Ubuntu Feisty pt-br

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Guia inicial não oficial do Ubuntu 7.04 (Feisty Fawn)

Ubuntu 7.04 (Feisty Fawn) será lançado em 19 de Abril de 2007. Este guia é um trabalho progressivo, portanto em constante evolução. Sua ajuda em testar e aperfeiçoar esse guia é necessária.

Este guia foi iniciado por Chua Wen Kiat (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). e está agora sendo mantido pelo Linux Center da University da Latvia, e qualquer outra pessoa que estiver disposta a contribuir.

Para editar páginas você precisa estar registrado e logado. register

Se você tiver qualquer dúvida, envie um email para nós em ubuntuguide -at- ubuntuguide.org














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  • Ubuntu 7.04 (Feisty Fawn)

Versões antigas

Se você usa uma versão desatualizada do Ubuntu (Breezy, Dapper, Edgy), você pode atualiza-la para o Feisty. Veja isto: [How to upgrade from Hoary Hedgehog -> Breezy Badger -> Dapper Drake]

Lista completa de seções: Ubuntu:Feisty/Lista Completa de Seções


__Lista Completa de Seções__

Ubuntu:Feisty/Notas Gerais

Ubuntu:Feisty/Iniciando

Como adicionar repositórios

sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Substitua todo o arquivo com as seguintes linhas:
# See http://help.ubuntu.com/community/UpgradeNotes for how to upgrade to
# newer versions of the distribution.
deb http://espelhos.edugraf.ufsc.br/ubuntu/ feisty main restricted
deb-src http://espelhos.edugraf.ufsc.br/ubuntu/ feisty main restricted
## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
## distribution.
deb http://espelhos.edugraf.ufsc.br/ubuntu/ feisty-updates main restricted
deb-src http://espelhos.edugraf.ufsc.br/ubuntu/ feisty-updates main restricted
## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
## universe WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu security
## team.
deb http://espelhos.edugraf.ufsc.br/ubuntu/ feisty universe
deb-src http://espelhos.edugraf.ufsc.br/ubuntu/ feisty universe
## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu 
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to 
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in 
## multiverse WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu
## security team.
deb http://espelhos.edugraf.ufsc.br/ubuntu/ feisty multiverse
deb-src http://espelhos.edugraf.ufsc.br/ubuntu/ feisty multiverse
## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'backports'
## repository.
## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as
## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes
## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features.
## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review
## or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://espelhos.edugraf.ufsc.br/ubuntu/ feisty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://espelhos.edugraf.ufsc.br/ubuntu/ feisty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://espelhos.edugraf.ufsc.br/ubuntu/ feisty-security main restricted
deb-src http://espelhos.edugraf.ufsc.br/ubuntu/ feisty-security main restricted
deb http://espelhos.edugraf.ufsc.br/ubuntu/ feisty-security universe
deb-src http://espelhos.edugraf.ufsc.br/ubuntu/ feisty-security universe
deb http://espelhos.edugraf.ufsc.br/ubuntu/ feisty-security multiverse
deb-src http://espelhos.edugraf.ufsc.br/ubuntu/ feisty-security multiverse
  • Salve o arquivo editado.
sudo apt-get update
Use o seu próprio arquivo sources.list somente se você sabe o que está fazendo

Ubuntu:Feisty/Atualizações do Ubuntu

Ubuntu:Feisty/Aplicações

Ubuntu:Feisty/Outros Ambientes de Desktop


Ubuntu:Feisty/Aplicacoes Comerciais

Ubuntu:Feisty/Administração de Usuario

Hardware

Mice

Activate side-mouse-buttons in FireFox

Just add two lines to xorg.conf will activate side-mouse-buttons in FireFox. This should work with most 5-button mouse. Here is a list of mice that worked with this instruction.

  • Logitech MX310
  • Logitech MX510
  • Logitech MX518
  • Logitech MX700
  • Logitech MX Revolution
  • Intellimouse Explorer (first edition)
  • Razer Copperhead


Backup X.org configuration file

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak

Modify the X.org configuration file

gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Find the Input Device section for your mouse and add two lines as shown below. You may also increase the number of buttons if your mouse has more than 7, just fix the rest of the section based upon the number of buttons (remember back/forward, wheel click & tilt left/right all count as buttons)

Change:

Section "InputDevice"
	Identifier "Configured Mouse"
	Driver "mouse"
	Option "CorePointer"
	...
	Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
	...
	Option "Emulate3Buttons"       "true"
EndSection

to:

Section "InputDevice"
       Identifier "Configured Mouse"
       Driver "mouse"
       Option "CorePointer"
       Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice"
       Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
       Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"
       Option "Emulate3Buttons" "true"
       Option "Buttons" "7"
       Option "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 6 7"
EndSection

Buttons still won't work in Nautilus unless you install the imwheel dameon.

Install & Configure IMWheel

  • Install IMWheel
sudo apt-get install imwheel
  • Modify IMWheel configuration file
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/imwheel/imwheelrc
  • Insert the following at the bottom of this existing file
".*"
None, Up, Alt_L|Left
None, Down, Alt_L|Right 

"(null)"
None, Up, Alt_L|Left
None, Down, Alt_L|Right


  • Create IMWheel start-up script
sudo mkdir /home/login
gksudo gedit /home/login/mouse
  • Insert the following into this new file
#!/bin/sh
exec xmodmap -e "pointer = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7" &
exec imwheel -k -b "6 7" &
exec $REALSTARTUP
  • Grant execution for everyone to this new script
sudo chmod +x /home/login/mouse
  • Configure this script to be executed at start-up
    1. Select 'System' > 'Preferences' > 'Sessions'
    2. Click the StartUp tab
    3. Click Add, then input: /home/login/mouse
    4. Click OK, then Close
  • Reboot your computer or your Gnome environment and then test your back/forward mouse buttons in Nautilus

(Dont know why but the above worked flawlessly for me with Dapper but not with Feisty, to get it to work in Feisty had to enter a space between 6 and 7 on the line exec imwheel -k -b "67" & hope this helps)

How to configure Apple Mighty Mouse

Apple Mighty Mouse works out of the box, this how to should cover setting up of horizontal scrolling using ball and sidebuttons.

This is placeholder only. Please, provide working howto.

Touchpad

Disable the touchpad while typing

The utility syndaemon can be used to temporarily disable a Synaptic touchpad while typing.

First you must edit /etc/X11/xorg.conf to allow the syndaemon utility to access the touchpad's settings. Make a backup of the file, then:

sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Find the touchpad section:

Section "InputDevice"
    Identifier     "Synaptics Touchpad"
    Driver         "synaptics"
    Option         "SendCoreEvents" "true"
    Option         "Device" "/dev/psaux"
    Option         "Protocol" "auto-dev"
    Option         "HorizScrollDelta" "0"
    Option         "SHMConfig"        "on"
EndSection

Add the SHMConfig option if it does not already exist.

After you restart X (log out and log in again), you will be able to run syndaemon.

syndaemon -t -d
You may have to restart your computer.

Use syndaemon -h to view additional options.

To have syndaemon start up automatically when you log on, add the command as a new startup program (System -> Preferences -> Sessions -> Startup Programs).

Adjust touchpad sensitivity

Although gsynaptics allows you to adjust sensitivity, it still isn't sensitive enough for all users. This allows for greater fine tuning of touchpad sensitivity. First you must edit /etc/X11/xorg.conf. Make a backup of the file, then:

sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Find the touchpad section:

Section "InputDevice"
    Identifier     "Synaptics Touchpad"
    Driver         "synaptics"
    Option         "SendCoreEvents" "true"
    Option         "Device" "/dev/psaux"
    Option         "Protocol" "auto-dev"
    Option         "HorizScrollDelta" "0"
    Option         "SHMConfig"        "on"
EndSection

Add the following after SHMConfig:

Option		"MinSpeed"		"1.0"
Option		"MaxSpeed"		"1.3"
Option		"AccelFactor"		"0.3"

Modify the values to personal taste. After you restart X (log out and log in again), you will using the new sensitivity settings.

