Ubuntu Oneiric Introduction
- This is the original Ubuntuguide. You are free to copy this guide but not to sell it or any derivative of it. Copyright of the names Ubuntuguide and Ubuntu Guide reside solely with this site. This Ubuntu help guide is neither sold nor distributed in any other medium. Beware of copies that are for sale or are similarly named; they are neither endorsed nor sanctioned by this guide. Ubuntuguide is not associated with Canonical Ltd nor with any commercial enterprise.
- Ubuntu allows a user to accomplish tasks from either a menu-driven Graphical User Interface (GUI) or from a text-based command-line interface (CLI). In Ubuntu, the command-line-interface terminal is called Terminal, which is started:
- Menu -> File -> Open Terminal
Text inside the grey dotted box like this should be put into the command-line Terminal.
- Many changes to the operating system can only be done by a User with Administrative privileges. 'sudo' elevates a User's privileges to the Administrator level temporarily (i.e. when installing programs or making changes to the system). Example:
- 'gksudo' can be used instead of 'sudo' when opening a Graphical Application through the "Run Command" dialog box or as a menu item. Example:
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
- Many file management tasks can be accomplished with root Administrative privileges by starting the Nautilus file manager in a similar fashion. (Use 'gksudo' if starting Nautilus from a menu item.)
- "man" command can be used to find help manual for a command. For example, "man sudo" will display the manual page for the "sudo" command:
- While "apt-get" and "aptitude" are fast ways of installing programs/packages, you can also use the Synaptic Package Manager, a GUI method for installing programs/packages. Most (but not all) programs/packages available with apt-get install will also be available from the Synaptic Package Manager. In this guide, when you see
sudo apt-get install package
you can search for package in Synaptic and install it that way.
- Many instructions use the text editor "nano" (which is universally available in Linux). However, it is often easier to use the text editor "gedit" in Ubuntu instead.
- "Menu" refers to the menu bar at the top (or bottom) of the desktop, akin to the Start menu in Microsoft Windows or the Menu bar of the Apple Macintosh.
- If you are using the 64-bit version, replace any "i386" with "amd64"
How to find out which version of Ubuntu you're using
Open the command terminal and type:
How to find out which kernel you are using
Newer Versions of Ubuntu
- Ubuntu has a six month release cycle, with releases in April and October.
- Precise Pangolin (12.04 LTS) will be released in April 2012 and will be a Long Term Support version
Older Versions of Ubuntu
- Natty Narwhal (11.04) (supported until October 2012)
- Maverick Meerkat (10.10) (supported until April 2012)
- Lucid Lynx (10.04) (Long Term Support version with desktop support until April 2013 and server support until April 2015)
- Karmic Koala (9.10) (no longer supported)
- Jaunty Jackalope (9.04) (no longer supported)
- Hardy Heron (8.04 LTS) (Long Term Support version with desktop support until April 2011 and server support until April 2013)
- Dapper Drake (6.06 LTS) (no longer supported)
- See this complete list of older and newer versions.
- Ubuntu Forums has a large community for online solutions and specific help.
Unity is the default desktop environment used in Ubuntu. It is compatible with the GTK platform used by Gnome. It was designed to be used for netbooks, but is developed by Canonical to be useful on all types of devices.
- Installation method 1:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:gnome3-team/gnome3 sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get dist-upgrade sudo apt-get install gnome-shell
- Installation method 2:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ubuntugnometeam/gnome3 sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ubuntugnometeam/ppa-gen sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install ugr-desktop-g3 sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
Ubuntu Screenshots and Screencasts
New Applications Resources
- GetDeb - Features the latest versions of software available from the official repositories as well as software not available in the official repositories. Available in easy-to-install .deb files (see Apt and Package Basics).
- Top 100 Open source Applications
- Linux Alternatives
- LinuxLink provides "best in category" lists for Linux apps
- See our full list of add-on applications.
Other *buntu guides and help manuals
- Kubuntuguide -- Kubuntu uses the popular KDE desktop environment
- Lubuntu -- Lubuntu can run with as little as 256 MB RAM. It is better for older machines with limited resources.
- Edubuntu -- Edubuntu is a collection of software bundles optimized for use in educational environments. LTSP (thin client terminal server support) and many networking tools are bundled. A version for use with KDE (Kubuntu) is available.
- SkoleLinux / DebianEdu -- a collection of (open-source) educational tools for Debian/Ubuntu Linux
- Ubuntu Doctors Guild -- a collection of tips for using (K)Ubuntu Linux in health care environments
- official Ubuntu Server Guide -- a good starting reference for server packages