GDK_Multi_key.

Some examples,

  • RightWin + C + = produces €
  • RightWin + = + C produces €
  • RightWin + C + O produces ©
  • RightWin + O + C produces ©
  • RightWin + a + ' produces á
  • RightWin + a + " produces ä
  • RightWin + a + ` produces à
  • RightWin + a + ~ produces ã
  • RightWin + a + * produces å
  • RightWin + a + ^ produces â
  • RightWin + a + > produces â
  • RightWin + a + , produces ą
  • RightWin + e + - produces ē
  • RightWin + S + 1 produces ¹
  • RightWin + S + 2 produces ²
  • RightWin + S + 3 produces ³

How to install ubuntu-title font used in Ubuntu logo

sudo aptitude install ttf-ubuntu-title

Now you can use this font in your favorite applications

How to associate Adobe Reader with files in Nautilus

Now when you double-click on a .pdf file, it will be opened with Adobe Reader.

How to print from Adobe Reader

/usr/bin/lp -d FS-1010

How to pull apart and combine pdf files

sudo aptitude install pdftk
cd
mkdir bin
cd bin
gedit pdftk_burst
  • add the following text to pdftk_burst:
#!/bin/bash
cd ${1%/*}
/usr/bin/pdftk "$1" burst
rm doc_data.txt
  • save and close pdftk_burst
gedit pdftk_cat
  • add the following text to pdftk_cat:
#!/bin/bash
cd ${1%/*}
outfile="00out.pdf"
if [ -f $outfile ] ; then
    rm -f $outfile
fi
/usr/bin/pdftk *.pdf cat output $outfile
  • save and close pdftk_cat
chmod u+x pdftk_burst pdftk_cat
  • open Nautilus (Places -> Desktop) and browse to a .pdf file
  • right-click the .pdf file, select Properties, go to the Open With tab, click Add, click Use a Custom Command, click Browse, browse to pdftk_burst. Do the same with pdftk_cat.

Now, when you right-click on a .pdf file, you'll get two extra options:

  • Open With -> pdftk_burst which will convert a 30 page pdf file to 30 x 1 page pdf files
  • Open With -> pdftk_cat which will join together all the pdf files in the same directory, and create a file called 00out.pdf

Note: this won't work with pdfs with any type of protection - read man pdftk for more command line options.

How to remove jedit when Synaptic package manager fails after install

sudo dpkg --remove --force-depends --force-remove-reinstreq jedit

Now, you can use your Synaptic package manager again.

How to compile a kernel the Ubuntu Way

http://www.howtoforge.com/kernel_compilation_ubuntu

System requests (What to do if your system is unresponsive)

You can "talk" to the kernel directly via system requests: Press "ALT" + "sysreq-key" + "one of the keys" listed below (The sysreq-key is also known as the 'print screen' key):

(Taken from /usr/src/linux/Documentation/sysrq.txt)

  • 'r' - Turns off keyboard raw mode and sets it to XLATE.
  • 'k' - Secure Access Key (SAK) Kills all programs on the current virtual console.
  • 'b' - Will immediately reboot the system without syncing or unmounting your disks.
  • 'c' - Will perform a kexec reboot in order to take a crashdump.
  • 'o' - Will shut your system off (if configured and supported).
  • 's' - Will attempt to sync all mounted filesystems.
  • 'u' - Will attempt to remount all mounted filesystems read-only.
  • 'p' - Will dump the current registers and flags to your console.
  • 't' - Will dump a list of current tasks and their information to your console.
  • 'm' - Will dump current memory info to your console.
  • 'v' - Dumps Voyager SMP processor info to your console.
  • '0'-'9' - Sets the console log level, controlling which kernel messages will be printed to your console. ('0', for example would make it so that only emergency messages like PANICs or OOPSes would make it to your console.)
  • 'f' - Will call oom_kill to kill a memory hog process
  • 'e' - Send a SIGTERM to all processes, except for init.
  • 'i' - Send a SIGKILL to all processes, except for init.
  • 'l' - Send a SIGKILL to all processes, INCLUDING init. (Your system will be non-functional after this.)
  • 'h' - Will display help ( actually any other key than those listed above will display help. but 'h' is easy to remember :-)

Note that you may have to enable system requests. Read "/usr/src/linux/Documentation/sysrq.txt" for details. By default it is enabled though.

How to add locales to Ubuntu the command line way

  • Open up a terminal
  • Generate a /var/lib/locales/supported.d/local from /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED:
cat /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED | grep "en\|ru" > /var/lib/locales/supported.d/local

This example shows all Russian (ru) and English (en) locales being chosen. Look through /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED to find the ones for you, then put them in a list, replacing en\|ru and separating each language with a \| (backslash, bar). If you only want one language, just put it in quotes.

  • Then regenerate all of the locales:
dpkg-reconfigure locales
  • Then set your locale:
update-locale LANG=en_US.UTF-8

In this step, make sure to choose the language and country that you would like your computer to think it is in. Here, I choose en_US, the United States version of English. Once again, look at your /var/lib/locales/supported.d/local or /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED for the one right for you. You may also want to research locales, using the Internet.

That was easy, now the command
lxterm
will open up the Unicode version of xterm or your translated software will display things properly, like vim.

How to set default Terminal App window size

The size for a gnome terminal session can be passed through the geometry parameter, specifying columns and rows like 80x40. The default geometry is 80x25.

  • First way is to add the following parameter to gnome-terminal launcher:
--geometry 100x40
  • Other way is to change this parameter globaly for all gnome-terminal launcher's. Go to /usr/share/applications/gnome-terminal.desktop and edit the EXEC line like this:
Exec=gnome-terminal --geometry=120x30

Using VI editor

A few very simple tricks of using basic but strong unix editor called vi can be found here.