Enable vertical, horizontal and circular scrolling

This howto will explain the procedure to setup a Synaptics touchpad for vertical, horizontal and circular scrolling (The same procedure may work for other touchpads, but has not been confirmed)

  • First: Install gsynaptics
sudo apt-get install gsynaptics

Second you have to edit your /etc/X11/xorg.conf to allow gsynaptics to access the the touchpad's settings

  • Second: Backup /etc/X11/xorg.conf
cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak
  • Third: Allow gsynaptics access to the touch pads settings
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Find the touchpad section:

Section "InputDevice"
    Identifier     "Synaptics Touchpad"
    Driver         "synaptics"
    Option         "SendCoreEvents" "true"
    Option         "Device" "/dev/psaux"
    Option         "Protocol" "auto-dev"
    Option         "HorizScrollDelta" "0"
    Option         "SHMConfig"        "on"
EndSection

Add the SHMConfig option if it does not already exist.

After you restart X (log out and log in again), from the Gnome menu goto System > Preferences > Touchpad

From the Touchpad window you can modify you touchpads settings

Graphics Card

How to setup nVidia drivers in 7.04

System > Administration > Restricted Devices Manager
Enable Driver
Apply Changes

Insert Ubuntu 7.04 Feisty Fawn CD-ROM

or

Cancel > Close

Applications > Add/Remove Applications

(Add / Remove apps will load up checking dependencies)

Click Preferences next to help in the bottom left of the add / remove applications windows.

Uncheck the "CD ROM With Ubuntu 7.04..." option from the list of installable CD-ROM volumes.

There, now every time you use the add / remove applications program to install things, it goes onto the internet to get the packages instead of the discs. The idea behind this is to get the LATEST updates.

Close the options, close the next box, then click OK to exit out of add / remove applications and save the changes we just made.

Make sure the nVidia glx is downloaded and installed from either the internet or the install CD, or the next step wont work, as the command will have nothing to execute. thats right, you really need NVIDIA GLX. :)

With the nVidia Driver enabled in the restricted devices manager, we can safely go into the console and mess with the newly loaded drivers' settings to get a nice looking desktop with an acceptable resolution, color depth and refresh rate. These drivers also let us adjust the positioning of multiple monitors much like the forceware drivers in windows, but totally not like windows at the same time. You'll see what I mean when you see the layout and complexity of the panel! Now we must reboot.

System > Quit > Restart
Load up Applications > Accessories > Terminal

If you haven't already done so you may right click on Terminal under Applications > Accessories > Terminal and then add the application to the panel, to make the terminal easier to access in the future.

Load up the terminal, and type in...

sudo nvidia-settings

Then type in your root password (whatever that is)

Be careful about cranking the resolution or refresh too high.

If you want to enable dual monitors then try twinview.

How to setup Dual Monitors with NVidia in Feisty Fawn

From Dual Monitors with NVidia in Ubuntu - Ubuntu Geek

  • Install nvidia-glx driver
sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx
  • Make a backup of xorg.conf
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak
  • Edit xorg.conf
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
    • Under the "Module" section, replace "nv" with "glx"
    • Under the "Device" section, make sure that "Driver" says “nvidia”
    • Under the "Screen" section, add the following line:
Option "RenderAccel" "true"
  • Save xorg.conf
  • Restart X with Ctrl+Alt+Backspace
    • If X will not start, type the following to restore xorg.conf to working status:
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak /etc/X11/xorg.conf

and reboot.

  • Assuming everything went well, we’re quite close to having dual screens working. Edit xorg.conf again
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Under the "Screen" section, add these lines:
##This turns on NVidia’s TwinView
Option "TwinView"
##Here I’m setting the resolution to the individual monitors.
Option "MetaModes" "1280×1024 1280×1024"
  • Restart X with Ctrl+Alt+Backspace

You should now have dual monitors


How to align monitors left-to-right

Method 1:

  • Edit xorg.conf
  • Under the "Screen" heading, add:
##Orientation Options are: LeftOf, RightOf, Below, Above, or Clone
Option “TwinViewOrientation” “LeftOf”
  • Save xorg.conf
  • Restart X with Ctrl+Alt+Backspace


Method 2:

  • Run nVidia Settings
gksudo nvidia-settings
  • In X Server Display Configuration, drag the visible displays around
  • Apply and Save to X Configuration File when you're happy with the settings


How to change primary display from CRT to LCD

From: First display on TwinView - nV News Forums and nVidia Readme and Dual Monitors HOWTO - Zulu's Tips

  • Get the nVidia driver working, as per the howto above
  • Run nVidia Settings
gksudo nvidia-settings
  • Click the Save to X Configuration File button to tidy up the config
  • Restart X with Ctrl+Alt+Backspace
  • Backup xorg.conf
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak
  • Open xorg.conf in an editor
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Add the following line at the bottom of the "Screen" section:
   Option         "TwinViewXineramaInfoOrder" "DFP, CRT"
   Option         "UseDisplayDevice" "DFP, CRT"
  • Save xorg.conf
  • Restart X with Ctrl+Alt+Backspace

How to install Beta Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)

  • Thanks to Alberto Milone
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add ONE of the following lines based on your architecture
deb http://www.albertomilone.com/drivers/edgy/latest/32bit binary/
deb http://www.albertomilone.com/drivers/edgy/latest/64bit binary/
deb http://www.albertomilone.com/drivers/edgy/newlegacy/32bit binary/
deb http://www.albertomilone.com/drivers/edgy/newlegacy/64bit binary/
  • Save the edited file
  • Add the GPG key
wget http://albertomilone.com/drivers/tseliot.asc
gpg --import tseliot.asc
gpg --export --armor albertomilone@alice.it | sudo apt-key add -
  • Update and install
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx
sudo apt-get upgrade
  • The upgrade should update your linux-restricted-modules & linux-restricted-modules-common packages.
sudo nvidia-xconfig
  • Add a menu option for nVidia Settings
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/NVIDIA-Settings.desktop
  • Insert these lines in the new file and save
[Desktop Entry]
Name=NVIDIA Settings
Comment=NVIDIA Settings
Exec=nvidia-settings
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;
  • Restart the computer and your new drivers should be installed.
  • Test the install with these 2 programs
glxinfo
glxgears

How to setup pivot (screen rotation) with default X.org NVIDIA drivers

  • Some LCD monitors are equipped with the pivot feature, to take advantage of it the display has to be rotated 90 degrees. The default nVidia drivers shipped with X.org ("nv") support software screen rotation. Note that it's unaccelerated and can be slow, read #How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA) if you decide to install the proprietary driver.
  • To rotate the screen find the "Device" section for the "nv" driver in the /etc/X11/xorg.conf file:
Section "Device"                                                                
       Identifier      "NVIDIA Corporation NV34 [GeForce FX 5200]"
       Driver          "nv"
  • Add the following options to this section:
       Option "Rotate" "CW"

Where the "Rotate" option has two possible values (depending on the orientation of the monitor):

  1. CW - rotate the display clockwise (right).
  2. CCW - rotate the display counterclockwise (right).

How to setup pivot (screen rotation) with proprietary NVIDIA drivers

  • Some LCD monitors are equipped with the pivot feature, to take advantage of it the display has to be rotated 90 degrees. The proprietary nVidia drivers support hardware rotation with the Xrandr extension.
  • To enable rotation support find the "Device" section for the "nvidia" driver in the /etc/X11/xorg.conf file:
Section "Device"                                                                
       Identifier      "NVIDIA Corporation NV34 [GeForce FX 5200]"
       Driver          "nvidia"
  • Add the following option to this section:
       Option          "RandRRotation" "on"
  • Then the display can be rotated (direction depends on the orientation of the monitor) by:
  1. Setting the "Rotation" property to either "Left" or "Right" in the "System > Preferences > Screen Resolution" dialog.
  2. Issuing either "xrandr -o left" or "xrandr -o right" command.

How to disable NVIDIA graphics logo on GNOME startup

  • The easy way
sudo nvidia-xconfig --no-logo
  • Alternative method
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find this section
 ...
Section "Device"
	Identifier	"NVIDIA Corporation NV11 [GeForce2 MX/MX 400]"
	Driver		"nvidia"
	BusID		"PCI:1:0:0"
...
  • Add the following line below it
   Option		"NoLogo"

How to configure dual head on NVIDIA based cards

  • Install binary driver
  • Make a backup of xorg.conf
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.backup
  • Edit xorg.conf
sudo nano /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Add these lines to the "Device" section
Option "TwinView" "True"
Option "TwinViewOrientation" "RightOf"   
Option "UseEdidFreqs" "True"
Option "MetaModes" "1280x1024,1280x1024; 1024x768,1024x768"
Option "UseDisplayDevice" "string" #replace 'string' with either 'DFP' (Digital flat panel connected via DVI port), 
   'CRT' (any monitor that is connected via VGA ports), or 'TV'
  • Save and close xorg.conf
  • Restart X-Windows or reboot
  • This was tested on an NVIDIA FX 5200 and known to work using "CRT" as an option for the second monitor
  • If you run into trouble where X is hosed and can get back to the command line, replace xorg.conf with the backup copy
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf.backup /etc/X11/xorg.conf

How to install Graphics Driver (ATI)

How to Correct the Graphics Resolution (Intel)

  • Intel 915g, 945g, etc. graphics chipsets only have a limited set of resolutions initially installed, despite the correct driver being detected.
  • Install the resolution altering tool:
sudo apt-get install 915resolution
  • Run the following to see the availible modes:
915resolution -l
  • Choose a resolution you don't need and replace, for example the following changes 1920x1440 to 1920x1200
915resolution 5c 1920 1200
  • Restart X-Windows.
  • To confirm resolution change look at the "System>Preferences>Screen Resolution" tool.
  • If it works correctly then you can make the change permanent:
sudo gedit /etc/default/915resolution
  • Find this lines:
MODE=Auto
XRESO=
YRESO=
BIT=
  • And replace with the following lines:
mode=5c
XRESO=1920
YRESO=1200
BIT=24
  • Save and restart your computer to confirm it works.


  • Another way to get the resolution you want is to do this(doesn't always work):
sudo apt-get install xserver-xorg-video-intel
  • With this you don't need the 915resolution anywhere in your Feisty as your resolution will now be handled by X, the windowing system in Linux.

How to show nvidia GPU temperature (nvidia-settings)

At a terminal, type

nvidia-settings

How to detect CPU temperature, fan speeds and voltages (lm-sensors)

sudo apt-get install lm-sensors

Create file called mkdev.sh, and paste in the following

#!/bin/bash

# Here you can set several defaults.

# The number of devices to create (max: 256)
NUMBER=32

# The owner and group of the devices
OUSER=root
OGROUP=root
# The mode of the devices
MODE=600

# This script doesn't need to be run if devfs is used
if [ -r /proc/mounts ] ; then
if grep -q "/dev devfs" /proc/mounts ; then
echo "You do not need to run this script as your system uses devfs."
exit;
fi
fi

i=0;

while [ $i -lt $NUMBER ] ; do
echo /dev/i2c-$i
mknod -m $MODE /dev/i2c-$i c 89 $i || exit
chown "$OUSER:$OGROUP" /dev/i2c-$i || exit
i=$[$i + 1]
done
#end of file

Make this file executable, then run it

sudo chmod +x mkdev.sh
sudo ./mkdev.sh

Now detect sensors, and answer "y" to all questions.

sudo sensors-detect

To load the manual modules, type

sudo /etc/init.d/module-init-tools

Load the modules into kernel with

sudo sensors -s

And check the output

sudo sensors

How to control fan speed (lm-sensors)

Install and config lm-sensors first, see section above. Then run pwmconfig to test your fans

pwmconfig

If you can control fan speeds, great. Now create a file called /etc/init.d/fancontrol, and paste in the following

#!/bin/sh
#
# Fancontrol start script.
#

set -e

# Defaults
DAEMON=/usr/sbin/fancontrol
PIDFILE=/var/run/fancontrol-pid
PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin

test -f $DAEMON || exit 0

. /lib/lsb/init-functions


case "$1" in
       start)
               log_begin_msg "Starting fancontrol daemon..."
               start-stop-daemon --start -o -q -m -b -p $PIDFILE -x $DAEMON
               log_end_msg $?
               ;;
       stop)
               log_begin_msg "Stopping fancontrol daemon..."
               start-stop-daemon --stop -o -q -p $PIDFILE -x $DAEMON
               log_end_msg $?
               ;;
       force-reload|restart)
               sh $0 stop
               sh $0 start
               ;;
       *)
               log_success_msg "Usage: /etc/init.d/fancontrol {start|stop|restart|force-reload}"
               log_success_msg "  start - starts system-wide fancontrol service"
               log_success_msg "  stop  - stops system-wide fancontrol service"
               log_success_msg "  restart, force-reload - starts a new system-wide fancontrol service"
               exit 1
               ;;
esac

exit 0

Make it executable

sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/fancontrol

Test it

/etc/init.d/fancontrol start

and

/etc/init.d/fancontrol stop

If it works fine, autoload it when you reboot. Insert the following line into /etc/rc.local, before "exit 0"

/etc/init.d/fancontrol start

How to monitor CPU, GPU temperatures, fan speeds and voltages (GKrellM)

  • Install hddtemp first to monitor hard drive temperatures
sudo apt-get install hddtemp

GKrellM is a hardware monitor that can display CPU and GPU temperatures, fan speeds, voltages, CPU load, network load, disk activity, disk temperature, memory usage, and swap usage. The installation is very easy, and configuration is just a few mouse-clicks. You can set alerts to warn you if the CPU is too hot or there is a fan failure. The hddtemp utility works with GKrellM to allow it to sense the disk temperature, as keeping your disks cool (e.g. less than around 40C) will allow them to last longer than if they run continually at higher temperatures (e.g. above 50C).

sudo apt-get install gkrellm

To run the program

Click Applications -> System Tools -> GKrellM

To configure the settings,

Right click on GKrellM -> Configuration

I was struggling with lm_sensors before, but it doesn't detect all of the sensors on my computer. Later I found "GKrellM". It displays the GPU temperature on my nVidia 6600 GT out of the box. GKrellM also has plugins that show weather info, set reminders, etc.