How to play DVD's

  • Step1: Make sure you enable the universe/multiverse repository.
  • Step2: Install the codecs:
sudo aptitude install libdvdnav4 libdvdplay0 libdvdread3
sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/examples/install-css.sh
  • Step3: Use totem-xine instead of the default "totem-gstreamer":
sudo aptitude remove --purge totem totem-gstreamer
sudo aptitude install totem-xine

How to install Gmail Notifier alternative (CheckGmail)

  • Add the following sources to the repository list:
deb http://asher256-repository.tuxfamily.org dapper main dupdate french
deb http://asher256-repository.tuxfamily.org ubuntu main dupdate french
  • Install the application
sudo aptitude install checkgmail
  • Go to 'System/Preferences/Sessions/Startup Programs' and add the following path to start notifier automatically
File:Sessions.png
Sessions windows


File:Add startup program.png
Add startup program window


/usr/bin/checkgmail

After this the program will appear in your notification area.

How to emulate Mac OS X Spotlight (Deskbar)

  • Right click to your panel and select 'Add to panel...'. Now choose 'Deskbar' applet and click 'Add' button.
  • Install 'Beagle' packet to enable data indexing on your computer

How to make Ubuntu look like Mac OS X

  • Detailed instruction can be found here.

How to remove temporary files on shutdown

  • Backup sysklogd file
sudo cp /etc/init.d/sysklogd /etc/init.d/sysklogd_backup
  • Edit sysklogd file
gksudo gedit /etc/init.d/sysklogd
  • After the following lines...
stop)
log_begin_msg "Stopping system log daemon..."
start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --exec $binpath --pidfile $pidfile
log_end_msg $?
  • Add this line:
rm -fr /tmp/* /tmp/.??*

How to tile windows in gnome

First, download the wmtile debian package here.

If you are not running i386, the project's homepage is here.

  • Double click the package and install it.
  • Login as root and browse to /usr/share/tile/
  • Open the rc file in gedit
  • Change the second option to read "multi-desktop netwm"
  • Save the rc file

Now, create a launcher:

  • Right-click on the gnome panel (the taskbar at the top of the screen) and choose "Add to Panel"
  • Select "Custom Application Launcher" and fill in these values:
    • Type: Application
    • Name: Tile Windows Vertically
    • Command: tile -v -w
  • You can also select an icon to use with the launcher.
  • Click "OK"

Now open a couple windows and click your new launcher button to test it. This works great with two or three windows, but it can get a bit strange with more.

If you want to create another launcher that tiles windows horizontally, just follow the same directions, but use the command "tile -h -w"

Backup Ubuntu System

If you want to backup your ubuntu system try one of the following backup tools

Sbackup

Dar and Kdar

Servers

Ubuntu Edgy LAMP Server

AntiVirus Server

sudo apt-get install clamav

(Providing that your /etc/apt/sources.list file is up to date, you will get a good recent version of Clam antivirus installed on your machine.)

Run Clam AV from a terminal window

To update your virus definitions: freshclam

To check files in your home directory: clamscan

To check files in the entire home directory: clamscan -r /home

To check files on the entire drive (displaying everything): clamscan -r /

To check version: /etc/clamav/clamscan -V

For learning about more flags for clamscan, try man clamscan or info clamscan


Credit to crazybill at Ubuntu Forums (http://ubuntuforums.org/archive/index.php/t-30060.html)

How to automatically scan files/folders for viruses

e.g. Automatically scan files/folders for viruses at midnight everyday
* * * * * means minute hour date month year
 export EDITOR=gedit &&  sudo crontab -e
*Append the following line at the end of file
00 00 * * *  sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders
  • Save the edited file

Monitoring Server

If you want to monitor your Ubuntu servers and clients like memory usage,CPU usage,Load average,Disk usage,Mysql monitoring, Network Monitoring,Processes Monitoring this is for you

Monitor your Ubuntu Servers and Clients using Munin

Print Server (cupsd)

How to install cupsd

Cupsd should be automatically installed during standard instaltion. Checkout if there is a file "/etc/init.d/cupsys". If you want to manually install it, do
 sudo apt-get install cupsys*

How to add a printer

  • Go to System -> Administration -> Printing.
  • Choose "Add printer".
  • "Add printer wizard" should start and tell you what to do.

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine from another Ubuntu machine

  • Make sure your local printer is well configured.
  • Enable local printer sharing - System -> Administration -> Printing -> Global Settings menu -> Share printers
  • Server ip address: 192.168.0.1
  • Client ip address: 192.168.0.23
    • Server configuration
 sudo cp /etc/cups/cupsd.conf /etc/cups/cupsd.conf.backup
 gksudo gedit /etc/cups/cupsd.conf
find the block
<Location />
  ...
  Allow localhost
  ...
</Location>
and add the following line into it.
 Allow 192.168.0.23
Restart cups.
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
    • Client configuration
 sudo cp /etc/cups/client.conf /etc/cups/client.conf.backup
 gksudo gedit /etc/cups/client.conf
And add the following line into it.
 ServerName 192.168.0.1
Restart cups.
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
Now try "lpq" and you should see something like
 vitek@lightfox:~$ lpq
 HPLJ6P is ready
 no entries

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine from a Windows machine


1.19.4.5

How to set up 4 port printer server

Setting up COMPUSA print server on Ubuntu

(1) go to System, Administration, Printing.

(2) Then Add a printer

(3) Network Printer and choose HP JetDirect

(4) Where it says Host you put in the IP Address of the Print server. You can find it with Smb4k

(5) Where it says Port you put 9100 for USB port 1. 9101 for USB port 2. 9102 for USB port 3. and 9103 for USB port 4.