Add an audio alert (optional Step): Here is how to play an audio message when the CPU is too hot or a fan fails. First you need to find or record your own audio alert files. (I use Audacity to record my own.) Then go to:

Configuration -> Builtins folder (Left side)-> Sensors -> Temperatures folder (Right side)-> CPU -> Alerts Button

Paste ONE of the following lines into a Terminal window first to test the sound. If you have two sound cards, you can use "-ao oss:/dev/dsp1" option to route the sound to the second sound card. Modify the file path and name so it points to the correct file. If you can hear the sound, then copy that line to a command line text field on the GKrellM's Alerts window.

mplayer /home/myfolder/alert_messages/heat_alert.mp3
mplayer -ao oss:/dev/dsp1 /home/myfolder/alert_messages/heat_alert.mp3

How to detect CPU temperature, fan speeds for Dell Laptops and install Gkrellm plugin (i8kutils, gkrellm-i8k)

Install i8k utilities

apt-get install i8kutils gkrellm-i8k

To load the module automatically run the following in a terminal window

sudo gedit /etc/modules

Add the following to the end of the file

i8k force=1

Load the module by restarting or

modprobe i8k
  • To monitor with Gkrellm,

Load Gkrellm, goto Gkrellms configuration page, enable the Dell i8k Plugin in the Plugins section. You should now see a new section on the Gkrellm panel with fan controls, CPU temperature, service tag etc

CPU

How to enable your CPU's Power Saving/Frequency Scaling features

  • Check whether or not you already have working power-save (it should install automatically!)

Open a Terminal window (in Applications > Accessories) and type,

cat /proc/cpuinfo

Look for the reference to "cpu MHz" and compare it to the official MHz of your processor. If it is considerably lower, e.g. a 2.0 GHz processor reporting as 1.0 GHz, then the power-save frequency scaling is probably already working. You can further test this by running a cpu intensive process, e.g. glxgears, and then retesting the cpu speed -- if it has increased to the official MHz then the automatic scaling is already working. (Note: the instructions below can also allow you to manually set the cpu speed.)

  • Step 1: Enable BIOS Support

Enter your BIOS at boot and make sure both ACPI and Cool'n'Quiet (AMD) or SpeedStep (Intel) are enabled. Some BIOSes may not have option at all. If that is the case it is probably enabled by default. Other BIOSes may have the option but it is listed as another name altogether. If that is the case check your BIOS manual for more info.

  • Step 2: Remove Userspace Scaling Software

powernowd

sudo apt-get remove powernowd

cpudyn

sudo apt-get remove cpudyn
  • Step 3: Install CPU Module

Identify your cpu type by running the command

cat /proc/cpuinfo

You can also Check the following links AMD CPU Chart - [[1]] Intel CPU Chart - [[2]]

AMD Sempron/Athlon/MP ( K7 )

Socket Types: A, Slot A

sudo modprobe powernow-k7

AMD Duron/Sempron/Athlon/Opteron 64 ( K8 )

Socket Types: 754, 939, 940, S1 ( 638 ), AM2 ( 940 ), F ( 1207 )

sudo modprobe powernow-k8

Intel Core Duo

sudo modprobe speedstep-centrino

Intel Pentium M

sudo modprobe speedstep-centrino

Intel Pentium 4

sudo modprobe p4_clockmod

Others (Unknown)

I'm not entirely sure which cpus are supported using this module. If your cpu doesn't work with one of the above methods try this one.

sudo modprobe acpi-cpufreq
  • Step 4: Scaling Modules
sudo modprobe cpufreq_conservative
sudo modprobe cpufreq_ondemand
sudo modprobe cpufreq_powersave
sudo modprobe cpufreq_stats
sudo modprobe cpufreq_userspace
  • Step 5: Testing/Configuration

Show Available Governors

cat /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_available_governors

You should see output similar to

powersave conservative ondemand performance
  • Step 6: Load Modules at Boot

Add the following lines to the end of /etc/modules

cpufreq_conservative
cpufreq_ondemand
cpufreq_powersave
cpufreq_stats
cpufreq_userspace
Also add the module you selected in Step 3
  • Step 7: Install cpufrequtils

This is a simple, effective tool for using the modules from the command line.

sudo apt-get install cpufrequtils

Test that it's working.

cpufreq-info
  • Step 8: Select a governor

The different governors control how the CPU speed is scaled. Your choices are:

ondemand

CPU frequency is scaled based on load.

conservative

The CPUfreq governor "conservative", much like the "ondemand" governor, sets the CPU depending on the current usage. It differs in behaviour in that it gracefully increases and decreases the CPU speed rather than jumping to max speed the moment there is any load on the CPU. This behaviour more suitable in a battery powered environment.

performance

CPU only runs at max frequency regardless of load.

powersave

CPU only runs at min frequency regardless of load.

See [[3]] for more details.

I typically use ondemand. You get a very slight performance hit and save a lot of power (and produce a lot less heat when idle).

Try it out:

cpufreq-set -g ondemand

On systems with more than one CPU you need to repeat the last command for every other CPU you have with specifying the parameter -c (CPU). To set the governor for the second CPU write:

cpufreq-set -c 1 -g ondemand

To see how many CPUs you have type:

ls /sys/devices/system/cpu/ 
  • Step 9: Configure cpufrequtils to automatically set this governor on boot

Edit the file /etc/default/cpufrequtils. Change the line:

ENABLE="false"

to

ENABLE="true"

Set the GOVERNOR value to the governor name you chose in Step 8.

Sources: [[4]] [[5]]

Modems / Network

How to identify Modem chipset

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/scanModem.gz
gunzip -c scanModem.gz > scanModem
chmod +x scanModem
sudo cp scanModem /usr/bin/
  • To identify Modem chipset
sudo scanModem
gedit Modem/ModemData.txt

How to install Atheros Wireless Drivers

  • You may have received a message about the restricted drivers manager, in which the atheros HAL has been enabled. You can configure the wireless using the Network Settings Manager
System --> Administration --> Network
  • If, after configuration the wireless still does not work, it is because the wrong driver (ath_pci) has been loaded. To correct this, remove the unwanted module:
sudo rmmod ath_pci
  • Reboot

How to install USB ADSL modem drivers and configure the connection

This instructions works with the following modems: Sagem Fast 800, Speedtouch series, all EAGLE based modems and all Connexant AccessRunner based modems

  • Go to UbuDSL download page
  • Install the main package and a package for your modem
  • Run the program and follow instructions on the screen
  • In case of any problems UbuDSL website offers a detailed instruction.


How to install Windows Wireless Drivers (Ndiswrapper)

  • Read #General Notes
  • In order to install ndiswrapper you need a copy the windows drivers for your Wireless ethernet device.
  • This is only meant to be installed if your card isn't supported by Ubuntu, check Ubuntu's list of natively supported wireless cards.
  • Check ndiswrapper's list of supported wireless cards if your card isn't supported natively, please visit Ndiswrapper's official supported cards list
  • If your card is supported by ndiswrapper, you can install and configure it via a gui tool (ndisgtk) very easily. Use the Add/Remove Applications tool and search for "Ndiswrapper driver installation tool". Once installed, you can configure the wireless connection by going to System -> Administration -> Windows Wireless Drivers. Some more information on this here.


To Install manually follow the steps below:

  • Find out if you have acx module loaded. Because acx module interferes with windows driver, we need to remove it if it is found.
lsmod | grep acx
  • Remove the acx module if found. It could also be acx_pci or similar. Please Note: New kernel updates will auto load the acx module again. So repeat the following two commands every time the kernel is updated.
sudo rmmod acx
sudo nano /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist
  • Add a new list at the end of the file like this:
# drivers wireless ACX
blacklist acx
  • Install ndiswrapper and drivers (due to a bug in Edgy, you need to specify ndiswrapper-utils-1.8)
sudo apt-get install ndiswrapper-utils-1.8
sudo ndiswrapper -i /location_of_your_wireless_driver/your_driver.inf
sudo ndiswrapper -l
sudo modprobe ndiswrapper
  • Set ndiswrapper to load on startup
sudo ndiswrapper -m
gksudo gedit /etc/modules
  • Add the following module to the list
ndiswrapper
  • Now you can configure your wireless card with ifconfig and iwconfig.
e.g. Supposing wlan0 is your wireless device.
sudo iwconfig wlan0 essid "AP" key ababababababababab mode Managed
iwconfig
  • You sould now be able to see the MAC address of the access point and signal rate.
  • Please note that certain card drivers have re-association errors when used with ndiswrapper. This means that whenever you restart Ubuntu, your internet connection does not work, even if it is set to load on startup. To combat this, use this line in the terminal (also assuming wlan0 is your wireless device).
sudo iwconfig wlan0 essid x mode Managed
  • Using an RTL8180 card and ndiswrapper, swapping the order of the key and essid in the configuration command is required to get a connection.
e.g. Supposing wlan0 is your wireless device.
sudo iwconfig wlan0 key ababababababababab essid "AP" mode Managed

Common errors:

  • Be sure to put the key in hexadecimal if your network configuration says so( and the majority of the keys are).

Ndiswrapper for Broadcom 43xx wireless chipset

  • The Broadcom 43xx (bcm43xx) wireless chipset is one of the most common chipsets, so special scripts have been written for it.
  • Only follow this if you have a bcm43xx device. To check in the Terminal type:
lspci | grep Broadcom\ Corporation

If it displays a line similar to this,

0000:02:02.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4306 802.11b/g Wireless LAN Controller (rev 03)

you have a Broadcom wireless chipset. Please proceed with the instructions.

  • Put the Ubuntu CD that you installed Ubuntu with in the CD drive.
  • Download this to the desktop (the Firefox default, so if you haven't changed it, that's where it went/will go).

Note - you will have to register to get this file. Registration is free so please don't report a broken link.

  • In a terminal type
cd ~/Desktop (or wherever you downloaded the file)
tar -xf bcm4318*.tar.gz
sudo ./ndiswrapper_setup

Your wireless chipset should now work. Try rebooting if you have problems. Please see this thread if you have problems: http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=197102&highlight=install+ndiswrapper

Edit : The above guide did not work for me (Pete) on 64 bit ubuntu. My lspci output read:

 03:02.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4306 802.11b/g Wireless LAN Controller (rev 03)

However I found a much easier way to install the drivers, this will probably work on 32 bit as well (someone please confirm).

Edit: I (Dun) confirm this. In my Feisty it worked but when I tested the same method in Edgy it did not work as in Feisty.

Code in terminal :

sudo apt-get install bcm43xx-fwcutter

fwcutter asks if you would like it to extract the firmware as part of the setup. Say yes. After this type:

sudo modprobe bcm43xx

Unplug you Wired connection, wait 30-60 seconds and then enjoy wireless using network manager by the clock.

Note: I (mobius) found the fwcutter method to work well, except at a very limited speed (100kb/s max, as opposed to the 6.75mb/s max in a G network). Ndiswrapper is a bit less reliable, but gives much greater speeds at the moment.

Anouther edit by pete: Sorry Someone just let me know that this method no longer works as the link http://boredklink.googlepages.com/wl_apsta.o no longer exists. Sorry I didnt realise this sooner for those of you without wireless for the past month. Do this instead for now:

Add the repositories listed here : http://ubuntu.cafuego.net/dists/feisty-cafuego/bcm43xx/ to the top of your sources.list file.

Type:

sudo apt-get install bcm43xx-firmware 

Thats it! Reboot and enjoy. You dont need to install bcm43xx-fwcutter.

Pete

How to enable WPA with Ndiswrapper driver

Make sure on your own that the Ndiswrapper driver works by itself without encryption.

  • Create a file called /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf, and paste in the following. Modify the ssid and psk values.
ctrl_interface=/var/run/wpa_supplicant
 network={
   ssid="YourWiFiSSID"
   psk="YourWiFiPassword"
   key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
   proto=WPA
   pairwise=TKIP
 }


  • Run the following code to test it and make sure your router is broadcasting its SSID.
sudo wpa_supplicant -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -dd

(If your wireless interface is not named "wlan0", replace "-iwlan0" with "-i[name-of-your-wireless-interface]". E.g. "-ieth1")


  • If your WPA works, change your configuration file so Ubuntu automatically connects you to your network. Run:
gksudo gedit /etc/network/interfaces

In the editor, change your wlan0 (or whatever your wireless interface is) section to the following:

If you are using static IP:

auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet static
address 192.168.1.20
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 192.168.1.1
pre-up wpa_supplicant -Bw -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
post-down killall -q wpa_supplicant

or this, if you are using dhcp.

auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet dhcp
pre-up wpa_supplicant -Bw -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
post-down killall -q wpa_supplicant


  • Reload your network configuration:
sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart

Alternately, you can follow the instructions in /usr/share/doc/wpasupplicant/README.modes.gz to configure roaming WPA authentication.

How to install Modem Driver (SmartLink)

uname -r (must be 2.6.10-5-386)
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/sl-modem-modules-2.6.10-5-386_2.9.9a-1ubuntu2+2.6.10-34_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i sl-modem-modules-*.deb
sudo apt-get install sl-modem-daemon

Using mobile phone/GPRS/EDGE as Internet modem

"GPRS Easy Connect" (GPRSEC) is a free program for Linux which configures and manages Internet connection via mobile phones. GPRSEC supports COM, USB, IrDA and Bluetooth connections on GPRS, EDGE and UMTS technologies.


Other Method: Using mobile phone/GPRS/EDGE as Internet modem

  • Create a file called 'gprs':
sudo gedit /etc/chatscripts/gprs
  • Paste the text below in the file and save and close it:
TIMEOUT		120
ABORT           'BUSY'
ABORT           'ERROR'
ABORT           'NO CARRIER'
''              'ATE1'
OK		AT+CGDCONT=1,"IP","internet"
OK		ATD*99***#3
# or OK		ATD*99#
CONNECT		\d\c
  • Note: Pay attention to the line containing 'AT+CGDCONT=1,"IP","internet"'. This might vary depending on your mobile service provider. It would be best to call customer service and make sure you get the 'APN' from them.
  • Create another file called 'gprs'. Notice that it's a different location:
sudo gedit /etc/ppp/peers/gprs
  • Paste the text below in the file and save and close it:
# You usually need this if there is no PAP authentication
noauth
# The chat script (be sure to edit that file, too!)
connect "/usr/sbin/chat -v -f /etc/chatscripts/gprs"
# Set up routing to go through this PPP link
defaultroute
# Set this to /dev/ircomm0 or similar
/dev/ttyACM0
# Speed
115200
# Reconnect on disconnect
persist
# Be extra verbose
debug
# You may need these
passive
noipdefault
noproxyarp
ipcp-accept-local
ipcp-accept-remote
ipcp-restart 2
ipcp-max-configure 20
ipcp-max-failure 20
asyncmap 0xa0000
novj
nodeflate
nobsdcomp
# Use remote DNS
usepeerdns
# With GPRS, authentication is normally done  automatically
# via your cellphone number, so leave login name empty
user ""
  • Note: Pay attention to the line containing '/dev/ttyACM0'. This port might vary depending on your phone model and connection type. I also made it a choice to connect directly to /dev/ttyACM0. You could always symlink to /dev/modem by running the command:
sudo ln -sf /dev/ttyACM0 /dev/modem
  • Create yet another file called 'gprs':
sudo gedit /usr/sbin/gprs
  • Paste the text below in the file and save and close it:
#!/bin/bash

PATH="/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/X11R6/bin:/usr/local/bin"
export PATH