(6) Then click on forward and install your printer

NFS Server

Installing NFS Server

sudo apt-get install nfs-kernel-server nfs-common portmap

Reconfigure Portmap to not bind to loopback interface:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure portmap 
sudo /etc/init.d/portmap restart

Define which folders to share (export):

sudo vi /etc/exports


An entry in /etc/exports will typically look like this (Reference: http://nfs.sourceforge.net/nfs-howto):

directory machine1(option11,option12)
machine2(option21,option22)

where

  • directory: the directory that you want to share. It may be an entire volume though it need not be. If you share a directory, then all directories under it within the same file system will be shared as well.
  • machine1 and machine2: client machines that will have access to the directory. The machines may be listed by their DNS address or their IP address (e.g., machine.company.com or 192.168.0.8 ). Using IP addresses is more reliable and more secure.


Add share (export) definitions:

This will export path to all IP addresses between 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.255 with Read/Write access:

/path/to/shared/files 192.168.1.1/24(rw,no_root_squash,async)

This will export path to all IP addresses between 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.255 with Read Only access:

/path/to/shared/files 192.168.1.1/24(ro,async)

When finished, save changes and restart the NFS Server:

sudo /etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server restart

Export your new configuration:

sudo exportfs -a

Installing NFS Client

sudo apt-get install portmap nfs-common
Mounting Manually
cd ~
mkdir temp
sudo mount 192.168.1.1:/path/to/shared/files temp

You may need to restart NFS services:

sudo /etc/init.d/portmap restart
sudo /etc/init.d/nfs-common restart
Mounting Automatically

Create mountpoint:

sudo mkdir /mnt/files

Edit configuration:

sudo vi /etc/fstab

Add something similar to below:

192.168.1.1:/path/to/shared/files /mnt/files nfs rsize=8192,wsize=8192,timeo=14,intr

Test new configuration:

sudo mount /mnt/files

Reboot to test automatic mounting.

Samba Server

How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service

sudo apt-get install samba smbfs

How to add/edit/delete network users

sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smbusers
    • Insert the following line into the new file
system_username = "network username"
    • Save the edited file
  • To edit network user
sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
  • To delete network user
sudo smbpasswd -x system_username

How to share home folders with read only or read/write permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Remove the ; in front of the following lines (there will text in between explaining what they do):
;[homes]
;comment = Home Directories
;browseable = no
;valid users = %S
;writable = yes
    • If you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder then change
 # By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
 # parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
 ;   writable = no
    • Replace with the following lines
  writable = yes
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
 security = user
 username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[Group]
  comment = Group Folder
  path = /home/group
  public = yes
  writable = no
  valid users = system_username1 system_username2
  create mask = 0700
  directory mask = 0700
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
  • Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder change
  writable = yes
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only or read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers

Then follow either 1. or 2.

  • 1. Save the edited file.
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
  • 1. Right click the folder and select 'Share folder'. Then change 'Do not share' to share with the network you would like.
  • 1. In Share Properties note the read box. If you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder un-tick this.

OR

  • 2. Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody 
  force group = nogroup
  • 2. Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder
  writable = yes
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart


How to share public folders with read only or read/write permissions (Authentication=No)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following line
  security = share

Then follow either 1. or 2.

  • 1. Save the edited file.
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
  • 1. Right click the folder and select 'Share folder'. Then change 'Do not share' to share with the network you would like.
  • 1. In Share Properties note the read box. If you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder un-tick this.

OR

  • 2. Append the following lines at the end of /etc/samba/smb.conf (for a read-only folder)
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = no
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
  • 2. Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder
  writable = yes


  • 2. Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine via samba

 sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.backup
 gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
Find the following lines
 ...
 # printing = cups
 # printcap name = cups
 ...
and uncomment them.
 printing = cups
 printcap name = cups
Restart cups server
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
Now printers working on your Ubuntu machine should be acessible via samba.

Samba Web Administration Tool (SWAT)

How to install INETD Superserver

 sudo apt-get install netkit-inetd

How to install SWAT for Samba daemon

 sudo apt-get install swat
  • Open inetd daemon configuration
 sudo gksu gedit /etc/inetd.conf
  • If string is:
 <#off#> swat            stream  tcp     nowait.400      root    /usr/sbin/tcpd  /usr/sbin/swat
  • Change to:
 swat            stream  tcp     nowait.400      root    /usr/sbin/tcpd  /usr/sbin/swat
  • Restart daemon
 sudo /etc/init.d/inetd restart

SSH Server

How to install SSH Server for remote administration service

sudo apt-get install ssh

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
ssh username@192.168.0.1

How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (scp)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
Local machine save location: . (current directory)
scp -r username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (scp)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/
scp -r localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/

How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (rsync)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
Local machine save location: . (current directory)
rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (rsync)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/
rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/

How to mount remote folders into local Ubuntu machine (sshfs)

e.g. Assumed that remote machine has installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote machine folder location: /media/music
  • Install sshfs
sudo apt-get install sshfs
  • Load kernel driver for sshfs
sudo modprobe fuse
  • Join the 'fuse' user group
sudo adduser your_user_name fuse
  • Logout and login for this to take effect.
  • fix group on /dev/fuse
 sudo chgrp fuse /dev/fuse
  • Create local mountpoint in your home directory
mkdir ~/remote_music
  • Mount the remote folder into ~/remote_music
sshfs 192.168.0.1:/media/music ~/remote_music

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
  • Download PuTTY: Here


How to copy files/folders from/into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
  • Download FileZilla: Here

How to limit the user accounts that can connect through ssh remotely

e.g. If you enable the SSH server, then any user with a valid account can connect remotely
This can lead to security risks, as there exist remote password cracking tools that
try common username/password pairs.
  • Keep a backup of the ssh server configuration file with

sudo cp /etc/ssh/sshd_config /etc/ssh/sshd_config.ORIGINAL

  • Edit the configuration file

gksudo gedit /etc/ssh/sshd_config

  • Change the parameter PermitRootLogin from yes to no. The superuser must not be able to connect directly from remote.
  • Add the parameter AllowUsers and specify the usernames (space separated) that can connect remotely.