XDIALOG_HIGH_DIALOG_COMPAT=1
export XDIALOG_HIGH_DIALOG_COMPAT

# Get root
[ "`id -u`" != "0" ] && exec sudo "$0" "$@"

TMP="/tmp/gprsconnect$$"

bailout(){
rm -f "$TMP"
exit 0
}

DIALOG="dialog"
[ -n "$DISPLAY" ] && [ -x /usr/bin/Xdialog ] && DIALOG="Xdialog"
trap bailout 1 2 3 15

# LANGUAGE etc.
[ -f /etc/sysconfig/knoppix ] && . /etc/sysconfig/knoppix
[ -z "$LANG" ] && export LANG
[ -z "$LANGUAGE" ] && export LANGUAGE
[ -z "$CHARSET" ] && export CHARSET

disconnect(){
poff
#$DIALOG --clear --title "$TITLE1" --msgbox "$MESSAGE_DISCONNECT" 8 35
exit 0
}

trap disconnect 1 2 3 15


#$DIALOG --title "$TITLE1" --yesno "$MESSAGE1" 12 65 || bailout
#[ -x /etc/init.d/sysklogd ] && /etc/init.d/sysklogd start >/dev/null 2>&1
# echo "AT" >/dev/modem
sleep 1
if [ -n "$DISPLAY" ] && type xterm >/dev/null; then
pon gprs
xterm -T "$TITLE_LOG" -e bash -c 'tail -n 0 -f /var/log/messages | egrep -e "(chat|ppp)"'
disconnect
else
# Start pppd right here.
pppd updetach call gprs 
sleep 2
exit 0
fi
  • Make the file executable by running the following command:
sudo chmod +x /usr/sbin/gprs
  • Connect your phone to the cable and and make sure it's powered on. (When I run the 'lsusb' command I get 'Bus 003 Device 006: ID 22b8:4802 Motorola PCS'. This is because I have a motorola phone with USB modem connected to my Ubuntu box.)
  • Note: Make sure the phone itself already has the gprs service configured on it. This can be done by your dealer. Some service providers can send the settings (gprs template) to your phone and you can save it.
  • Try connecting to the internet by running the following command:
sudo gprs
  • Note: Use this method if you don't don't already have access to an internet connection. If you are using Ubuntu and you have internet access you can always install kppp and configure it to use your phone modem. If you are using Kubuntu you should already either have kppp installed.

Palm

How to configure PalmOS Devices

First, if you are syncing via USB, try changing "/dev/pilot" to "usb:" in your sync software. This works with JPilot with a variety of PalmOS Devices. If that doesn't work, follow the instructions below.

gksudo gedit /etc/udev/rules.d/10-custom.rules
  • Insert the following line into the new file
BUS="usb", SYSFS{product}="Palm Handheld*", KERNEL="ttyUSB*", NAME{ignore_remove}="pilot", MODE="666"
  • Save the edited file
  • Add the pilot-applet to the Taskbar by Right-Clicking on an empty spot
  • Follow the instructions on screen

Hard Drive

The Disk utility was removed from Gnome. To manipulate the hard drive partitions, you can use one or both utilities: Gparted (Gnome Partition Manager) and/or Pysdm. Gparted is also available as a Live CD. Any manipulation of the partitions of your hard drive risks data loss. Be careful.

  • To install Gparted:
 sudo apt-get install gparted
  • To run Gparted
System -> Administration -> GNOME Partition Editor
  • To install Pysdm
sudo apt-get install pysdm
  • To run pysdm:
sudo pysdm 

How to list partition tables

sudo fdisk -l

How to list filesystem disk space usage

df -Th

How to list mounted devices

mount

How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting

mount -a

How to spin down a hard drive

  • For an ide drive (assuming the hard drive is at hda)
 hdparm -y /dev/hda
  • For an sata or scsi drive (assuming the hard drive is at sda)
 sudo apt-get install sdparm
 sdparm --command=stop /dev/sda

How to use Logical Volume Manager (LVM2)

The Logical Volume Manager allows a logical drive distributed over different physical media, such as hard drives, USB drives, etc. It allows expandability of storage without the need to rename the drive. It is installed as part of the kernel. However, to use it, free space on a hard drive must be partitioned for use as a LVM device. Either one of the 4 primary partitions on your hard drive must be free to use for LVM, or a logical partition contiguous to other logical partitions must be available for LVM use.

  • Using Partman as the partition manager that is included as part of the Ubuntu installation package (i.e. the Live CD), create an LVM-formatted partition in unused free space on your hard drive. To do this, you must pretend to be installing to the hard drive, and complete all the steps until partitioning. After writing the partition changes, abort the installation to prevent installing a new system over your old one (unless this is a new install for you.)
  • Create a Volume Group on the LVM partition, still using Partman on the Ubuntu Installation Live CD.
  • Create one or more logical drives in the Volume Group, still using Partman.
  • Write the partition changes to disk. (If you already have a system installed, abort the installation at this point.)
  • Restart your computer.

LVM2 (the Logical Volume Manager) is installed by default in Ubuntu Feisty. You can confirm this by searching Synaptic Package Manager for the packages lvm2 and lvm-common. If they are not installed, install them.

  • As root user, look in the /dev folder. Find the Volume Group you created with GParted. Make sure the permissions for the Volume Group folder are owner:root:read and write, group:root:access files, others:access files. You should see the logical volumes created previously by Gparted within that volume group folder.
  • Confirm and activate the Volume Group (substitute your volume group name for VolGroup00):
sudo modprobe dm-mod
sudo vgscan
sudo vgchange -ay VolGroup00
  • Confirm your logical volumes:
sudo lvs
  • Place the ext3 filesystem (or whichever filesystem you are using) on each logical volume (substitute each logical volume name for LogVol00):
sudo mkfs -t ext3 /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00
  • Create a mount folder for each logical volume, with desired permissions (substitute your desired mount name for each logical volume for logdrv0).
sudo mkdir /media/logdrv0

Permissions should be owner:root:create and delete files, group:users:create and delete files, others:access. Make sure you have the users group created and with appropriate members.

  • Add entries to /etc/fstab so that the logical volumes are mounted each time at bootup.
sudo gedit /etc/fstab

Add a line for each logical volume:

/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 /media/logdrv0 ext3 defaults,rw,user 0 0
  • Remount all partitions (with configuration saved in fstab):
mount -a

How to install software RAID

RAID controls hard drive access when logical volume partitions are spread over two or more hard drives. A logical volume can span multiple drives, and therefore can be expanded by adding hard drives to your system. Although you can use RAID on a single hard drive, there is no advantage to doing so unless you anticipate expanding in the future. RAID is similar to LVM2 (discussed above).

There are RAID "levels" or schemes of storing data that allow for distribution of data across drives, and mirroring of data as a backup across drives, to protect against loss of data in the event of a single hard drive failure. See this discussion for more details. Again, a single hard drive user would not benefit from these levels.

Any hardware RAID controller on a hard drive can be used with the Linux RAID software manager, except for Windows-based "pseudo-RAID" drivers (such as WinModem).

RAID partitions under Ubuntu can be created with the Ubuntu Installation Live CD.

  • The Ubuntu installation Live CD is used. The Partman partition manager included on the Ubuntu Installation Live CD will be used to create the RAID partitions. Start installation with the "Install to the Hard Disk option." Go through the initial steps until you come to the partioning options.
  • When asked about disk partitioning, select "Manual"
  • Delete any undesired partitions. (Be careful if this is a multi-boot system!)
  • Select Free Space and create a 'partition' of Type = "physical disk for RAID".
  • It is recommended that your base system (root or /) remain on an ext3 partition. However, you may put a second boot system on a RAID partition, and you may put other mount points (e.g. /tmp and /home) on the RAID partitions.
  • If you are not installing a new system at this time, you may write the partition changes to disk and then abort the installation. Your previous system should remain intact (except for the partition changes, of course).
  • If you are installing a new system, you may continue as normal.

Install EVMS GUI for LVM2 and RAID

  • EVMS (Enterprise Volume Management System). This is an official Ubuntu package which manages your LVM and RAID logical drives from a menu. Install evms-gui from Synaptic Package Manager, or from the command line:
apt-get install evms-gui

Other GUIs for LVM2 and RAID

How to Increase ext3 and ReiserFS filesystems Performance

How to backup/mirror/synchronize directories using rsync

  • Note: To merely update the files from one directory to another directory, use:
cp -u <source> <destination>

The -u or --update flag means to copy only when the SOURCE file is newer than the destination file or when the destination file is missing.

USB

How to list USB devices

lsusb

Workaround for random device disconnections

Random disconnection is a kernel bug that is not fixed yet. Some users report randomly disconnecting USB devices, especially external hard drives. One solution is to start the system with the option "irqpoll" in grub, but this doesn't work for everybody, and is believed to make the whole system slower. The other solution is to disable USB 2.0. This will result in way slower read/write, but the connection remains stable.

To disable USB 2.0, type this in the terminal:

sudo modprobe -r ehci_hcd

Test if the copy/write process is stable, and if you want to disable USB 2.0 upon boot, type:

sudo sh -c 'echo blacklist ehci_hcd > /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-ehci'
sudo update-initramfs -u -k `uname -r`

How to recover lost disk space

This error appears to be related to deleting files outside of Ubuntu, and has several Bug listings. If the free disk space on your USB drive is being reported as less than actual, try this:

Unmount the volume (if the device is a Sony PSP or other device where the USB port must be enabled, leave the port enabled)

sudo umount /media/disk

Run Dosfsck

sudo dosfsck -a /dev/sda1

Turn the device off then on again


How to Add Logitech USB audio device

The USB audio device can be easily added and set as default audio device using the following steps.

  cat /proc/asound/modules

This displays the available audio devices. Please check if your USB audio device is listed in here. Assuming your in-built audio card is the default device (audio) . First check if the USB audio is working.

  cat /bin/bash > /dev/audio1

Then type the following command

  sudo gedit /etc/asound.conf

Key in the following text into the opened blank file


   pcm.!default {
      type hw
      card 1
      }  
   ctl.!default {
      type hw
      card 1
      }

Save the file and restart the Alsa using the following command

    sudo /etc/init.d/alsa-utils restart

Optical Drives

How to speed up CD/DVD-ROM

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo hdparm -d1 /dev/cdrom
sudo cp /etc/hdparm.conf /etc/hdparm.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/hdparm.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
/dev/cdrom {
    dma = on
}
  • Save the edited file

How to mount/unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually, and show all hidden and associated files/folders

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
  • To mount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo mount /media/cdrom0/ -o unhide
  • To unmount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/

How to forcefully unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/ -l


Monitors / Displays

How to enable Large Widescreen Support

  • 24/23" widescreen monitors sometimes have issues running 1920x1200.
  • Examples include: Dell 2405, HP 2335 or an Apple Cinema Display.
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • CAUTION: Feisty has something called Desktop Effects which can reconfigure your xorg.conf file automatically. If you manually edit the file, Desktop Effects may not work properly. (Always make a copy of the xorg.conf file before editing: cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak )
  • Add the following line to the appropriate "Monitor" section:
Modeline	"1920x1200" 154 1920 1968 2000 2080 1200 1203 1209 1235
  • For example the HP2335 should now look like:
Section "Monitor"
	Identifier	"hp L2335"
	Option		"DPMS"
	Modeline	"1920x1200" 154 1920 1968 2000 2080 1200 1203 1209 1235
EndSection

How to enable CRT output (external monitor/projector) for notebooks (Intel)

Note: Valid for Intel® graphics controller-based products only

sudo apt-get install i810switch

Turn on CRT output

i810switch crt on

Turn off CRT output

i810switch crt off

Sound

Creative x-Fi sound cards (64 Bit Only)

  • When prompted at installation:
Select X-Fi ->  Sound Blaster  -> (Select your sound card)

How to make sound work with Intel Integrated Sound Cards

  • Edit the file /etc/modprobe.d/alsa-base:
gksudo gedit /etc/modprobe.d/alsa-base
  • Add the following line to the end of the file, replacing '3stack' with your flavor (see below)
options snd-hda-intel model=3stack

How to setup and test surround-sound speakers (5.1 and others) with ALSA

  • Edit the ~/.asoundrc file (create it if it doesn't exist):
gksudo gedit ~/.asoundrc
  • Enter the following section:
pcm.!default {
    type plug
    slave.pcm "surround51"
    slave.channels 6
    route_policy duplicate
}
  • This will play the surround output by duplicating the stereo output to all 6 channels (not only the front ones).
  • To test it type in terminal:

For 4.0 surround:

speaker-test -Dplug:surround40 -c4 -l1 -twav

For 5.1 surround:

speaker-test -Dplug:surround51 -c6 -l1 -twav

For 7.1 surround:

speaker-test -Dplug:surround71 -c8 -l1 -twav

How to change the default soundcard

  • View available soundcards:
gksudo asoundconf list
  • You should get something like this:
Names of available sound cards:
  Live
  V8237
  • Set the default soundcard (use your desired soundcard in place of example_soundcard):
gksudo asoundconf set-default-card example_sndcard

How to setup PulseAudio Sound Server

PulseAudio, previously known as Polypaudio, is a proxy for your sound applications. It allows you to do advanced operations on your sound data, like transferring the audio to a different machine, changing the sample format or channel count and mixing several sounds into one. For more info: http://pulseaudio.org/

  • Install:
sudo apt-get install "pulseaudio-*" paman padevchooser paprefs pavucontrol

Optionally, also install the GStreamer 0.10 plugin for PulseAudio:

sudo apt-get install gst-pulse
  • If you have Flash Player, install support for PulseAudio:
wget http://pulseaudio.vdbonline.net/libflashsupport/libflashsupport_1.0~2219-1_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i libflashsupport_1.0-2219-1_i386.deb

Here is an alternative mirror for the package in case the link above dies:

libflashsupport_1.0-2219-1_i386.deb

  • Edit the ALSA configuration file:
sudo mv /etc/asound.conf /etc/asound.conf.backup
gksudo gedit /etc/asound.conf

Add this to asound.conf:

pcm.pulse {
 type pulse
}
ctl.pulse {
 type pulse
}
pcm.!default {
 type pulse
} 
ctl.!default {
 type pulse
}
  • Go to System->Preferences->Sounds and check “Enable Software Mixing”

Mixer screenshot

  • Go to Applications->Sound & Video->PulseAudio Preferences (or in a terminal type):
paprefs

Set the following settings:

Settings screenshot

Make sure that Multicast/RTP is off or else you’ll have problems with skipping and latency. Reboot or in a terminal type:

pulseaudio
  • Go to Applications->Sound & Video->PulseAudio Device Chooser if you have more than one PC with this setup. You’ll be able to choose which computer to send the audio to.
  • Add everyone to the pulse-access group:
System->Administration->Users and Groups->Manage Groups
pulse-access->Properties

Check everyone in the list. Otherwise, you’ll get weird “no-sound” errors and lockups.

Users screenshot

  • To control the volume:
Applications->Sound & Video->PulseAudio Volume Control

Volume screenshot

  • Final Notes

PulseAudio still has some bugs. Skype doesn't work well with PulseAudio (it's better to killall pulseaudio before trying to make a Skype call, although I did get it working through OSS and padsp).