NOTE: This will allow ONLY the users specified to connect. You may use wildcards here (example: j* will allow jsmith to connect but not fsmith)

  • You can also use DenyUsers for fine-grained selection of users.
  • If you enable the openssh server and you have no intention for now to enable remote connections, you may add AllowUsers nosuchuserhere to disable anyone connecting.

Using SSH to Port Forward

e.g. Assumed that remote machine has installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service

If is possible to create secure SSH tunnels between multiple sites. Imagine two sites (home and office). If you have an SSH server available in the office available via the Internet, you can tunnel across to this server and communicate with any local PC in the office from home.

  • Example: Make Port 80 (Web Server) on 10.0.2.10 in the office available locally on Port 81

From home:

ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 user@office.net

Once logged in, you can now browse to http://localhost:81 which is really a secure tunnel to the web server in your office. You can setup multiple port forwardings.

ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 -L 82:10.0.2.20:80 -L 83:10.0.2.30:80 user@office.net

Now, port 81 locally forwards to port 80 on 10.0.2.10, port 82 forwards to port 80 on 10.0.2.20 and port 83 forwards to port 80 on 10.0.2.30

For example, http://localhost:81 connects you to port 80 on 10.0.2.10 (computer at remote location)

Specify port with -p?? if SSH Server on office.net does not run on default port 22.

Explanation:

ssh -L <local port>:<remote computer>:<remote port> <user>@<remote ip>

Protecting SSH from brute force atack

It is possible to easily protect SSH from a password brute force attack with a pam_abl module. You can install it by the two ways:

To install from a repository:

And execute the following commands:

sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude upgrade
sudo aptitude install libpam-abl
sudo /etc/init.d/ssh restart

First command is to fetch the repository listing. Second is to upgrade the openssh-server package to patched version (openssh-client will be also updated). Third is to set up a protection plugin. And the fourth is to restart a server with a new security plugin.

DHCP Server

How to install DHCP Server for automatic IP addresses assignment

e.g. Assumed that "eth0" is the interface for network card
IP Address Range: 192.168.0.100 to 192.168.0.200
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
DNS Servers: 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5
Domains: tm.net.my
Gateway Address: 192.168.0.1
sudo apt-get install dhcp3-server
sudo cp /etc/default/dhcp3-server /etc/default/dhcp3-server_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/default/dhcp3-server
  • Find this line
...
INTERFACES=""
  • Replace with the following line
INTERFACES="eth0"
  • Save the edited file
sudo cp /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf
  • Find this section
...
# option definitions common to all supported networks...
option domain-name "example.org";
option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# option definitions common to all supported networks...
#option domain-name "example.org";
#option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;
#default-lease-time 600;
#max-lease-time 7200;
  • Find this section
...
# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
#subnet 10.5.5.0 netmask 255.255.255.224 {
# range 10.5.5.26 10.5.5.30;
# option domain-name-servers ns1.internal.example.org;
# option domain-name "internal.example.org";
# option routers 10.5.5.1;
# option broadcast-address 10.5.5.31;
# default-lease-time 600;
# max-lease-time 7200;
#}
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
 range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.200;
 option domain-name-servers 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5;
 option domain-name "tm.net.my";
 option routers 192.168.0.1;
 option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
 default-lease-time 600;
 max-lease-time 7200;
}
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/dhcp3-server restart

Database Server

How to install MYSQL Database Server

sudo apt-get install mysql-server
  • MySQL initially only allows connections from the localhost (127.0.0.1). We'll need to remove that restriction if you wish to make it accessible to everyone on the internet. Open the file /etc/mysql/my.cnf
gksudo gedit /etc/mysql/my.cnf
  • Find the line bind-address = 127.0.0.1 and comment it out
...
#bind-address           = 127.0.0.1
...
  • MySQL comes with no root password as default. This is a huge security risk. You'll need to set one. So that the local computer gets root access as well, you'll need to set a password for that too. The local-machine-name is the name of the computer you're working on. For more information see here
mysqladmin -u root password your-new-password
mysqladmin -h root@local-machine-name -u root -p password your-new-password
sudo /etc/init.d/mysql restart

MySQL Database backup using AutoMySQLBackup

  • AutoMySQLBackup is a script to take daily, weekly and monthly backups of your MySQL databases using mysqldump.
  • AutoMySQLBackup Script Features
    • Backup mutiple MySQL databases with one script. (Now able to backup ALL databases on a server easily. no longer need to specify each database seperately)
    • Backup all databases to a single backup file or to a seperate directory and file for each database.
    • Automatically compress the backup files to save disk space using either gzip or bzip2 compression.
    • Can backup remote MySQL servers to a central server.
    • Runs automatically using cron or can be run manually.
    • Can e-mail the backup log to any specified e-mail address instead of “root”. (Great for hosted websites and databases).
    • Can email the compressed database backup files to the specified email address.
    • Can specify maximun size backup to email.
    • Can be set to run PRE and POST backup commands.
    • Choose which day of the week to run weekly backups.
  • AutoMySQLBackup Requirements

The AutoMySQLBackup script only requires mysqldump (A standard utility provided with the mysql client) and gzip or bzip2 for compression of the backup files. If you would like to have the log emailed to you then you will need to have permission to execute the “mail” program. If you want the compressed backup files mailed to you then Mutt must be available on the server. Finally you will need a bash shell and the standard system tools and utilities (all these requirements should be the default on most linux system.)