  • More info:

The Perfect Setup Revolution Linux wiki http://blog.paulbetts.org

Printers

Which default printer drivers are provided in Ubuntu Linux?

How to add a printer

Hewlett Packard (HP) Printers / Scanners / Copiers

Brother Printers / Scanners / Copiers

  • Brother provides Linux drivers for both lpr and CUPS for their printer and MFC models. Debian/Ubuntu installation packages are provided. They provide fax, scanning, and printing functions for local use as well as network use. See their Linux driver website at http://solutions.brother.com/linux/en_us/index.html.

Misc

How to list PCI devices

lspci


How to install a Wacom tablet

  • With the version of the Linux Wacom driver (0.7.2) in Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake, if you unplug you tablet, it won't function when you plug it back in and you will have to restart X. For this reason, it is best to leave the tablet plugged in. This limitation will be removed when the 0.7.4 version of the driver is included in Ubuntu.
  • Using Synaptic package manager, check if the packages xserver-xorg-input-wacom and wacom-tools are already installed - if not, install them. Or, from the command line:
sudo apt-get install xserver-xorg-input-wacom wacom-tools
  • Save a copy of your /etc/X11/xorg.conf:
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.backup
  • Edit xorg.conf:
      gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Change all /dev/wacom occurences to /dev/input/wacom (created by wacom-tools udev scripts).
  • Restart. restarted X. Remember to configure the "Extended input devices" in your graphic applications (Gimp, Inkscape). You can already check if it's working by moving your stylus on the tablet: the mouse cursor should go across the whole screen.

How to fix strange mouse behavior when using a KVM switch

Some 2-way KVM switches with PS/2 connectors (Keyboard-Video-Mouse switches which allow sharing of these peripherals between different machines) do not function properly. The mouse may jump around on the screen and randomly activate functions.

When the KVM switch is activated, power is briefly lost to the mouse. This resets the kernel's mouse driver (psmouse) to 'basic (base)' mode even if it had been set to 'advanced' mode previously (imps or exps protocols).

  • Check whether your psmouse kernel driver supports the options needed:
modinfo psmouse
  • Look for the line:
parm:   resetafter:Reset(...)
parm:   proto:Highest protocol extension to probe(...)

The resetafter parameter tells the mouse driver how many bad packets are accepted before the mouse is told again which protocol to use. In this case you want to change from the default (= never) behavior.

The proto parameter tells the mouse driver how deep to probe the mouse interface. In some cases you will want to change this depth to bare.

  • Edit the /etc/modprobe.d/options file:
gksudo gedit /etc/modprobe.d/options
  • Add:
options psmouse resetafter=1
options psmouse proto=bare
  • Restart the mousedriver:
      sudo modprobe -r psmouse
      sudo modprobe psmouse

Ubuntu:Feisty/Gravação de CD/DVD

Ubuntu:Feisty/Rede

Ubuntu:Feisty/Área de Trabalho Remota

Windows

How to Mount Windows Partitions

How to Mount NTFS Partitions

Step By Step Guide How to Mount Windows Partitions in Feisty

How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (NTFS) manually, and allow all users to read only

  • In this example:
/dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
  • To mount a Windows partition:
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t ntfs -o nls=utf8,umask=0222
  • To unmount a Windows partition
sudo umount /media/windows/

How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (FAT) manually, and allow all users to read/write

  • In this example:
/dev/hda1 is the location of the Windows partition (FAT)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
  • To mount a Windows partition
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t vfat -o iocharset=utf8,umask=000
  • To unmount a Windows partition
sudo umount /media/windows/

How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow all users to read only

  • In this example:
/dev/hda1 is the location of the Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file:
/dev/hda1    /media/windows ntfs  nls=utf8,umask=0222 0    0

How to mount Windows partitions (FAT) on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write

  • In this example:
/dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
/dev/hda1    /media/windows vfat  iocharset=utf8,umask=000  0    0

How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow users read and write access

Warning: The software you will use is still in Beta. You should not enable it on production machines

  • Applications -> Add/Remove -> search for 'NTFS', you should find NTFS Configuration Tool, install it.
  • Applications -> System Tools -> NTFS Configuration Tool -> Enable Write Support (depending on your device internal/external)

Ubuntu:Feisty/Segurança

Ubuntu:Feisty/Modo de Resgate

Ubuntu:Feisty/Dicas & Truques

Ubuntu:Feisty/Servidores

Troubleshooting

How to disable system time/date from being reset to UTC (GMT)

sudo cp /etc/default/rcS /etc/default/rcS_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/default/rcS
  • Find this line
...
UTC=yes
...
  • Replace with the following line
UTC=no
  • Save the edited file
  • System -> Administration -> Time and Date

Set the correct time/date

sudo /etc/init.d/hwclock.sh restart

How to configure sound to work properly in GNOME

sudo killall esd
sudo cp /etc/esound/esd.conf /etc/esound/esd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/esound/esd.conf
  • Find this section
...
auto_spawn=0
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 5
...
  • Replace with the following lines
auto_spawn=1
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 2 -d default
  • Save the edited file
sudo apt-get install libesd-alsa0
gksudo gedit /etc/asound.conf
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
pcm.card0 {
type hw
card 0
}

pcm.!default {
type plug
slave.pcm "dmixer"
}

pcm.dmixer {
type dmix
ipc_key 1025
slave {
pcm "hw:0,0"
period_time 0
period_size 2048
buffer_size 32768
rate 48000
}
bindings {
0 0
1 1
}
}
  • Save the edited file
sudo ln -fs /usr/lib/libesd.so.0 /usr/lib/libesd.so.1
System -> Preferences -> Sound
Sound preferences
General Tab -> Sounds for events (Un-Checked)
  • Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to forcefully empty Trash in GNOME

sudo rm -fr $HOME/.Trash/*

How to remove duplicate menu/menu items in GNOME

How to refresh Places menu in GNOME (if mounts to /media/ in /etc/fstab does not show up)

sudo /etc/init.d/dbus restart



Requests

If you have requests that you would like to be part of this guide, put them here.

  • How to run Windows Live Messenger or MSN Messenger under wine.
  • How to connect to mobile phones.
  • How to connect to a mobile phone via infrared to use phone as an IR modem.
  • How to produce an update cd/dvd similar to the install cd which can be used as a repository
  • How to upgrade to new release from an ISO file (without burning)
  • How to enable bluetooth and bluetooth internet connection sharing
  • How to install SElinux on ubuntu 7.04 Server?
  • How to install (and use) a Intel 536ep modem?
  • How to enable sound on a Toshiba Satellite A110-103?
  • How to enable optical audio out via IEC958, aka. S/PDIF?
  • How to set up Spam Assasin to filter emails on a client machine?
  • How to emulate an iPod device when have just a simple MP3 player attached via firewire or USB device?
  • How to get a very simple text editor for the konsole that compares to MS-DOS EDIT style editors / Ncurses interface?
  • How to install low saxon support for feisty
  • How to install and configure OpenVPN server and client
  • How to change default applications from archive manager to Package Installer
  • How to stop your cat from walking on your keyboard while you type.

Guide Development

Place ideas here to increase the look and performance of this guide.

  • Add a new section for Gnome Themes from http://art.gnome.org and KDE Themes from http://www.kde-look.org/.
  • Make headings (categories) stand out more visually.
  • Have entries under their headings in alphabetical order.
  • Try to keep the guide neat and clutter free.
  • Possible "Short Version" Table of contents without each "How to".
  • Add a [top] link to the end of each article.
Reference.

If possible, include a 'find/search' function to easily access queries.

Ubuntu:Feisty/Atualizando o Ubuntu

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