  • What AutoMySQLBackup does

Every day AutoMySQLBackup will run (if setup in /etc/cron.daily) and using mysqldump and gzip will dump your specified databases to the /backups/daily directory, it will rotate daily backups weekly so you should never have more than 7 backups in there..

Every Saturday AutoMySQLBackup will again backup the databases you have chosen but they will be placed into /backups/weekly, these will be rotated every 5 weeks so there should never be more than 5 backups in there..

Every 1st of the month AutoMySQLBackup will create a backup of all databases and place them into /backups/monthly. These will never be rotated so it will be up to you to do your own house keeping. I would suggest taking a copy of this offline every month or two so that if you have a hard drive failure you will be able to restore your database

  • AutoMySQLBackup Installation

The install is as simple as editing a few variables in the AutoMySQLBackup file. The full setup is documented in the AutoMySQLBackup script file below the variables section.

  • Download automysqlbackup.sh and place it into your /etc/cron.daily directory or your home directory.
  • Edit (at least) the following lines :
...
USERNAME=dbuser 
PASSWORD=password DBNAMES=”DB1 DB2 DB3″
...
  • Note:The user must have at least select privileges to the databases and make sure to keep the quotes ” ” otherwise it won’t work
  • Make the file executable :
sudo chmod u+rwx
  • Create the following directory
./backups
  • That’s it...Now you can run it using the command line “./automysqlbackup.sh” or if it is in /etc/cron.daily it will run each day when cron

How to install MYSQL Administrator

sudo apt-get install mysql-admin

How to install MySQL Query Browser (SQL Client)

sudo apt-get install mysql-query-browser

How to install Oracle Database XE

  • Add the following repository to your /etc/apt/sources.list:
deb http://oss.oracle.com/debian unstable main non-free
  • Install the software using apt-get
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install oracle-xe
  • Add your login to the 'dba' group (where your login name is username)
sudo usermod -G dba -a username
  • Run the initial configuration
sudo /etc/init.d/oracle-xe configure

You can configure any ports you want as long as they don't interfere with any other services listening on ports. You can choose the defaults by pressing enter instead of entering something in.

Apache HTTP Server

How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service

sudo apt-get install apache2

How to install PHP for Apache HTTP Server

How to install PHP4
sudo apt-get install php4
sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-php4
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  • To test if php4 installed correctly
gksudo gedit /var/www/testphp.php
  • Insert the following line into the new file
<?php phpinfo(); ?>
How to install PHP5
sudo apt-get install php5
sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-php5
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  • To test if php5 installed correctly
gksudo gedit /var/www/testphp.php
  • (Optional) Insert the following line into the new file
<?php phpinfo(); ?>

If that didn't work (for example, if your browser prompted you to save the testphp.php page), try these commands:

sudo a2enmod php5
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 force-reload

Then try opening http://localhost/testphp.php again

  • (Optional) Install recommended PHP5 modules
sudo apt-get install php5-xsl
sudo apt-get install php5-gd
sudo apt-get install php-pear
  • Restart Apache
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Many PHP applications use XSLT technology as well as server-side graphic manipulation (via GD). Also, PEAR provides access to PHP's module repository.

pear help

How to install MYSQL for Apache HTTP Server

sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-auth-mysql
  • Select either php4-mysql or php5-mysql depending on which version of PHP you installed
sudo apt-get install php<version-number>-mysql
sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin
  • To get PHP to work with MySQL, open the file (where <version> is either 4 or 5 depending on which PHP you installed)
gksudo gedit /etc/php<version>/apache2/php.ini
  • You'll need to uncomment the ";extension=mysql.so" line so that it looks like this
...
extension=mysql.so
...
  • Save the file then exit
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Alternative if the above doesn't work (which it probably won't and this probably will):

 sudo apt-get install mysql-server

How to install Python for Apache 2

sudo aptitude install python
sudo aptitude install libapache2-mod-python
sudo gedit /etc/apache2/mods-available/mod_python.conf

add the following lines

AddType application/x-httpd-python .py
AddHandler mod_python .py
PythonHandler mod_python.publisher
PythonDebug On

save

cd /etc/apache2/mods-enabled
sudo ln -s ../mods-available/mod_python.conf mod_python.conf
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to map URLs to folders outside /var/www/

gksudo gedit /etc/apache2/conf.d/alias
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
Alias /URL-path /location_of_folder/
<Directory /location_of_folder/>
  Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
  AllowOverride All
  Order allow,deny
  Allow from all
</Directory>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  • When you get "403 - Permission denied", you might try:
chmod o+x /location_of_folder/
  • If that doens't work, the following might help:
chmod o+r,o+x /location_of_folder/

How to change the default port number for Apache HTTP Server

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 78
sudo cp /etc/apache2/ports.conf /etc/apache2/ports.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/apache2/ports.conf
  • Find this line
Listen 80
  • Replace with the following line
Listen 78
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to parse RSS into PHP for Apache HTTP Server

e.g. Assumed that RSS is DistroWatch.com - News
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz
sudo mkdir /var/www/feeds
sudo tar zxvf magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz -C /var/www/feeds/
sudo mv /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/* /var/www/feeds/
sudo rm -fr /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/
sudo chown -R www-data:root /var/www/feeds/
gksudo gedit /var/www/feeds/index.php
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
 
 <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en">
 
 <head>
 
 <title>DistroWatch.com - News</title>
 
 <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"/>
 
 <style type="text/css">
 /*<![CDATA[*/
 /* 
 DEFAULT TAG STYLES
 */
 
 body {
  background: #ffffff;
  margin-left: 20px;
  font-family: bitstream vera sans,sans-serif;
  font-size: 9pt;
 }
 
 h1 {
  font-family: luxi sans,sans-serif;
  font-size: 15pt;
 }
 
 /*]]>*/
 </style>
 
 </head>
  
 <body>
 
 <?php

 require_once 'rss_fetch.inc';
 error_reporting(E_ERROR);
 
 $url = 'http://distrowatch.com/news/dw.xml';
 $rss = fetch_rss($url);
 
 if ($rss) {
 
  echo "<h1>";
  echo "<a href=$url>", $rss->channel[title], "</a><br/>";
  echo "</h1>";
 
  foreach ($rss->items as $item ) {
   $url = $item[link];
   $title = $item[title];
   $description = $item[description];
   echo "<li>";
   echo "<b>Topic:</b> <a href=$url><b><u>$title</u></b></a><br/><br/>";
   echo "$description<br/><br/>";
   echo "</li>";
  }
 
 }
 else {
  echo "<a href=$url>", $url, "</a> - Server Down!<br/>";
 }
 
 ?>
 
 </body>
 
 </html>
 

FTP Server

How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service

sudo apt-get install proftpd

How to configure FTP user to be "jailed" (chrooted) into their home directory

sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Find this section
...
DenyFilter           \*.*/
...
  • Add the following line below it
DefaultRoot           ~

  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read only

sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous ~ftp>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
 <Directory *>
  <Limit WRITE>
   DenyAll
  </Limit>
 </Directory>
</Anonymous>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read/write

sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous ~ftp>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
</Anonymous>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to map anonymous FTP user to folders outside /home/ftp/

sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous /location_of_folder/>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
 <Directory *>
  <Limit WRITE>
   DenyAll
  </Limit>
 </Directory>
</Anonymous>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to change the default port number for FTP Server

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 77
sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Find this line
Port              21
  • Replace with the following line
Port              77
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to ftp into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed FTP Server service
Read #How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service
  • Download FileZilla: Here

How to Setup BIND DNS Server

Reference: copied from http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=236093

  • Install bind 9:
sudo apt-get install bind9
  • Configure the main Bind files. Usually, if you install Bind from the source code, you will have to edit the file named.conf. However, Ubuntu provides you with a pre-configured Bind, so we will edit another file:
sudo vi /etc/bind/named.conf.local

This is where we will insert our zones. By the way, a zone is a domain name that is referenced in the DNS server Insert this in the named.conf.local file:

# This is the zone definition. replace example.com with your domain name
zone "example.com" {
       type master;
       file "/etc/bind/zones/example.com.db";
};

# This is the zone definition for reverse DNS. replace 0.168.192 with your 
# network  address in reverse notation - e.g my network address is 192.168.0
zone "0.168.192.in-addr.arpa" {
    type master;
    file "/etc/bind/zones/rev.0.168.192.in-addr.arpa";
};
  • Ok, now, let's edit the options file:
sudo vi /etc/bind/named.conf.options
  • We need to modify the forwarder. This is the DNS server to which your own DNS will forward the requests he cannot process.
forwarders {
      # Replace the address below with the address of your provider's DNS server
      123.123.123.123;
};
  • Now, let's add the zone definition files (replace example.com with your domain name:
sudo mkdir /etc/bind/zones
sudo vi /etc/bind/zones/example.com.db
  • The zone definition file is where we will put all the addresses / machine names that our DNS server will know. You can take the following example:
// replace example.com with your domain name. do not forget the . after the domain name!
// Also, replace ns1 with the name of your DNS server
example.com.      IN      SOA     ns1.example.com. admin.example.com. (
// Do not modify the following lines!
                                                        2006081401
                                                        28800
                                                        3600
                                                        604800
                                                        38400
 )

// Replace the following line as necessary:
// ns1 = DNS Server name
// mta = mail server name
// example.com = domain name
example.com.      IN      NS              ns1.example.com.
example.com.      IN      MX     10       mta.example.com.

// Replace the IP address with the right IP addresses.
www              IN      A       192.168.0.2
mta              IN      A       192.168.0.3
ns1              IN      A       192.168.0.1
  • Now, let's create the reverse DNS zone file:
sudo vi /etc/bind/zones/rev.0.168.192.in-addr.arpa
  • Copy and paste the following text, modify as needed:
//replace example.com with yoour domain name, ns1 with your DNS server name.
// The number before IN PTR example.com is the machine address of the DNS server. in my case, it's 1, as my IP address is 192.168.0.1.
@ IN SOA ns1.example.com. admin.example.com. (
                        2006081401;
                        28800; 
                        604800;
                        604800;
                        86400 
)

                     IN    NS     ns1.example.com.
1                    IN    PTR    example.com
  • Ok, now you just need to restart bind:
sudo /etc/init.d/bind9 restart
  • We can now test the new DNS server...
  • Modify the file resolv.conf with the following settings:
sudo vi /etc/resolv.conf
  • enter the following:
// replace example.com with your domain name, and 192.168.0.1 with the address of your new DNS server.
search example.com
nameserver 192.168.0.1
  • Now, test your DNS:
dig example.com


Personal Apt Repository

Setting Up Repository

Note: This type of repository is known as a Trivial Repository.

This type of repository does not fully comply with Debian standards, so should not be used commercially. However, it is ideal for home or personal use.

  • Install Package Tools
sudo apt-get install dpkg-dev
  • Create Repos on Filesystem
mkdir /somewhere/apt
mkdir /somewhere/apt/archives
mkdir /somewhere/apt/archives/binary
  • (Optional) Copy existing local APT cache to your Repos
cp -v /var/cache/apt/archives/*.deb /somewhere/apt/archives/binary/
  • Create Package Lists for Repos
cd /somewhere/apt/archives
dpkg-scanpackages binary /dev/null | gzip -9c > binary/Packages.gz
  • Publish Repos with Apache
cd /var/www
sudo ln -s /somewhere/apt/archives apt
  • Add Repos to Sources (on all PCs) to /etc/apt/sources.list

Open /etc/apt/sources.list

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

Add the following to the bottom of the file:

# My Repos
deb http://localhost/apt binary/
  • Update APT Database
sudo apt-get update

Updating Repository

Simply copy or download ".deb" files to /somewhere/apt/archives/binary/ and then update the Packages list:

cd /somewhere/apt/archives
dpkg-scanpackages binary /dev/null | gzip -9c > binary/Packages.gz

Streaming Media Server

How to install GNUMP3d for Streaming Media Server service

e.g. /var/music/ is the directory containing multimedia files
sudo apt-get install gnump3d

How to change the default directory containing multimedia files for GNUMP3d

e.g. Assumed that new directory containing multimedia files is /home/music/
sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf
  • Find this line
root = /var/music
  • Replace with the following line
root = /home/music
  • Find this line
user = gnump3d
  • Replace with the following line
user = root
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart

How to change the default port number for GNUMP3d

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 7878
sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf
  • Find this line
port = 8888
  • Replace with the following line
port = 7878
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart


Groupware (Email/Calendaring)

How to install Meldware Communication Suite

  • Read #General Notes
  • Read #How_to_install_Java_Development_Kit_.28JDK.29_v5.0
  • Meldware Communication Suite provides a multi-platform alternative to popular groupware like Exchange or Lotus Notes including Email(SMTP/POP/IMAP) and Calendaring(iCAL,WCAP). It depends on Java and, optionally, for the webmail/webcal client, Flash.
sudo aptitude install sun-java5-jdk
sudo update-java-alternatives -s java-1.5.0-sun
  • Download the jar file for a recent milestone or build here
  • Open a new terminal (capture java path updates)
  • change directory to your download directory
  • replace below filename with correct version based on your download
sudo java -jar buni-meldware-20070225.jar
  • A series of configuration questions are asked, for destination directory specify /opt/mcs
sudo cp /etc/init.d/skeleton /etc/init.d/meldware-cs
gksudo gedit /etc/init.d/meldware-cs
  • Replace the value in the line beginning with PATH with "/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/opt/mcs/bin" excluding quotes (assuming you specified /opt/mcs as the destination directory to the installer)
  • Replace the value in the line beginning with DESC with "Meldware Communication Suite" including quotes
  • Replace the value in the line beginning with NAME with "run.sh" excluding quotes
  • Replace the value in the line beginning with DAEMON with "/opt/mcs/bin/$NAME" excluding quotes
  • Replace the value in the line beginning with DAEMON_ARGS with "-c meldware" excluding quotes
  • Replace the value in the line beginning with SCRIPTNAME with "/etc/init.d/meldware-cs" excluding quotes
  • save (ESC):wq
sudo chmod 755 /etc/init.d/meldware-cs
sudo ln -s /etc/init.d/meldware-cs /etc/rc3.d/S21meldware-cs
sudo ln -s /etc/init.d/meldware-cs /etc/rc6.d/K21meldware-cs
sudo ln -s /etc/init.d/meldware-cs /etc/rc4.d/S21meldware-cs 
  • start MCS
sudo /etc/init.d/meldware-cs restart
  • Additional documentation is available here

Image Gallery Server

  • For a comparison between Gallery1 and Gallery2 see here

Gallery1

How to install Gallery1 for Image Gallery Server service
sudo apt-get install gallery (when prompted to restart Apache, choose No or Cancel)
sudo apt-get install imagemagick
sudo apt-get install jhead
sudo apt-get install libjpeg-progs
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
sudo sh /usr/share/gallery/configure.sh
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 1
Next Step ->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 2
General settings Tab ->
Admin password: Specify the password

Locations and URLs Tab ->
Album directory: /var/www/albums/
Temporary directory: /tmp/
Gallery URL: http://localhost/gallery
Albums URL: http://localhost/albums
Next Step -->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 3
Next Step -->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 4
Save Config ->
How to configure Gallery1 to be accessible via Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP)
e.g. Assumed that network and internet connections have been configured properly
Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP): http://www.url.com
sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php
  • Find this section
...
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
...
  • Replace with the following lines
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://www.url.com/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://www.url.com/albums";
How to configure Gallery1 to be accessible via LAN (dynamic IP)
e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
LAN (dynamic IP): 192.168.0.1
sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php
  • Find this section
...
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
...
  • Replace with the following lines
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "/albums";
How to backup/restore Gallery1 data
sudo tar zcvf gallery.tgz /var/www/albums/ /etc/gallery/
  • To restore Gallery data
sudo tar zxvf gallery.tgz -C /

Gallery2

How to install Gallery2
How to configure Gallery2

How to install Subversion version control server (with Apache support)

  • Install Subversion and Apache 2 Module
sudo aptitude install subversion libapache2-svn
  • Enable Subversion/DAV Apache 2 Module
sudo a2enmod dav_svn
  • Configure Apache 2
sudo nano /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/dav_svn.conf

Edit the file to look something like this:

<Location /svn>
  DAV svn
  SVNPath /home/svn

  AuthType Basic
  AuthName "Subversion Repository"
  AuthUserFile /etc/apache2/dav_svn.passwd
  Require valid-user
</Location>
  • Create Subversion Repository
sudo mkdir /home/svn
sudo svnadmin create /home/svn
  • Give Apache 2 Permissions to Repository
sudo chown -R www-data /home/svn
  • Create Repository User

Replace 'username' with your username

sudo htpasswd2 -cm /etc/apache2/dav_svn.passwd username

Enter password when prompted.

  • Restart Apache 2
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to install Subversion version control server (svnserve)

  • Install Subversion and Internet services daemon
sudo apt-get install subversion xinetd
  • Create user that will own the repositories
sudo adduser --system --no-create-home --home /var/svn --group --disabled-login svn
  • Create directory that will hold the repositories
sudo mkdir /var/svn
sudo chown svn:svn /var/svn
  • Create file /etc/xinetd.d/svnserve with the following content
service svn
{
       port = 3690
       socket_type = stream
       protocol = tcp
       wait = no
       user = svn
       server = /usr/bin/svnserve
       server_args = -i -r /var/svn
}
  • Restart xinetd
sudo /etc/init.d/xinetd restart
  • Create the first repository
sudo -u svn svnadmin create /var/svn/testrepo
  • It should be possible to check out the repository and work on it
svn co svn://localhost/testrepo

Troubleshooting

How to disable system time/date from being reset to UTC (GMT)

sudo cp /etc/default/rcS /etc/default/rcS_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/default/rcS
  • Find this line
...
UTC=yes
...
  • Replace with the following line
UTC=no
  • Save the edited file
  • System -> Administration -> Time and Date

Set the correct time/date

sudo /etc/init.d/hwclock.sh restart

How to configure sound to work properly in GNOME

sudo killall esd
sudo cp /etc/esound/esd.conf /etc/esound/esd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/esound/esd.conf
  • Find this section
...
auto_spawn=0
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 5
...
  • Replace with the following lines
auto_spawn=1
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 2 -d default
  • Save the edited file
sudo apt-get install libesd-alsa0
gksudo gedit /etc/asound.conf
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
pcm.card0 {
type hw
card 0
}

pcm.!default {
type plug
slave.pcm "dmixer"
}

pcm.dmixer {
type dmix
ipc_key 1025
slave {
pcm "hw:0,0"
period_time 0
period_size 2048
buffer_size 32768
rate 48000
}
bindings {
0 0
1 1
}
}
  • Save the edited file
sudo ln -fs /usr/lib/libesd.so.0 /usr/lib/libesd.so.1
System -> Preferences -> Sound
Sound preferences
General Tab -> Sounds for events (Un-Checked)
  • Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to forcefully empty Trash in GNOME

sudo rm -fr $HOME/.Trash/

How to remove duplicate menu/menu items in GNOME

How to refresh Places menu in GNOME (if mounts to /media/ in /etc/fstab does not show up)

sudo /etc/init.d/dbus restart

How to consume static (not dhcp) wireless LAN (WLAN) connection (KDE)

  • I assume you have successfully consumed WLAN connection in Windows
  • To enable the network device please follow the following steps
  • Go to K-menu -> System Settings -> Network Settings
  • Enable Administrator mode
  • Select Network Interfaces tab and the wireless interface (usually ath0) to configure
  • Click Configure Interface...
  • Choose Manual or Automatic. Choose Manual
  • Fill the preferred IP address to identify your computer and the netmask. Choose to activate when computer starts
  • Click Advanced Settings to for more properties
  • Select Routes tab and fill the gateway IP address
  • Make sure you choose the correct device in the right dropdown (e.g. ath0)
  • Click apply to commit all changes
  • To choose wireless connection please follow the following steps
  • Go to K-menu -> Internet -> Wireless Assistant
  • Right click on preferred connection ssid
  • Choose and complete fields for Manual connection
  • Click Ok
  • Create connection configuration
gksudo gedit /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
network={
ssid="YOUR_PREFERRED_CONNECTION_SSID"
scan_ssid=1
proto=WPA
key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
psk="STRING_TO_GENERATE_PASSWORD"
#psk=123456789 #you have option to use connection key instead of connection password
}
  • Save the edited file
  • Create script to easily activate connection
gksudo gedit /etc/init.d/wifi_wpa.sh
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
#! /bin/sh
# wifi: wpa_supplicant init
echo " * [Wifi]: Enabling WPA supplicant..."
if [ -x /sbin/wpa_supplicant ]; then
/sbin/wpa_supplicant -B -i ath0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -D madwifi -w
fi
exit 0
  • Save the edited file
  • Make sure both file readable and executable
sudo chmod +r /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/wifi_wpa.sh
  • make wireless connection automaticaly starts when computer starts
sudo ln -s /etc/init.d/wifi_wpa.sh /etc/rcS.d/S40netwifiwpa
  • Close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to get 1400x1050 resolution working

Upgrading Ubuntu

How to upgrade from Hoary Hedgehog -> Breezy Badger -> Dapper Drake

Method A (Official)

  • First update the update manager:
sudo aptitude update && sudo aptitude upgrade
  • Once it has been updated you can upgrade to a newer version of Ubuntu:
gksudo "update-manager -c -d"


NOTE: Try to upgrade from immediately previous versions, e.g. Dapper to Edgy not Breezy to Edgy. If you are running Hoary for instance, upgrade Hoary->Breezy->Dapper->Edgy.

Method B (Alternative)

  • First, make sure you're fully upgraded:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • If you don't have a CD available make SURE you comment/remove the line pertaining to your CD media
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • To upgrade from Dapper to Edgy, just replace (ctrl+h) all instances of 'dapper' with 'edgy' within the /etc/apt/sources.list. (See how to add extra repositories).
  • Validate updates and upgrade.
sudo aptitude update 
sudo aptitude dist-upgrade

(Note the use of aptitude rather than apt-get. Please use aptitude as it handles dependencies better and is more likely to succeed in upgrading your system.)

  • Save your session, reboot, and enjoy.


NOTE: Try to upgrade from immediately previous versions, e.g. Dapper to Edgy not Breezy to Edgy. If you are running Hoary for instance, upgrade Hoary->Breezy->Dapper->Edgy.

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